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Poland 1919-1925


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Describes presidents, problems and where Poland was in 1919

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Poland 1919-1925

  1. 1. Poland 1919-1925
  2. 2. Where Is Poland? <ul><li>During WW1, all the allies agreed on the reconstitution of Poland. Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic- Il Rzeczpospolita Polska . </li></ul><ul><li>Poland was made up of land taken from Imperial Russia and the Austria- Hungary empire. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1918-1922 Jozef Pilsudski <ul><li>In 1918, he was appointed the first Chief of State of Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>He was entrusted with creating a national government for the newly independent country. He proclaimed Polish independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilsudski was very popular with much of the Polish public but he had a reputation of a loner. This led to strained relations with other Polish politicians. </li></ul><ul><li>On 20th Feb 1919, he declared he would return his powers to the newly selected Polish government- Sejm. He remained in office until 9 th Dec 1922 when Narutowicz was elected the 1 st President of Poland. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1922 Gabriel Narutowicz <ul><li>He served as the Minster of Public Works 1920-1921 and as the Minister of Foreign Affairs 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>On 9 th Dec 1922 he was elected by the Sejm as the first President of Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Narutowicz was popular as he had support from national minorities, the left and peasant deputies. </li></ul><ul><li>On 16 th Dec 1922, 5 days after his inauguration he was shot by a sympathiser of the National Democrats Eligiusz Niewiadomski. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1922-1926 Stanislaw Wojciechowski <ul><li>From 1919 to 1920, he served as Minister of the Interior for three different Polish governments. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time, Wojciechowski also participated in the drafting of the Polish constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1922, Wojciechowski was elected to the Sejm as a member of the Polish Peasant Party. Only a month later he was chosen by the National Assembly as President of the Polish Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>After the 1926 coup by Pilsudski, he resigned from office. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main Economic Product <ul><li>Due to the allies’ attribution of land and the destruction of WW1, some areas of Poland were rich whereas some were poor. </li></ul><ul><li>For example areas like Silesia were industrialised and produced lots of manufacturing. This meant they could export lots of products. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas most of the country was in ruins and couldn’t produce anything that could be exported. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Problems faced by Poland <ul><li>As Poland had been formally been 2 different empires, there were many ethnic groups now in one country. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant each ethnic group wanted a voice and it was hard to please each ethnic group. </li></ul><ul><li>Many minorities felt increasingly alienated especially the Jewish.There was a rise in anti-Semitism in the general population and the Jews became poorer. </li></ul>Nationalism Austria Hungary Imperial Russia
  8. 8. Political Instability <ul><li>1921- Poland adopted a constitution modelled after the French 3 rd Republic. This meant there was more power in legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd Republic was an erratic and unstable government due to the government’s efforts to polarise between the left and right wing factions. </li></ul>Economy <ul><li>The economy in Poland was in shambles as there was hyperinflation. The government was unable to find a quick solution and this lead to high levels of unemployment,various economic crises and public unrest. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>WW1 had caused massive destruction in former Russian Poland. This reduced the nations’ wealth by at least 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant Poland wasn’t able to become prosperous quickly as it had to repair all the damage and this used vast amounts of money. A British diplomatic who visited Warsaw in 1919 said </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have nowhere seen anything like the evidence of extreme poverty and wretchedness that meet one's eyes at almost every turn.” </li></ul>Destruction by WW1