Tracking Motivation of
   Lead Users and Non-Lead Users
          in Workshops on
     Sustainability Innovations?
       ...
Sustainable Innovations

We are part of a joint research project:

Fostering sustainable consumption by integrating
users ...
Sustainable Innovations

                        passive houses

User integration        bioplastics
in sustainability
inn...
User Integration

                                                                               Innovation
              ...
Motivation
In user integration motivational issues become apparent:
(1) Why do people participate in user integration with...
Lead-userness
Lead userness
Lead users are found a highly innovative source of new
product development (e.g., Hippel, 1986...
Research Aims
(1) Identify incentives to participate in user integration
    workshops on sustainability innovations
(2) T...
Method – Participants
- Twelve workshops with a total of
- 165 participants in
- three marketplaces (passive houses, biopl...
Method – Procedure
                                              Open Innovation Incentive
                               ...
Method – Open Innovation Incentive
Questionnaire
Incentives           Items: I am taking part …
                          ...
Method – Open Innovation Incentive
Questionnaire
Incentives              Items: I am taking part …
                       ...
Method – Flow Experience
Flow Experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975):
- High concentration
- Activity guided by an inner logi...
Method – Mood
Mood Adjective Checklist (UWIST; Matthews et al 1990) -
                                              al.,
E...
Method – 3 Components of Motivation
3 Components of Motivation (Kehr 2004):
                              (Kehr,
affective...
Results – Incentives

    Achievement
    Identification
       Affiliation
         Altruism
           Ability
Tangible ...
Results – Incentives & Lead Userness
                       Lead-Userness
                         Lead User      Non-Lead...
Results – Incentives & Lead Userness
                       Lead-Userness
                         Lead User      Non-Lead...
Results – Incentives & Lead Userness
                            Lead-Userness
                   Achieve- Identi-   Affil...
Results – Incentives & Lead Userness
                            Lead-Userness
                   Achieve- Identi-   Affil...
Results – Incentives & Lead Userness
                       Lead-Userness
                        Affiliation
    6



   ...
Results – Incentives & Lead Userness
                       Lead-Userness
(1) Identification with the company/product and ...
Results – Motivational Indicators
                         Energetiz-
                             g          Energetiz-
 ...
Results – Motivational Indicators
                                            Energetization 2
                           ...
Results – Motivational Indicators
                                                  Flow 2
                               ...
Results – Motivational Indicators
(1) Lead users are more energetic at the end of the
    workshop
(2) Lead users are more...
Conclusions
Considering motivation:
Integration of lead users into sustainable product
    development could be recommende...
Thank you




Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr   27
Literatur
Engeser, S. & Rheinberg, F. (2008). Flow, moderators of challenge-skill balance and performance. Motivation
and ...
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Tracking motivation engeser steiner kehr emac 2010 with authorization to IntoTheMinds.com

