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Unit plan

  1. 1. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 1 of 20AAcciiddss,, BBaasseess,, aanndd SSaallttss UUnniitt PPllaannUnit AuthorFirst and Last NameJoan AlistagRandolph Domingo Jr.Email Addressdomingo_rand@yahoo.comjalistag@yahoo.comSchool Name Saint Louis University- School of Teacher EducationSchool Address Bonifacio Street, Baguio CityDivision/ Region CARUnit OverviewUnit TitleSoil ph CareUnit SummarySalts, Acids and Bases are the three most common compounds seen in our lives. The unitentails teaching the topics of the properties of these compounds, their proper nomenclature, theirbenefits and harmful effects, their strength in terms of pH, the different indicators and thereaction of Neutralization. Thus, varied activities such as experiments, individual and group works,brain storming activities, and collaborative discussions are used in order to develop a student-centered approach which will broaden and deepen student‟s understandings of this topic. Thus, aresearch paper that aims to find healthy means of neutralizing soil acidity or alkalinity is given as aproject. This project will make students appreciate the wonders of neutralization and heightentheir concern in soil preservation and maintenance by finding friendly organic substance that hasthe ability to neutralize soil acidity or alkalinity.Subject AreaChemistryGrade LevelThird Year High SchoolApproximate Time Needed10 Days ( 90 min/day)Unit FoundationTargeted Content BEC Learning CompetenciesThe learner will be able to demonstrate understanding of the key concepts of Acids, Base, Salts,
  2. 2. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 2 of 20and Neutralization.1. Demonstarate understanding of Acids, Bases, and Salts.1.1. Outline the different properties of acids and bases.1.2. Infer the correct nomeclatures of Acids and Bases.1.3. Summarze the different Theories of Acids and Bases.1.4. Demonstrate the formation of salts.1.5. Identify the safety-precautions in handling Acids and Bases.1.6. Enumerate and describe the harmful effects of acids and bases.2. Gain understanding of the concepts of Neutralization and Acid and Bases Strength.2.1. Formulate the definition of a Neutralization reaction.2.2. Determine the pH of common house hold substances.Student Objectives/Learning OutcomesDay 1: Prior TestingBy means of conducting a pre-test, the students should be able to:A. determine what they know about the topic of Acids, Bases, and Salts;B. avoid cheating during the test; andC. answer all questions correctly according to the given instructions.Day 2: Discovering what are Acids and BasesThrough an experiment using house hold materials, the students should be able to:A. outline the differences between an acid from a base;B. give the harmful effects of acids and bases;C. infer safety-precautions in handling Acids and Bases;D. participate in the experiment voluntarily through a peer evaluation; andE. perform the experiment correctly based on the given work sheet.Day 3: Acids DisclosedThrough an interactive group discussion using a power point show, the students should be able to:A. determine the properties of an acid;B. infer the correct nomenclature of acidsC. share ideas on the importance of acids in our lives; andD. perform the activity individually through following given instructions.Day 4: Bases ExposedThrough an interactive discussion using puzzle pieces , the students should be able to:A. identify the properties of bases;B. infer the correct nomenclature of bases;C. share experiences on the importance of bases in our lives; andD. administer the rules of base nomenclature precisely using puzzle pieces.
  3. 3. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 3 of 20Day 5: Theories about Acids and BasesBy means of viewing a film entitled “Acids and Bases”, the students should be able to:A. identify the different theories of acids and bases;B. listen attentively to the film; andC. write down notes which are relevant to the topic.Day 6: Disclosing the Theories of Acids and BasesThrough a group interview and question and answer portion, the students should be able to:A. relate the different Theories of Acids and Bases to their properties;B. summarize the different Theories of Acids and Bases;C. defend their beliefs on following principles; andD. present a report on their discussions.Day 7: Discovering NeutralizationThrough an interactive activity using common house hold substances, the students should be ableto:A. formulate the concept of a Neutralization reaction;B. share ways on maintaining balance to their life; andC. perform the activities carefully based on teacher‟s instructions.Day 8: Demonstrating SaltsThrough an experiment using common household materials, the students should be able to:A. paraphrase the formation of salts;B. diagram the formation of salts through a chemical reaction;C. share experiences on the importance of Salts in their lives; andD. perform a neutralization reaction based on past notes to form a salt.Day 9: Identifying pHThrough an experiment using common chemical compounds and indicators, the students should beable to:A. determine the pH of common household substances;B. relate pH to acids, bases, and neutralization;B. identify their strengths and weaknesses through a character reflection; andC. carry out the experiment precisely based on the work sheet.Day 10: pH UncoveredThrough an interactive discussion, the students should be able to:A. compute the pH and pOH of different substances;B. reflect on ways to improve their strengths and weaknesses through a characterreflection; andC. solve worded problems about pH accurately on the board.
