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He tuan hoan tham khao 2

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He tuan hoan tham khao 2

  1. 1. Figure 20.20b
  2. 2. Figure 20.20c
  3. 3. Figure 20.20d
  4. 4. Figure 20.21b
  5. 5. Figure 20.22b
  6. 6. Figure 20.22c
  7. 7. Figure 20.22d
  8. 8. Figure 18.1a
  9. 9. Figure 18.1b
  10. 10. Figure 18.3
  11. 11. Figure 18.4a
  12. 12. Figure 18.4b
  13. 13. Figure 18.4c
  14. 14. Figure 18.5
  15. 15. Figure 18.6
  16. 16. Figure 18.7
  17. 17. Figure 18.3
  18. 18. Figure 20.1ab
  19. 19. Figure 20.1c
  20. 20. Figure 20.2
  21. 21. Figure 20.3
  22. 22. Figure 20.3
  23. 23. Figure 20.4a
  24. 24. Figure 20.4b
  25. 25. Figure 20.4c
  26. 26. Figure 20.7
  27. 27. Figure 20.9
  28. 28. Figure 20.12
  29. 29. Figure 20.17a
  30. 30. Figure 20.18b
  31. 31. <ul><li>Why do we need a circulatory system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supplies in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fuel (sugars) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waste out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>circulatory system </li></ul></ul></ul>Feeding Energy Needs
  32. 32. Simple organisms <ul><li>When your body is only 2-cell layers thick, you can get supplies in and waste out just through diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all cells within easy reach of fluid </li></ul></ul>Hydra Jellyfish
  33. 33. Complex organisms <ul><li>Circulatory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>made up of 3 parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tissues & cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>arteries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>veins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>red blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plasma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Vertebrate Heart <ul><li>4-Chambered heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>atria (atrium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thin wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collection chamber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>receive blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thick wall pump </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pump blood out </li></ul></ul></ul>right atrium left atrium right ventricle left ventricle
  35. 36. Evolution of circulatory system fish amphibian reptiles birds & mammals A A V V V V V A A A A A V 2 chamber 3 chamber 3 chamber 4 chamber Not everyone has a 4-chambered heart
  36. 37. Lub-dub, lub-dub <ul><li>4 valves in the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flaps of connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent backflow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closing of valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lub” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>force blood against closed AV valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dub” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>force of blood against semilunar valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart murmur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leaking valve causes hissing sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood squirts backward through valve </li></ul></ul>AV SL AV
  37. 38. Blood vessels arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins artery arterioles venules veins
  38. 39. Major arteries pulmonary artery pulmonary artery = to lungs aorta carotid = to head to brain & left arm to right arm coronary arteries to body
  39. 40. Coronary artery bypass bypass surgery
  40. 41. Electrical signals <ul><li>heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses </li></ul><ul><li>signal also transmitted to skin = EKG </li></ul>allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries
  41. 42. Structure-function relationship <ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very thin walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows diffusion of materials across capillary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, food, waste </li></ul></ul></ul>body cell O 2 food waste CO 2
  42. 43. Hemoglobin <ul><li>Protein which carries O 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 hemoglobins in 1 red blood cell </li></ul></ul>O 2 O 2 O 2 O 2
  43. 44. Cardiovascular health <ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high animal fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exercise & lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of exercise </li></ul></ul></ul>bypass surgery
  44. 45. Figure 21.1 A Comparison of a Typical Artery and a Typical Vein Figure 21.1
  45. 46. Figure 21.4 Capillary Structure Figure 21.4
  46. 47. Figure 21.5 The Organization of a Capillary Bed Figure 21.5a, b
  47. 48. Figure 21.6 The Function of Valves in the Venous System Figure 21.6
  48. 49. Figure 21.7 The Distribution of Blood in the Cardiovascular System Figure 21.7
  49. 50. Figure 21.8 An Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology Figure 21.8
  50. 51. Figure 21.10 Pressures within the Cardiovascular System Figure 21.10
  51. 52. Figure 21.10 Pressures within the Cardiovascular System Figure 21.10
  52. 53. Figure 21.12 Capillary Filtration Figure 21.12
  53. 54. Figure 21.12 Capillary Filtration Figure 21.12
  54. 55. Figure 21.13 Forces Acting across Capillary Walls Figure 21.13
  55. 56. Figure 21.14 Homeostatic Adjustments that Compensate for a Reduction in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Figure 21.14
  56. 57. Figure 21.14 Homeostatic Adjustments that Compensate for a Reduction in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Figure 21.14
  57. 58. Figure 21.15 Baroreceptor Reflexes of the Carotid and Aortic Sinuses Figure 21.15
  58. 59. Figure 21.16 The Chemoreceptor Reflexes Figure 21.16
  59. 60. Figure 21.17 The Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume Figure 21.17a
  60. 61. Figure 21.17 The Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume Figure 21.17b
  61. 62. Figure 21.35 Fetal Circulation Figure 21.35a, b

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