  1. 1. Tracking Motivation of Lead Users and Non-Lead Users in Workshops on Sustainability Innovations? Stefan Engeser, Susanne Steiner & Hugo M. Kehr Technische Universität München European Marketing Academy Conference 2010 - Track 4: Innovation and New Product Development - p Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 1
  2. 2. Sustainable Innovations We are part of a joint research project: Fostering sustainable consumption by integrating users into sustainability innovations y www.nanu-projekt.de Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 2
  3. 3. Sustainable Innovations passive houses User integration bioplastics in sustainability innovations smart mobility t bilit cross-cutting issues: motivation Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 3
  4. 4. User Integration Innovation high Toolkits workshops p h tegration n Communities Idea Competitions Lev of Int Weblog Focus groups Dialogue vel Service p phone low Inquiries Online Feedback low l high Level of Interaction Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 4
  5. 5. Motivation In user integration motivational issues become apparent: (1) Why do people participate in user integration without (adequate) payment? (2) Are users still motivated during innovation processes? Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 5
  6. 6. Lead-userness Lead userness Lead users are found a highly innovative source of new product development (e.g., Hippel, 1986; Lüthje et al., 2005; Morrison, et al., 2004, Schreier & Prügl, 2008) Lead Users: (1) Are ahead of the market trend (2) Have high level of expertise (3) Expect benefits of innovation Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 6
  7. 7. Research Aims (1) Identify incentives to participate in user integration workshops on sustainability innovations (2) Tracking motivation during innovation workshops (3) Testing the hypotheses that lead users see more incentives and showing higher motivation during the workshop Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 7
  8. 8. Method – Participants - Twelve workshops with a total of - 165 participants in - three marketplaces (passive houses, bioplastics, smart mobility). mobilit ) - Six workshops consisted of lead users only, and six of non lead non-lead users only only. - M = 40.1 years (SD = 16.7). - 44 % of the participants were women. p p Lead user selected according to: - Dissatisfaction with existing products - Expected benefits of innovations - Knowledge Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 8
  9. 9. Method – Procedure Open Innovation Incentive Friday 5 pm Questionnaire (OIIQ) Phase 1: Introduction Motivational indicators: Phase 2: Generation of ideas Flow, Mood, 3 components of motivation Phase 3: Selection of ideas Motivational indicators: Phase 4: Elaboration of ideas Flow, Mood, 3 components of Saturday 5 pm motivation ( (Commitment, Quality of ideas…) , y ) Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 9
  10. 10. Method – Open Innovation Incentive Questionnaire Incentives Items: I am taking part … gp Altruism … to help the company to develop new services and products Identification Id tifi ti … id tif myself with the company identify lf ith th Discontent … angry about the current offers. Tangible Rewards … getting compensation. compensation Career … it looks good for my CV Incentives are based on extensive literature research; e.g.,: Simon et al. (1998), Wu et al. (2007), Hertel et al. (2003). Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 10
  11. 11. Method – Open Innovation Incentive Questionnaire Incentives Items: I am taking part … gp Altruism … to help the company to develop new services and products Identification Id tifi ti … id tif myself with the company identify lf ith th Discontent … angry about the current offers. Tangible Rewards … getting compensation. compensation Career … it looks good for my CV Achievement … want to extend my knowledge Power … want to impress others Affiliation … like to be with other people Ability … because I am a creative person Additional incentives are based on motivational psychology; cf. Heckhausen & Heckhausen 2008 Heckhausen, 2008. Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 11
  12. 12. Method – Flow Experience Flow Experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975): - High concentration - Activity guided by an inner logic - Change in the experience of time - Merging of the self and the activity / loss of self-consciousness Flow-Short-Scale (10 Items; e g Engeser & Rheinberg, 2008) e.g., Rheinberg “I am totally absorbed in what I am doing” “I feel that I have everything under control” y g “I am completely lost in thought” Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 12
  13. 13. Method – Mood Mood Adjective Checklist (UWIST; Matthews et al 1990) - al., Energetization : How do you feel in the moment … active dynamic shiftless (recoded) inactive ( i ti (recoded) d d) … Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 13
  14. 14. Method – 3 Components of Motivation 3 Components of Motivation (Kehr 2004): (Kehr, affective preferences “I find participating in the workshop fun” cognitive preferences “It is important for me to come up with good results” perceived abilities “I have the abilities needed to solve the I problems in the workshop” Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 14
  15. 15. Results – Incentives Achievement Identification Affiliation Altruism Ability Tangible Rewards g Discontent Power 1 2 3 4 5 6 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 15
  16. 16. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Lead User Non-Lead User M M Achievement 5.39 4.75 Identification 5.27 4.65 Affiliation 5.15 4.47 Altruism Alt i 5.23 5 23 4.39 4 39 Ability 4.82 3.62 Tangible Rewards 3.6 3.34 Discontent 3.81 2.69 Power 3.57 2.67 Career 3.22 2.37 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 16