  4. 4. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 4 of 20Curriculum-Framing QuestionsEssentialQuestionWhat is our stregth?How doe we turn our weaknesses to strengths?UnitQuestionsWhat are the importance of Acids, Bases, and Salts?How can acids and bases be harmful?Where is Neutralization seen in our lives?ContentQuestionsWhat are Acids, Bases, and Salts?What is pH?What is neutralization?What is the product of Neutralization?What are the safety precautions in using Acids and Bases?Assessment PlanAssessment TimelineBefore project work begins Students work on projectsand complete tasksAfter project work iscompletedPre testPre test isused todeterminestudents‟knowledgeon thedifferenttopic of theunits.Pre-Test UnitPlan.docxAttendanceSheetThe attendanceof the class ischecked in everyclass meeting.Class Attendance.xlsSeat WorksEvaluate thecomprehensionof students onthe currenttopic.SW 1 SW 2SW 3 SW 4SW 5 SW 6WorkSheetsWorksheets aregiven duringtheexperimentas a guide.WS 1 WS 2WS 3 WS 4Post TestPost test isused todeterminestudents‟knowledgeafter theunit isdiscussed.Post Test UnitPlan.docxRubricA scoringguide used toevaluate thestudentoutput.Rubric
  5. 5. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 5 of 20Assessment SummaryThe given assessments are designed to create a student centered environment in a way thatstudents infer the lessons with the teacher‟s guidance. Furthermore, these assessments are madein order to measure the attainment of learning goals, objectives, ideas and skills that the studentsshould attain in these topics. Before the project begins, a pre test assesses student‟s learningabout the topic of Acids, Bases, Salts, and Neutralization. This gives a clear idea for the teacher onwhat topics are to be taken in focus and what topics the students are good at. In order to check onstudent‟s participation in every meeting or an activity, an attendance sheet is used. This is veryhelpful in managing students. During the creation of the project, learning will be in terms ofdiscovery method by means of experimentation using work sheets as an additional guide, aside fromthe guidance of the teacher, promotes the Higher Order thinking skills of the students by lettingthem analyze, synthesize, and apply the different theories learned in a real setting. Aside fromthese, seat works and a summative test will be given to evaluate the student‟s comprehension of thedifferent topics. After discussing the whole unit, a Post test will be given in order to see student‟sacquisition of knowledge during the commencement of the lessons. When the project is finished, arubric will be used to objectively score the students outputs.Unit DetailsPrerequisite SkillsThe students must acquire the different skills in order for them to understand the differenttopics in the unit:1. Identify and give the uses of some important apparatus used in the chemistry laboratory.2. Enumerate and explain the safety precautions to be observed in a chemistry laboratory.3. Prepare useful mixtures from easily available resources in the Community.4. Identify the different types of solutions.5. Describe the changes that occur in the dissolving process substances6. Relate the changes that accompany this process to energy changes and molecular interactions.7. Demonstrate understanding of the properties of elements based on periodic atomic properties.7.1 Write chemical symbols of elements or name the elements given the chemical symbol.7.2 State the basis of the arrangement of elements in the periodic table.7.3 Relate the number of valence electrons of elements to their group number in the periodictable.8. Appreciate the importance of knowing the properties of elements and how they are used intechnology.8.1 Enumerate and describe the properties of elements and their uses8.2 Cite the importance of knowing the properties of elements and how they are appliedparticularly in modern technologies and those concerning the environment.9. Demonstrate the ability to use symbols, formulas and chemical equations in explaining chemicalequations.9.1 Identify and give examples of the four general types of chemical reactions.9.2 Explain the implied information derived from a balanced equation.9.3 Classify chemical reactions given balanced chemical equation.
