Socio economy should be to consider.</li></ul>Politic<br />History<br />- The selected route not interference to the old buildings or historic sites<br />
4<br />ACTIVITIES IN HIGHWAY PLANNING AND PRE-CONSTRUCTION WORKS<br />a. Site inspection and carriage way determination<br />b. Surveying work and stacking<br />c. Site clearing and cutting of top soil<br />d. Ground work/Earthwork<br />
5<br />OBJECTIVES OF SITE INVESTIGATION<br />Suitability: Are the site and surroundings suitable for the highway? <br />Design: Obtain all the design parameters necessary for the works. <br />Construction: Are there any potential ground or ground water conditions that would affect the construction? <br />Materials: Are there any materials available on site, what quantity and quality? <br />Effect of changes: How will the design affect adjacent properties and the ground water? <br />Identify Alternatives: Is this the best location?<br />
6<br />THE IMPORTANCE OF SI<br /><ul><li>To study the general suitability of the site for an engineering project.
To enable a safe, practical and economic design to be prepared.
To determine the possible difficulties that may be encountered by a specific construction method for any particular civil project.
To study the suitability of construction material (soil or rock).</li></li></ul><li>7<br />
9<br />PRELIMINARY WORKS DURING GROUND WORK<br />Preliminary Steps<br />The area should be cleared of bushes, vegetation, grass, branches, trees and saplings.<br />The roots of trees and saplings should be removed up to the depth of 60 cm below ground level.<br /> Existing structures and services such as power cables, drainage pipes etc. within or adjacent to the area if required to be diverted/ removed, should be diverted or dismantled as per requirement. <br />Archeological monuments should be fenced in the area where the work is to be started. <br />
11<br />CLEARANCE OF 'ANTIQUITIES' <br />At time of working when any archeological article such as relics of antiquity, coins, fossils, or other valuable articles should be delivered to the Government department whereas the other useful material if found should be stacked separately and this material is the property of the Government.<br />
12<br />FILLING UP THE 'GROUND'<br />The earth used for filling should be free from all roots, grass, bushes, branches, trees, saplings and wastes.<br />Filling up with excavated earth should be done in regular parallel layers. <br /> All lumps and clods exceeding 8 cm in any direction should be broken. <br /> Each layer should be watered and consolidated with iron rammer. <br />The top and sides of the filling should be neatly dressed.<br />