  17. 17. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Lead User Non-Lead User M M r d Achievement 5.39 4.75 .39** 0.85 Identification 5.27 4.65 .29** 0.59 Affiliation 5.15 4.47 .29** 0.59 Altruism Alt i 5.23 5 23 4.39 4 39 .37** 37** 0.78 0 78 Ability 4.82 3.62 .50** 1.15 + Tangible Rewards 3.6 3.34 .13 0.26 Discontent 3.81 2.69 .36** 0.77 Power 3.57 2.67 .38** 0.82 Career 3.22 2.37 .26** 0.53 + p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 17
  18. 18. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Achieve- Identi- Affili- Altruism Ability Dis- Power Career ment fication ation content β β β β β β β β Lead-Userness a .39** Age -.10 Gender .05 i house b Passive h P .03 03 Mobility c .07 Lead-Userness x ead Use ess -.10 Passive house Lead-Userness x .03 Mobility a = lead user vs non-lead user vs. * p < .05, ** p < .01 , b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 18
  19. 19. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Achieve- Identi- Affili- Altruism Ability Dis- Power Career ment fication ation content β β β β β β β β Lead-Userness a .39** .29** .29** .37** .49** .37** .38** .28** Age -.10 .09 -.11 -.08 -.16 -.05 -.40** -.45** Gender .05 .04 .09 .05 .00 .06 .02 .04 i house b Passive h P .03 03 -.03 03 .16 16 -.18 18 .04 04 -.20* 20* -.05 05 .06 06 Mobility c .07 .09 .05 .38** .24* .06 .35** -.11 Lead-Userness x ead Use ess -.10 -.03 -.08 .06 -.07 .01 .05 .05 Passive house Lead-Userness x .03 -.09 .17* .03 -.09 -.07 .13 -.09 Mobility a = lead user vs non-lead user vs. * p < .05, ** p < .01 , b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 19
  20. 20. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness Affiliation 6 5 4 3 Lead User Non-Lead User Mobility Others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 20
  21. 21. Results – Incentives & Lead Userness Lead-Userness (1) Identification with the company/product and wanting to help finding new innovations (altruism) are strong incentives. (2) Additionally, learning something new / accomplish something difficult (achievement) and being with others is important too. (3) Lead users see higher incentives to participate in the workshops. (4) We found small differences between the marketplaces. k t l Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 21
  22. 22. Results – Motivational Indicators Energetiz- g Energetiz- g Flow 1 Flow 2 ation 1 ation 2 Lead-Userness a .04 .25* .12 .25* Achievement A hi t .11 11 .07 07 .10 10 .15 15 Identification .18* .26* .18* .26* Affiliation .10 -.05 .18* .06 Altruism .22* .23* .29* .35* Ability .13 .00 .18* .12 Tangible Rewards -.12 -.24* .02 -.06 Discontent .08 .16 .13 .12 Power P .05 05 -.07 07 .09 09 .08 08 Career -.06 -.27* -.03 -.12 a = lead user vs non lead user lead-user vs. non-lead * p < .05 05 Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 22
  23. 23. Results – Motivational Indicators Energetization 2 β Lead-Userness a .20* Age .30** Gender -.07 Energetization 1 .29 29** Passive house b -.10 Mobility c -.08 Lead-Userness x Passive house -.01 Lead-Userness x Mobility -.06 * p < .05, ** p < .01 a = lead user vs. non-lead user b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 23
  24. 24. Results – Motivational Indicators Flow 2 β Lead-Userness a .23** Age .08 08 Gender .04 Flow 1 .29 29** Passive house b -.11 Mobility c -.01 Lead-Userness x Passive house .05 Lead-Userness x Mobility .05 a = lead user vs. non-lead user * p < .05, ** p < .01 b = dummy variable: passive houses vs. others c = dummy variable: with mobility vs. others Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 24
  25. 25. Results – Motivational Indicators (1) Lead users are more energetic at the end of the workshop (2) Lead users are more focused on the task (flow experience) (3) We found no differences between the marketplaces Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 25
  26. 26. Conclusions Considering motivation: Integration of lead users into sustainable product development could be recommended Limitation: High motivation is a necessary condition for achievement, but not a sufficient condition Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 26
  27. 27. Thank you Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 27
  28. 28. Literatur Engeser, S. & Rheinberg, F. (2008). Flow, moderators of challenge-skill balance and performance. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 158-172. Heckhausen, J. & Heckhausen, H. (2008). Motivation and action. Cambridge: University Press. Hertel, G., Niedner, S. & Herrmann, S. (2003). Motivation of software developers in open source projects: an internet-based survey of contributors to the Linux kernel. Research Policy, 32, 1159-1177. Kehr, H. M. (2004). Kehr H M (2004) Integrating implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities: The compensatory motives motives model of work motivation und volition. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 479-499. Lüthje, C. Herstatt, C., and von Hippel, E. (2005). User-Innovators and “Local” Information: The case of mountain biking. Research Policy, 34, 951-965. Matthews, G., Jones, D. M. & Chamberlain, A. G. (1990). Refining the measurement of mood: The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 17-42. Morrison, P. D., Roberts, J. H., & Midgley, D. F. (2004). The nature of lead users and measurement of leading edge status. Research Policy, 33(2), 351–362. g g y ( ) Schreier, M. & Prügl. R. (2008). Extending lead-user theory: antecedents and consequences of consumers’ lead userness. Product Innovation Management, 25, 331-346. Simon, B., Loewy, M., Stürmer, S., Weber, U., Freytag, P., Habig, C., Kampmeier, C. & Spahlinger, P. (1998). Collective identification and social movement participation Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 participation. 74, 646–658. Von Hippel, E. (1986). Lead users: a source of novel product concepts. Management Science, 32, 791-806. Wu, C.-G., Gerlach, J. H., Young, C. E. (2007. An empirical analysis of open source software developers’ motivations and continuance intentions. Information & Management, 44, 253-262. Innovation and New Product Development - Engeser, Steiner & Kehr 28

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