  6. 6. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 6 of 20Instructional ProceduresDay 1: Prior Testing1. The teacher gives all instructions before distributing the pre-test papers.2. The teacher distributes the pre-test to the students by giving each table three copies.Once students receive the pre-test papers, they will not start to answer unless instructedby the teacher.3. The teacher allows the students to answer the test. Then, he/she will make a few roundsin the room to check if students are answering the test honestly.4. When time is up, the teacher instructs students to pass their papers.Day 2: Discovering what are Acids and Bases1. Group the class into 6 having at least 7 to 8 members each. The groupings will be done bycount-off.2. Give the different groups a copy of the experiment worksheet that they will beperforming and organize all the materials that the student needs for the experiment.3. Elicit on the guidelines in which the students should follow if they are in the laboratory.4. Instruct the different groups to have a peer evaluation on cooperation in the experimentonce it is done.5. Present the safety pre-cautions in using acids and bases. Afterwards, the class will repeatthe different pre-cautions simultaneously. Afterwards, sternly warn the students to becareful in handling the different substances.6. Give a pre-lab discussion of Acids and Bases. The teacher will not go into detail of thedifferent properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the experiment will commence.7. The teacher elicits the procedure of the experiment.Procedure1. Describe the following substances by using your different senses. Recordyour observation in the table below.2. Dip a piece of blue and red litmus paper into the different substances.Notice the changes in color in the paper. Record your observations in thetable below.Substance Sight Smell Touch TasteVinegarSoft drinkBaking PowderSubstance Changes in color in RedLitmusChanges in color in BlueLitmusVinegarSoft drinkBaking Powder
  7. 7. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 7 of 208. The teacher will facilitate the experiment. He/she will go around the room and check theprogress of students and if the members are helping each other.9. Once all groups are done experimenting, the teacher will let the students evaluate theirpeer and record their evaluation on a ¼ sheet of pad paper.10. The teacher collects the peer evaluation from the different groups once all groups arefinished working.11. The teacher poses the following questions. Afterwards, he/she calls students to answerthe questions.1. What did you observe?2. Are there consistent observations with the baking soda and soap?3. Are there also consistent observations with the vinegar and soft drink?4. What compounds are bases? How about acids?5. Are acids and bases harmful too? How?6. If you are handling them, what safety precautions could you give in orderfor you not to get hurt?12. Students will watch a video about Acids and bases to confirm their answers.13. Students will sum-up all the information that they had gathered from the video and theexperiment through a recitation.14. Students are to research more about the different harmful effects of bases and acidsas an assignment. This will be passed next meeting.Day 3: Acids Disclosed1. Give a review of the different properties of acids and bases by asking students to fill upthe table.2. Students will relate the properties of acids and bases to their safety pre-cautions and totheir harmful effects.3. Give the topic of Acids by letting the students decode the jumbled words through a texttwist game.SADIC- ACIDSPREAP SLMITU- LITMUS PAPEROURS- SOURTSEGAN NGICLAEN- CLEANING AGENTS4. After the game, the teacher will discuss what acids are and subsequently, elicit on thedifferent properties of Acids through giving a concept map.5. Show jumbled chemical reactions on the formation of acids. Afterwards, students will
  8. 8. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 8 of 20arrange the chemical reactions and they will identify the acids in the reaction.6. Students will organize the identified acids. They will observe the differences in the acids.After stating their observations, the names of the acids will be posted on the screen.7. Observations will be asked and through the given examples, the students will infer on therules of naming acids.8. Once, the rules of naming acids are given, the teacher will modify, add or remove someconcepts on student‟s conclusion regarding Acid nomenclature.9. Present some more examples on how acids are named. The chemical formula or structureof the acids is given and the students will name them.10. The students will try to name the different acids posted on the board. They will puttheir answers using a sheet of ½ crosswise pad paper.11. The teacher will give some examples on where acids could be seen in our daily lives like incleaning agents, preservative agents and others. After that, students will share experiencesand examples on the importance of acids in their daily lives.12. Students will generalize the topics of acids through completing the chart below.Day 4: Bases Exposed:1. Let the students go to their respective groups. The teacher will assign the work area forthe groups.2. Give a review on the past concept of acids through playing a puzzle. The students willwork as a group to decode the puzzle. The puzzle contains pictures of the differentapplications of acids and bases. Also, the puzzles include the rules of nomenclature of acidsand some of their properties.3. After decoding the puzzle