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Gis Tutorial Purnawan

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Gis Tutorial Purnawan

1. 1. 3. Raster and Vector GIS measurement
2. 2. Question 3a Raster Gis Distance measurement C = [3x300]²+[7x100]² Euclidian Manhattan M = 3 X 300 + 7 X 100 = 1600 m C Source : Google Maps = 1140.17 m
3. 3. 3b. Vector GIS Area measurement A B F C D E 600 m Source : Google Maps
4. 4. Formulation <ul><li>Area of rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>Area = Length x Width </li></ul><ul><li>Area of triangular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area = ½ Length x Width </li></ul></ul>What total Area of Caird Park ?
5. 5. Area A and B <ul><li>Area A = 550 x 375  206250 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area B = 1100 x 300  330000 m² </li></ul>Source : Google Maps
6. 6. Area C, D and E <ul><li>Area C = ½ 550 x 600  175000 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area D = ½ 300 x 50  7500 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area E = ½ 250 x 50  6250 m² </li></ul>Source : Google Maps
7. 7. Area F <ul><li>Area F = ½ 1050 x 250  131250 m² </li></ul>Source : Google Maps <ul><li>Area A = 206250 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area B = 330000 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area C = 175000 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area D = 7500 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area E = 6250 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Area F = 131250 m² </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 846250 m² Approx True ???? </li></ul>
8. 8. So what is wrong ? Area C = 165000 m²
9. 9. 4. Six Key elements of map design ? <ul><li>Frame Of Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Projection Used </li></ul><ul><li>Feature to be Mapped </li></ul><ul><li>Level Of generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul>
10. 10. Question ? <ul><li>How far does the car move ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it move ? </li></ul>1 5 7 N m
11. 11. Question : The Frame reference Heywood, et.al, An Introduction to GIS, p255
12. 12. What are the 6 key maps design elements Frame Reference <ul><li>A map is scale model of the real world so it needs some form of spatial reference so the user can fix its location in the real world . Mechanism that can be used to provide this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A grid with lines (representing latitude longitude) or planar (x.y) co-ordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A north arrow in conjunction with a scale bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An inset map </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. What are the 6 key maps design elements Projection Used <ul><li>Map projections can radically affect measurements such as area or distance. Small scale maps of larger areas are more affected by the projection method. For maps of large areas, decision need to be made regarding what is most important (i.e. area, distance, directions, lines of true scale etc) </li></ul>Heywood, et.al, An Introduction to GIS, p47
14. 14. Question Heywood, et.al, An Introduction to GIS, p255 Projection
15. 15. What are the 6 key maps design elements Features to be mapped <ul><li>Maps are by definition a communication device for spatial information, so it is important that the map shows only what is necessary to get that intended message . It should contain no distractions </li></ul>Source : Google Maps
16. 16. What are the 6 key maps design elements Level of generalisation <ul><li>Balance of detail is critical. Too much – map is difficult to read, too little – map may be missing vital information. Deciding what to ‘leave in’ or ‘leave out’ is a difficult choice. (For example, in designing a road map – which smaller roads would you leave out? This would depend greatly on why you are mapping the roads... What makes an individual road more or less significant than another ? In all depends on context. </li></ul>Source : Google Maps
17. 17. What are the 6 key maps design elements Annotation <ul><li>Annotation is textual and graphical information that labels the maps, details the features or provides supplementary information. It should be appropriate and economic. Examples of annotation: numerical guides, frame of reference (also a form of annotation), map title, legend. </li></ul>
18. 18. Question Heywood, et.al, An Introduction to GIS, p255 Annotation
19. 19. What are the 6 key maps design elements Symbolism <ul><li>Symbols used on the map to represent the real world . Symbols on a map are either, points, lines or areas. Shape and pattern of symbols should also bear some relation to the feature being represented. Whatever symbols are decided upon, a ‘legend’ or ‘key’ must be provided so the users understand what they are looking at . Colours are also important. They should where possible match the real world i.e. Rivers should be blue, forests - green so as not to confuse users. If you coloured a river black, users may think it’s a road </li></ul>http://www.simmons.edu/i/maps/mapOverviewDetails.png
20. 20. Thank You