Bab 2 incident prevention


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Bab 2 incident prevention

  1. 1. 1<br />1<br />CHAPTER 2<br />INCIDENTS PREVENTION <br />Understand the concepts of incident<br />2.1.1 Define incidents<br />2.1.2 Define accidents<br />2.2 Understand principle of incidents prevention<br />2.2.1 Explain principle of incidents prevention<br />2.3 Recognize causes of incident<br />2.3.1 Classify the types of incident<br />2.3.2 Determine three model of accident theory<br />a. Heinrich’s Theory<br />b. Multiple Causation Theory<br />c. Bird Loss Causation Model<br />2.3.3 Discover the three basic causes of incident<br />a. Basic causes<br />b. Indirect causes<br />c. Direct causes<br />2.4 Understand incidents prevention costs<br />2.4.1 List the design costs<br />2.4.2 List the operational costs<br />2.4.3 List safe guarding of the future costs<br />2.5 Know accident prevention programme<br />2.5.1 State management commitment in accident prevention<br />2.5.2 Develop the accident prevention planning<br />2.5.3 Determine the accident prevention training<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />What is An Incident???<br /><ul><li>An unexpected, unplanned event in a sequence of events.
  3. 3. That occurs through a combination of causes.
  4. 4. Which result in :</li></ul> Physical harm ( injury, ill-health or disease ) to an individual<br /> Damage to property<br /> A near miss<br /> Any combination of these effects. <br />
  5. 5. 3<br />Why Prevent Incident???<br /><ul><li>Legal
  6. 6. Human right
  7. 7. Business</li></li></ul><li>4<br />6 Principles of<br />INCIDENTS PREVENTION by Ministry of Labour and National Services UK ( 1956 ) <br /><ul><li>Accident prevention is an essential part of good management and of good workmanship.
  8. 8. Management and workers must fully cooperate.
  9. 9. Top management must take the lead in organising safety.
  10. 10. There must be definite and known safety policy in workplace.
  11. 11. The organisation and resources necessary to carry out the policy must exist.
  12. 12. The best available knowledge and method must be applied.</li></li></ul><li>5<br />Types of INCIDENTS<br />Cause immediate injury or damage to equipment or property<br /><ul><li>a forklift dropping a load
  13. 13. Someone falling off a ladder.</li></ul>Occur over an extended period<br /><ul><li>Hearing loss
  14. 14. Illness resulting from exposure to chemicals.</li></li></ul><li>6<br />Model of ACCIDENTS THEORY<br />Domino Theory <br />Loss causation model<br />Multi – causality Accident Model<br />
  15. 15. Domino Theory<br />Introduced by Herbert W.Heinrich ( 1930 ).<br />Injury from an accident is the result of a series of events that is dependent on each other.<br /><ul><li>Injuries are caused by accidents
  16. 16. Accidents are caused by unsafe acts and unsafe condition.
  17. 17. Unsafe acts and unsafe condition are caused by the faults of person.
  18. 18. Faults of person are caused by a personal flaw such as violent temper, nervousness or ignorance.
  19. 19. The injured worker’ s ancestry and social environment.</li></ul>ancestry<br />person<br />Hazard<br />accidents<br />Injuries<br />7<br />
  20. 20. 8<br />Multicausality Accident <br />Model<br />Refers to the facts that there may be more that one cause to any accident.<br />Example: Someone who had tripping accident over a piece of wood lying on a floor in a dark walkway.<br />Cause A<br />( poor lighting )<br />Accident ( Trip)<br />Cause B<br />( Not look where going )<br />Cause C<br />( Wood in walkway )<br />
  21. 21. 9<br />Loss Causation Model<br />Introduced by Frank E. Bird ( 1970 ).<br />Revised Heinrich Domino.<br />Blaming management<br />Threshold Limit<br />Lack of Control<br />Basic causes<br />Immediate causes<br />Incidents<br />Loss<br />Inadequate sys<br />Personal factors<br />Substandard act/practice<br />Iunintended harm or<br />Damage<br />Event<br />Inadequate Stand<br />Job/syt factors<br />Subst. Conditio<br />Inadequate Compliance<br />
  22. 22. 10<br />3 Basic Causes of Accident<br />Basic Causes<br />Poor Management Safety Policy & Decision<br />Peronal factors<br />Environment factors<br />Indirect Causes<br />Unsafe act<br />Unsafe condition<br />Unplanned accidents<br />ACCIDENTS<br />Personal injury, Property damage<br />direct Causes<br />
  23. 23. 11<br />Cost of Incident Prevention<br />Insured : RM 1<br />uninsured : <br />RM 8~36<br />Accident Cost Iceberg<br />
  24. 24. 12<br />Cost of Incident Prevention<br />i ) Design cost: Installing machine guard to protect worker<br />ii) Operational cost : Running a Safety Department ( training, PPE )<br />iii) Planning and consequence- limiting cost<br />Safeguarding the future, cost for environmental sampling, safety audit.<br />
  25. 25. 13<br />Du Pont Ten Principles of Safety Management<br /><ul><li>All injuries and occupational illness are preventable
  26. 26. Management is directly responsible for doing this
  27. 27. Safety is condition of employment
  28. 28. Training is required
  29. 29. Safety audit and inspection must be carried out.
  30. 30. Deficiencies must be corrected
  31. 31. All unsafe practices, incidents and injury accidents will be investigated.
  32. 32. Safety away from work is as important as safety at work.
  33. 33. Accident prevention is cost effective; the highest cost is human suffering.
  34. 34. Employees must be actively involved.</li>