pieces, the students will elaborate on their decoded puzzles.4. Pose the question:What is the basic for Bases?5. Call students to answer the question. This will give the teacher an insight on student‟sknowledge of bases. Afterwards, generalize the answers of the student and clarify theiranswers if they answered vaguely.6. Call students to elicit the different properties of bases using a concept map.7. The teacher will generalize the answers of the students. Also, the teacher will modify,add, and clarify answers that seem vague or incorrect.8. Distribute puzzle pieces to the different groups. The groups will decode the puzzle. Oncethey are done they should notify the teacher. The puzzle pieces depict reactions of thedifferent bases.9. Students are asked to identify the bases in the chemical reaction. They will organize thebases as to observe their differences. Afterwards, the names of the different bases will beI Learned… I will remember that… I will apply…Acids have many used in ourlivesAcids have a pH below 7Acids are corrosiveNomenclature correctlyduring quizzes.Acids are important Acids are also dangerous Acids in cleaning
  9. 9. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 9 of 20shown in the screen. Students are asked to observe the names of the bases and itsstructure.10. Students give their observations and they will infer the rules of naming bases. Theteacher will evaluate each student‟s answer. Also, the teacher will ask the class if theyagreed upon each student‟s answer. Afterwards, the teacher will clarify and modifystudents‟ answers as to generalize the topic.11. Give different puzzle pieces for the groups to decode. The puzzle pieces containnomenclatures of bases. Students will use this to name a base that is given to them.Afterwards, they will write the names of their bases on the board. The teacher andstudents will evaluate the answers of the different groups.12. Students will be asked to share the uses of bases in their lives. Afterwards, the teacherwill show pictures that correspond to the importance of bases.13. The students will generalize the topic by forming a poem by using the individual lettersof the word „BASE‟.14. Give a seat work about distinguishing bases from acids. They will do this in a ½ crosswisepad paper. The teacher will go around and check upon the students. After 10 minutes, thestudents will pass their papers.Day 5: Theories about Acids and Bases1. Inform that the class will be watching a film about the Theories of Acids and Bases.2. Remind the students that they are required to take down notes as they watch the filmand are required to listen attentively.3. Give the guide questions that they will be answering about the film. This will be answeredon a 1 whole sheet of pad paper and it will be passed the following meeting.4. Present the film to the students. While the students are watching, the teacher roamsaround in order to check on the students who are writing notes and listening to the film.Day 6: Disclosing the Theories of Acids and Bases1. Students are instructed to go to their groups in the laboratory. The teacher assigns alocation for each group.2. Present the instructions of the activity that the students will do after the collaboration.1. Discuss your answers to the guide questions with your group mates. Because afterthe group collaboration, you will present your discussions to the class creatively.2. Share your answers from the different guide questions. This will be a great assetto your group report.
  10. 10. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 10 of 203. You will only be given 12 minutes per group to discuss the theory assigned to yourgroup. Also, you will relate the theory to the different properties of acids and bases.Group 1- Arrhenius TheoryGroup 2- Lewis TheoryGroup 3- Bronsted-Lowry Theory4. Your group report is totaled to 45 points. You will be scored not only by theteacher but also by the different groups in the class. So please be guided by thefollowing rubric:Content- 20 ptsCreativity- 15 ptsCooperation- 10 pts.3. Give the students about 7 minutes to discuss and plan their group presentation.4. The different groups will present their topics starting with group 1. After eachpresentation, the group will prepare for any questions that the class or teacher may askthem.5. After all three groups had present, the teacher will clarify and modify the explanationsof the students. The teacher will also give additional input that may not be mentioned by thestudents.6. Post a quotation about following principles.It is easier to fight for ones principles than to live up to them.7. After posting the quote, the students will be asked to give their thoughts of the quote.They will be asked to negate or agree with the quotes. The students will take sides and theywill defend their side of their decision.8. Afterwards, the teacher will generalize the answers of the students. The teacher will notside with any of the groups but will just give the strong points of each side. Thus, theteacher, with the help of the students will make a generalization of the argument.9. Students will relate the quote to the different theories of Acids and Bases and they willdo this by making a Venn Diagram. This will serve as a summary and generalization for thetopic learned.10. The students will be given a seat work by determining the acids and bases in a chemicalreaction by using the different theories on acids and bases.Day 7: Discovering Neutralization1. Play the game Charades as review for the topics of Acids and Bases. The teacher will callstudents to present the different clues to the class for them to correctly guess the wordthey are presenting. For example, color cues like blue to red or red to blue or facialexpressions indicating bitter or sour will be clues for presenting the different properties ofbases and acids.2. After playing charades, the teacher will generalize the activity with the help of studentsby calling students to enumerate the different properties of acids and bases.3. Prepare the materials needed for the different activities in the table. Afterwards, thefirst activity will start. There are three activities:First Activity: Measuring the pH of water using pH paper and pH meter The teacher
