Import water hungsy


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Import water hungsy

  1. 1. Should Hong Kong continue to import water from Mainland China? MPA POLS 7050 Polly, Hung Sui Ying (10430385)
  2. 2. Water distribution in the world <ul><li>2.5% fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>97.5% salt water </li></ul>70% is frozen in ice caps and glaciers.                 
  3. 3. Fresh water is limited!
  4. 4. Main water sources in HK <ul><li>Potable water </li></ul><ul><li>Import raw water from Dongjiang (the East River)—70-80% </li></ul><ul><li>Local catchments (mainly from reservoirs)—20-30% </li></ul><ul><li>Non-potable water </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater (for toilet flushing—80% of the population) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Depend highly on ONE major source!
  6. 6. Present situation in the mainland <ul><li>‘Pollution leads to muddy tap water’ China Daily dated 15 th November 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>‘Business caught in grip of mainland water crisis’ SCMP 14 th November, 2011 </li></ul>Rapid industrial development Water pollution
  7. 7. Pollution along Yangtze River
  8. 8. Illegal dumping of toxic chromium waste in Yunnan… is likely to cause cancer in local residents. ?
  9. 9. Are we alone?
  10. 10. Threats worldwide <ul><li>USA: ‘Texas water supply for the future is uncertain’ Houston Chronicle dated 14 th November 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Israel has suffered from a chronic water shortage for years.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply in Australia is extremely variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is lack of natural water sources. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Unstable fresh water supply! Polluted water sources!
  12. 12. The scarcity of water is a world problem! War to compete for clean water?
  13. 13. Any alternatives? <ul><li>Education on water conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Water reclamation. </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater desalination. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Singapore
  15. 15. Water supply in Singapore <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Diversify water sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the future generations will continue to enjoy sustainable water supply. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Four national taps in Singapore <ul><li>Water from local catchment areas . </li></ul><ul><li>Imported water . </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaimed water (known as NEWater) . </li></ul><ul><li>Desalinated water . </li></ul>
  17. 17. NEWater in Singapore <ul><li>NEWater 30%. </li></ul><ul><li>NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water produced from treated used water. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Quality water <ul><li>Singapore’s tap water is well within the World Health Organisation drinking water guidelines, and is suitable for drinking without any further filtration. </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans have enjoyed stable and good quality water for four decades. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Australia
  20. 20. Threats <ul><li>Australia is a dry island continent - rainfall and consequently river flow and groundwater recharge are extremely variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to an adequate supply of good quality water is essential to the economic and social well being of all Australians. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 21. Strategies <ul><li>Water conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Water reclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater desalination </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of water saving devices in households. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Advantages of the policies in Singapore and Australia <ul><li>Ensure stable water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the quality of drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the health of the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce medical expense. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Should Hong Kong continue to import water from Mainland China?
  24. 24. Water demand in Hong Kong <ul><li>In 2007—951 million cubic meters </li></ul><ul><li>In 2030—1,315 million cubic meters </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hong Kong needs to diversify its water sources! What can we learn from other countries?
  26. 27. Total Water Management since 2005 <ul><li>Managing all water resources in all aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure sustainable use of water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004—Pilot Desalination Plant. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005—Ngong Ping Pilot Scheme on Reclaimed Water & Shek Wu Hui Demonstration Scheme on Reclaimed Water. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Shek Wu Hui Sewage Treatment Works <ul><li>Provides residents in in Sheung Shui and Fanling with reclaimed water for toilet flushing and other non-potable uses. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Water Demand Management <ul><li>To enhance public education on water conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>To promote use of water saving devices. </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance water leakage control. </li></ul><ul><li>To extend use of seawater for toilet flushing. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Water Supply Management <ul><li>To strengthen protection of water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To actively consider water reclamation. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop the option of seawater desalination. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Water Saving Devices
  31. 32. Rain barrel
  32. 33. Rain barrels <ul><li>To increase local catchments. </li></ul><ul><li>Install at the roofs of buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Catch rain water during raining seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Store water for toilet flushing. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to seawater when rainwater is exhausted. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Waterless Urinal System
  34. 35. Waterless Urinal System <ul><li>In public toilets. </li></ul><ul><li>S afe on our precious waterways and for people. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your washroom odour-free. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick and easy to clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant to use. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Water reclamation in Hong Kong Opportunities!
  36. 37. Now <ul><li>Use the reclaimed water mainly for toilet flushing and landscape irrigation. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Tomorrow <ul><li>The HK Housing Society is considering to rebuild 6 to 8 housing estates (over 40 years old). (Ming Pao 20 th November, 2011) </li></ul>
  38. 40. ‘ With one small change, you can make a big difference.’