Verb tenses3. Present perfect• S + have/has + V-past participle• S + have/has + just/ already + V-past participle• S + have/has + not + V-past participle + yet• OR Have/Has + S + V-past participle + yet?
Verb tenses• Gone to and been to• For + a period of time and since + the start of a period• It’s the (first) time something has happened.4. Present perfect continuous• S + have/has been + V-ing
Verb tenses5. Past simple• S + V (past simple)• It’s (a long time/ two years etc) since something happened.6. Past continuous• S + was/were + V-ing7. Past perfect• S + had + V-past participle8. Future simple• S + will/shall + V
Verb tenses9. Future continuous• S + will be + V-ing10. Future perfect• S + will have + V-past participle11. Used to + V
Modal verbs• Can, could, must, may, might, etc• Must is similar to have to, BUT mustn’t and don’t have to are completely different• Needn’t and don’t/doesn’t need to are the same.
If conditionals1. 1st conditional• If + S + V (present simple), S + will + V.2. 2nd conditional• If + S + V (past simple), S + would + V.3. 3rd conditional• If + S + V (past perfect), S + would have + V (past participle).
Passive• To be + V (past participle)He built this house in 1980 (active)→ This house was built in 1980 (passive)• Am/is/are + V-ing → Am/is/are + being + V (past participle)• Have/get + something + V (past participle)
Reported speech• My parents are very well. → She said that her parents were very well.• I want to buy a car → She told me that she wanted to buy a car.• ‘Stay in bed for a few days’ the doctor said to me → The doctor told me to stay in bed for a few days.
Question tags• Positive sentence + negative tag Kate will be here soon, won’t she? There was a lot of traffic, wasn’t there?• Negative sentence + positive tag They don’t like us, do they? Tom doesn’t look well today, does he?
Adjectives & Adverbs• Adjectives ending in –ing and –ed (e.g. boring/bored, interesting/ interested, surprising/surprised, tiring/tired, e tc)• Many adverbs are formed from an adjectives + -ly.E.g. quick/quickly, careful/carefully, bad/badly, hea vy/heavily
Adjectives & Adverbs (Comparison)• er for short words and two-syllable ones that end in –y (y →ier); more … for longer wordsE.g. cheap/ cheaper, short/shorter, lucky/luckier, happy/h appier expensive/more expensive, serious/more serious• (Not) as … asE.g. He isn’t as old as he looks. Or I got here as fast as I could.
Adjectives & Adverbs (Superlatives)• -est for short words and most … for longer onesE.g. longest, hottest, most difficult, most interesting• Irregular adjectives/adverbsE.g. Good/well – better – best, bad/badly – worse – worst, far – further/farther – furthest/farthest
Preposition (time & position)• For + a period of time, during + noun & while S+V• At, on and in (time)• On time and in time• At the end and in the end• In/at/on (position + other uses)
Conjunctions• Although/ though/even though, S + V• In spite of / despite + noun/pronoun or V- ing, S + V• Unless• As long as/ so long as/ provided (that)/ providing (that)• As = because = since• As if / as though + S + V
Noun/ Adjective/Verb + Preposition• Noun + PrepositionE.g. a demand/ need for, an advantage of, a cause of, a picture of, an increase/ a fall in, a solution to, a relationship with, etc
Noun/ Adjective/Verb + Preposition• Adjective + PrepositionE.g. nice/ kind/ good/ polite/ stupid/ silly of somebodyNice/ polite/ generous/ rude/ cruel to somebodyAngry/ annoyed/ furious about smt/ with smb for doing smtSorry about/ for, afraid of, fond of, aware of, full of, tired of, good/bad at, similar to, different from, interested in, famous for, responsible for etc
• Verb + PrepositionE.g. talk to smb, listen to, look at, stare at, laugh at, talk about, read about, take care of, ask smb for smt, apply for , wait for , look for, look after, dream about, dream of (= imagine), think about (= concentrate smb’s mind), think of (= give opinion)Accuse smb of , approve of , die of , consist of , pay for , thank smb for, apologise to smb for, suffer from , protect smb/smt from
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