  11. 11. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 11 of 20will show the students how to use the pH meter. The teacher will tell the studentsnot to throw away the pH paper and to record the reading on the pH meter.Second Activity: Observe the reaction of baking powder and vinegar in a beaker.Students should observe and notice the changes that happen during the reaction.Afterwards, the students will list down chemical equation of the reaction.Third Activity: Measuring the pH of the liquid partition after the reaction using thepH meter and Litmus paper.The teacher will all the while facilitate in the activities and will give additional instructions.4. The teacher will call different students to do the different activities in front of theclass. The class should pay close attention to the activities done by the students. Theteacher will make rounds to inspect the students.5. After all activities are completed, the students will give a short generalization of theirobservations on the activities. A few students will be called to write down their observationsin the board.6. The teacher will ask the class if they had the same observations with those who wrote onthe board. If there are inconsistencies in the observation, the class will discuss and agree ona single observation so that all answers will be consistent.7. Pose the following questions for the students to analyze.1. What does the result from the pH paper indicate and pH meter indicate?2. What is the reaction between the reactants? What is the chemical equation of thereaction of vinegar and baking powder?3. Describe the interaction of the molecules of the reactants.4. Describe the products of the reaction using optical observations and the results ofthe pH meter and pH paper.5. What kind of reaction is this? Describe this reaction.8. Present a short video in order to verify the answers of the students and to gain moreinsights on what is Neutralization. The students will take notes while listening while watchingthe video. The teacher will make rounds a few rounds around the room to check on thestudents.9. After the watching the video, the students will make some corrections to their answersor will give additional information to their answers.10. Pose a picture of the Yin-Yang. Afterwards, tell the history of how the Yin-Yang came tobe.
  12. 12. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 12 of 20The Yin Yang started out as an astronomical sign for early astronomers to describechange. The early astronomers noticed that the only constant factor in the universeis change. Therefore, if there is change, then there must be a balance that will makethe world one.11. Post the following questions to the students. The students will voluntarily answer thequestions after each question is stated. This will serve as a generalization.1. What is balance to you?2. How do you relate balance to the topic of Neutralization?3. How do you apply the concept of Neutralization or the Yin-Yang to your life?12. The students will do a seat work in order to comprehend the topic of Neutralization. Theteacher will go around checking on the students.13. Inform the class about the project that they will be making by group. The teacherwill state the objectives of the project.This project aims to find or create healthy and economical substances that havethe ability to neutralize soil acidity and alkalinity and to enhance student’sappreciation on the concept of neutralization through solving the problem on soilpH. The students should be able to:a. Search on the different effects of soil pH to plant growth and thefarming industry.b. Find or create different products that could neutralize soil acidity oralkalinity.c. Devise a research paper on the effects of these products to soil pHand its effect on plant growth.d. Defend their research paper and product as a group.e. Elicit on the importance of the concept of neutralization to their livesand to the economy.13. Give the instructions to the class.a. Using your assigned groups in the laboratories, you will try to study theconcept of Neutralization in detail by doing this project. You will try to researchon the effects of soil acidity and alkalinity to plants or the farming industry.b. Bring 5 soil samples from your barangay. Each soil sample should be differentfrom the other. The soil samples should come from different gardens, farms, orplantationsc. We will use two meetings to analyze your different soil samples. You will bedetermining if the soil is acidic or alkaline. With the help of hand outs, you willtry to research or make a substance that has the ability to neutralize soilacidity or alkalinity all the while being harmless to the environment.d. After finding the potential substance, try to experiment with it with soilgathered from your chosen areas. To truly see the effects of the substance,you will be testing again the soil’s pH and you will be sowing a plant on the‘neutered’ soil.
  13. 13. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 13 of 20e. Create a research paper on the result of your product and its effect on soilpH and plant growth. The research paper should follow the format given by theteacher.f. You will be given about three months to finish this project. Afterwards, as agroup you will be defending your research paper.Day 8: Demonstrating Salts1. Post the quotation to the students.Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.2. Students will give their opinion of the quote. Afterwards, the teacher will ask questions inorder to process student‟s answers and the quote.1. To whom does the quote go out to?2. Why is salt included in the passage? Is bread and water enough to make a mansurvive?3. What is the importance of salt?4. What is salt to you? Why?3. Instruct the students to go to their different groups in the laboratory. Then give thestudents the worksheet and materials that they need for the experiment.4. Give a pre-lab discussion about the experiment. Afterwards explain the differentprocedures that will be followed in the experiment.1. Measure 10g of NaOH in a triple beam balance and 30ml of hydrochloric acid.2. Carefully place the materials on the beaker and stir thoroughly.3. Note the changes that will happen. Observe any residue that will be formed.4. Students will describe the result of the reaction. And the teacher will verify theanswers by calling other students.5. Students will write the chemical reaction of the hydrochloric acid and baking powder.6. The teacher will pose the following question:1. What kind of reaction is this?2 Why do you say so?3. What are the products of the reaction?4. What type of compound is NaCl?5. What are salts?7. Students will answer the questions. To verify their answers, the teacher will call otherstudents to agree with them.8. Afterwards, to sum-up and further verify student‟s answers, the teacher will present avideo entitled “Salts in our Life”. The video will present the properties of salts and itsapplications in real life.9. Students will generalize the topic through a question and answer game with the teacher.The different groups will be asked questions alternately and they will be scored according tohow well they answer.10. Instruct students to create a salt using a neutralization reaction by using commonhousehold materials that they have brought. Also, they will infer the chemical reaction that
  14. 14. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 14 of 20was involved between the reactants on a ¼ sheet of pad paper.11. While students are performing, the teacher will make rounds to make sure that thestudents are safe in performing the experiment.12. Once students are done, they will submit the salt sample they have done in a test tubecovered with a cork and the inferred chemical reaction written on the ¼ paper.13. Afterwards, the students will have a seat work in order to enhance understanding of thetopic.Day 9: Identifying pH1. Instruct the students to meet as a group and assign the locations where they will stay.Instruct the students to listen carefully to the song that will be played.2. Give the students instructions on the activity. The students will listen to the songentitled “Perfect”.“Made a wrong turn,Once or twice,Dug my way out,Blood and fire, Bad decisions,Thats alright, Welcome to my silly lifeMistreated, misplaced, misunderstood Miss "no way, its all good",It didnt slow me down,Mistaken, Always second guessingUnder estimated, Look, Im still aroundPretty, pretty please,Dont you ever, ever feel, Like youre less than less than perfect,Pretty, pretty please, If you ever, ever feel,Like youre nothing,You are perfect to me.”3. Post the lyrics of the song on the board. Instruct the students to listen to the songcarefully.4. After listening to the song, pose the following questions to the students.a. What is the song all about?b. Are we really perfect?c. What makes us imperfect?d. What are you weaknesses and strengths?e. Is it okay to have strengths and weaknesses? Why?5. Generalize student‟s answers by playing the “Fill in” game. The students will complete thestatements that the teacher left hanging.6. Give a copy of the experiment worksheet to each group and put all the materials neededin front and one representative from each group to get the materials that they will use.7. Remind the students for the safety precautions in doing the laboratory experiment.Instruct the students to wear goggles and wash their hands after doing the experiment.
  15. 15. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 15 of 208. Give a pre-lab discussion on the concept of pH. Discuss the procedures, before thestudents start the laboratory experiment.Procedures:1. Label all the beakers for each of the samples.2. Pour 5 ml of each liquid into an appropriately labeled beaker.3. Dip an unused strip of pH paper into the sample, compare with the color chartand record the result in your data table. Repeat the same process for theremaining samples. Be sure to use a clean, unused strip of pH paper for each one.Data Table:Sample Name pH Acid or Base1. Distilled water2. Lemon juice3. Ammonia4. Milk5. Cola6. Orange juice9. The teacher will go around facilitating the students. If all the members are working.10. Once all groups are done experimenting. The teacher poses the following questions tobe answered individually:a. ) Were you surprised that distilled water did not have a neutral pH? Why doyou think this happened?b.) Explain why you think we are not hurt by drinking cola soda or orange juiceeven though they both have an acidic pH.c.) What variables were controlled during this experiment?11. The teacher will discuss the answer of each question by calling volunteer students toshare their answers to the class.12. Afterwards, discuss the basic concepts of pH by relating it to the experiment doneearlier. The teacher will call students to compare their observations.13. Afterwards, to generalize the topic, the students will play the “Fill in” game with theteacher as the mediator.Day 10: Disclosing pH1. Students will recall their strengths and weaknesses that they had enumerated theprevious day. The students will list down these strengths and weaknesses in a ¼ sheet ofpad paper.2. Play the song entitled “Dig”. While the song is played, post the lyrics of the song.“We all have a weaknessBut some of ours are easy to identify.Look me in the eyeAnd ask for forgiveness;Well make a pact to never speak that word again
  16. 16. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 16 of 20Yes you are my friend.We all have something that digs at us,At least we dig each otherSo when weakness turns my ego upI know youll count on the me from yesterdayIf I turn into anotherDig me up from under what is coveringThe better part of me”4. Give the following questions for the students to analyze.a. What is the song all about?b. Are we defined by weakness only? How?c. How can we turn our weaknesses into strengths?d. How do we strengthen our strengths?5. Recall the basic concepts of pH by calling students to describe their previous topic.Afterwards, they will relate the basic concepts of pH to acids, bases.6. The teacher will discuss on the relationship of [H3O+] and [OH-] in acids and bases byposting a schematic diagram of a container filled with schematic models of [H3O+] and[OH-] by basing the relationship on the pH of water where the pH= pOH.Since the concentration of Hydronium and Hydroxyl ion concentrations are equal in water:pOH=pH= 7then,pH+ pOH= 14, since the entire pH range is composed of 14 scales.From the equation of finding the concentration of a substance,[H3O+][OH-]= 1x10-77. After relating the concentrations of Hydronium ions to the Hydroxyl ions, the teacher,with the students help, will derive the formula of relating [H3O+] and [OH-].pOH= -log[OH-]; pH= -log[H3O+]8. Post a table that shows the pH scales and the correspond concentrations of H3O+andOH-pH [H3O+] [OH-]0 10010-141 10-110-132 10-210-123 10-310-114 10-410-105 10-510-96 10-610-87 10-710-78 10-810-69 10-910-520 10-1010-4
  17. 17. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 17 of 2011 10-1110-312 10-1210-213 10-1310-114 10-141009. After showing the table, the teacher will explain the table. The teacher will relate thetable posted to the discussions of deriving the formula of pH and pOH.10. Give the students sample problems to solve. The teacher will solve the given problemwith the students. The teacher will guide the students on how to solve the word problems.11. After showing three problems regarding pH, the teacher will instruct the students to goto their groups.12. The teacher will give difficult problems for the student to solve as a group. They willdiscuss on the proper approach to solve the problem and subsequently, show their solutionson the board.13. After solving on the board, the teacher will call other groups to evaluate the solutionsand answers of the students.12. The teacher will give individual seat works in order to test students understanding ofthe lesson. They are allowed to open their notes.14. After finishing the evaluation, the students will generalize the answers of the studentsby playing the “Fill in” Game with the teacher as the mediator.Accommodations for Differentiated InstructionSpecial NeedsStudentsStudents requiring special needs will require a different approach in theclassroom. Firstly, the student will be assigned a seat where temptations anddistractions are at a minimal. Secondly, the teacher will reserve a period oftime before the class instructions would begin in order for the teacher tocheck the student‟s assignment or plan so that expectations would be clearand any misconceptions would be cleared right away. Thirdly, for students whorequire constant reminders about how to follow class procedures, they will beprovide them with an enlarged checklist of the daily routine or assignmentexpectations and tape it on work more independently. Fourthly, studentsexperiencing difficulties in copying notes, they will be provided with hand outswhich suit their special needs. Fifthly, if students have difficulty with cursivewriting or printing, provide them with practice strategies, but do not let thedifficulty prevent them from completing the assignment. The teacher will usealternatives such as a computer, scribe or an extension on the assignment.Sixthly, the teacher will create fun ways of learning especially byincorporating students‟ interest towards the lesson. Seventhly, make thelearning atmosphere as comfortable based on what the student feelscomfortable in. For example, if the student is comfortable in listening to musicor looking at pictures during the lesson, the teacher should provide for thesematerials. Lastly, the teacher will incorporate parent‟s suggestions and willacquire help from the parents in order for maximum learning to occur.
  18. 18. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 18 of 20Non nativeSpeakersNon native speakers will receive accommodations in order to enhance theirspeaking and writing skills. Moreover, this will be done in the most subtle waysfor the student not to be embarrassed. Firstly, all written outputs will begiven earlier and scored according to content only and grammar will be ignoredat first. Secondly, the teacher will put written comments about organizationand ideas and only circle grammar errors, in which the student will be asked tosubmit another draft of the work with the corrections already made howeverthis will not be scored but it is used for evaluation purposes only. In order fornon native speakers to understand the lesson and to reinforce what has beensaid, the teacher should write every important concept on the board illustrateconcept on the board. Thirdly, comment about logical development, as much aspossible, in order for the student to be enhanced in formulating clear, directstatements. Fourthly, advise students to make an outline of a writingassignment before making a draft. This will help students promote logicalthinking and will help in avoiding gaps in their written output. Fifthly theteacher will try to boost critical thinking through asking leading questions like,thus giving them permission to make inferences about the authors thoughtsand making instructions very clear to students that you expect them to forman opinion about a piece instead of simply summarizing it. If the student is stillhaving difficulties in comprehension, the teacher should be prepared to spendtime individually with the student. Lastly, the teacher should be patient to thestudent by giving him more time to understand.ResourceStudentsIf students are experiencing difficulties, the teacher will find time for themin order to modify and clarify; instructions that will help the studentsunderstand the lesson. Furthermore, interventions will be given to thestudents. This will provide them with a chance to collaboratively discuss theconcept as a group with their respective tutors.Students who are hard up are free to approach the teacher during their breaktime as a form of tutoring as for them to clearly master the topic. Also, thestudents will be given links to web quests, videos, and animations about thetopic. This will either be their intervention activity or a supplementaryinstruction. Afterwards, students are required to submit a generalization orreport about the topic either through oral presentation, during one on oneconference with the teacher or written reports.Students are also given articles or journals related to the topic in the unit.They will be asked to read the journals and present what they learned in frontof the class. This activity will improve the student‟s breadth and depth of thesubject matter and will also boost their confidence when talking in front oftheir classmates.
  19. 19. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2008 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 19 of 20Gifted/TalentedStudentsGifted students will be given differentiated activities as to improve theirdifferent skills. Through the pre-test, the teacher will be able to know theconcepts that these students had mastered. During the discussion of theseconcepts, the students will be given alternative activities such as articles orjournals advance topic in this unit and are required to write down ageneralization. When a concept that the students did not master is beingdiscussed, the student is required to undergo the same instruction with theclass, however the student will be the first to complete difficult activities.These students will also be provided with the chance to research on advancetopics in the unit. They will be given three days to research and read on aspecific topic they want and they will present this topic creatively to theirclassmates. The report should have an interaction with the reporter and thestudents thus; reports could come in the form of games, monologues, or radiobroadcasting.Outputs come in several forms. Outputs could be in the forms of role plays,skits, oral reports and others that the students are willing to show or submit.Gifted students are encouraged to use their own methods to come up with aproduct. They are encourages to use different technologies or art styles thatthey see fit in the topic. This will give them a chance to enhance skills notdefined by the curriculum.Materials and Resources Required For UnitTechnology – Hardware (Click boxes of all equipment needed)CameraComputer(s)Digital CameraDVD PlayerInternet ConnectionLaser DiskPrinterProjection SystemScannerTelevisionVCRVideo CameraVideo Conferencing Equip.OtherTechnology – Software (Click boxes of all software needed.)Database/SpreadsheetDesktop PublishingE-mail SoftwareEncyclopedia on CD-ROMImage ProcessingInternet Web BrowserMultimediaWeb Page DevelopmentWord ProcessingOtherPrinted MaterialsSackheim G. & Lehman D. (2002). Chemistry for health sciences. Singapore:Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd.Padolina C. (2004). Conceptual and functional chemistry. Makati City: VibalPublishing Inc.Mendoza E. (2003). Conceptual Chemistry.Quezon City: Phoenix PublishingInc.
  20. 20. Intel® Teach ProgramEssentials Course© 2000-2007 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 20 of 20SuppliesBeaker Baking Powder SpeakerspH paper Vinegar Puzzle PiecespH meter Stirring Rod Video on NeutralizationIndicators Soap Theories of Acids and Bases filmProjector Lap top Test TubesDroppers Funnels Graduated CylindersTables Graphic Organizers Jumbled lettersInternet Resourceshttp://landresources.montana.edu/NM/Modules/Module8.pdfRetrieved January 8, 2012 at 3:15 pmOther ResourcesExperiments on the follwing topics:a. Acids and Basesb. Neutralizationc. Saltsd. pHVideos entitled: Salt and your LifeTheories of Acids and BasesCopyright © 2008 Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Intel Education Initiative, and Intel Teach Program are trademarksof Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.