He tieu hoa p6 (anh)

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He tieu hoa p6 (anh)

  1. 8. Campbell; Fig.41.12a
  2. 9. Campbell; Fig.41.12b
  3. 10. Campbell; Fig.41.12c  Highly reliant on digestive system to remain healthy  Cannot afford to store heavy materials in body for lengthy period
  4. 12. Lignin Cellulose
  5. 24. Rumen & Reticulum Abomassum Omassum Fermentation Filter True digestive stomach To intestine pH = 1 - 2 Mouth
  6. 25. Fungi Protozoa Bacteria
  7. 26. Foregut fermenters: * * Both have enlarged, multi-chambered foreguts *
  8. 27. Hindgut fermenters cecum * * Enlarged hindgut (a big S. American rodent)
  9. 28. The most primitive 蠑螈 泄殖腔 嗉囊 沙囊 Fig. 21.5 One-way digestive tracts Specialization in different regions
  10. 33. Fig. 21.17 The pancreatic and bile ducts empty into the duodenum
  11. 34. Fig. 21.20 Nitrogenous wastes
  12. 36. Fig. 21.26
  13. 37. Fig. 21.27 Osmoregulation in elasmobranchs
  14. 38. Fig. 21.31 The mammalian urinary system
  15. 40. Examples of modified incisors
  16. 42. Rumen (Punch)
  17. 43. Reticulum (Hardware Stomach or Tripe)
  18. 44. Omasum (manyplies)
  19. 47. Sheep liver fluke
  20. 48. 8.8
  21. 49. 8.9a and b
  22. 50. 8.11
  23. 51. 8.12
  24. 52. Tapeworm scolex The scolex is equipped with a combination of suckers and hooks that enable it to grip onto its host’s intestines. Hooks Suckers
  25. 53. 8.14
  26. 54. 8.15
  27. 55. 8.16 Cysticerci in human brain
  28. 56. 8.18 Internal structure of female ribbon worm (above). Nemertean with proboscis extended (right)
  29. 57. 8.19 Baseodiscus mexicanus a nemertean from the Galapagos Islands
  30. 58. 8.20 Gnathostomula jenneri
  31. 59. <ul><li>The digestive system of monogastric animals </li></ul>Anatomy of Digestive System
  32. 60. Anatomy of Digestive System
  33. 61. Anatomy of Digestive System
  34. 62. <ul><li>Ruminant GI tracts </li></ul>Anatomy of Digestive System
  35. 63. Anatomy of Digestive System
  36. 64. Anatomy of Digestive System
  37. 66. Structure of Cellulose Fig. 5.7 Glucose occurs in two conformations,  and  . In cellulose, every other glucose is “upside down” making it impossible for amylase (enzyme found in animals) to digest it. Very few animals have evolved the enzyme cellulase , but many microbes have this enzyme.
  38. 67. Digestive System Chapter 14 Figure 14.1 Pharynx • Passageway for food and air • Participates in swallowing Esophagus • Moves food from pharynx to stomach Salivary glands • Saliva moistens food • Bicarbonate maintains pH • Amylase digests starch • Lysozyme inhibits bacteria ACCESSORY ORGANS: Liver • Produces bile • Performs various functions associated with processing and storing nutrients Pancreas • Secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine • Secretes bicarbonate into small intestine to neutralize stomach acid Gallbladder • Stores and concentrates bile Mouth • Teeth chew food • Tongue positions and tastes food ORGANS: Appendix • No known digestive function Stomach • Stores and mixes food • Begins chemical digestion of protein by enzymes and acid • Regulates delivery to the small intestine Anus • Expels undigested material Rectum • Passageway for feces Sigmoid colon • Stores feces Large intestine • Absorbs the last of the water and nutrients • Stores waste material Small intestine • Digests proteins, fats, and carbohydrates • Absorbs most of the water and nutrients • Secretes digestive hormones and enzymes
  39. 68. Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Wall Figure 14.2 Lumen Circular layer Longitudinal layer Lymph vessel Serosa • Connective tissue outer covering • Protects and anchors the digestive tract Mucosa • Mucous membrane layer • Lines the digestive tract Submucosa • Connective tissue layer • Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves Muscularis • Two layers of smooth muscle • Responsible for motility of the digestive tract Vein Artery Nerve
  40. 69. Motility: Peristalsis Figure 14.3a
  41. 70. Motility: Segmentation Figure 14.3b
  42. 71. Salivary Glands Figure 14.5
  43. 72. Swallowing Figure 14.6a
  44. 73. Swallowing Figure 14.6b
  45. 74. Structure of the Stomach Wall Figure 14.7a–b
  46. 75. The Stomach Figure 14.7
  47. 76. Peristalsis Figure 14.8
  48. 77. The Wall of the Small Intestine Figure 14.9a–b
  49. 78. The Wall of the Small Intestine Figure 14.9c
  50. 79. Accessory Organs: Aid Digestion and Absorption Figure 14.10 Esophagus Liver • Produces bile (water and electrolytes, cholesterol, bile salts, lecithin, and pigments) Gallbladder • Stores and concentrates bile • Delivers bile to the duodenum via the common bile duct Pancreas • Secretes enzymes (proteases, amylase, lipase) • Produces sodium bicarbonate • Delivers these products to the duodenum via ducts Stomach Pancreatic duct Common bile duct Duodenum
  51. 80. Accessory Organs: Aid Digestion and Absorption Figure 14.11
  52. 81. Large Intestine Figure 14.12 Sigmoid colon Descending colon External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle) Anus Anal canal Rectum Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle) Appendix Cecum Ileocecal valve Ascending colon Transverse colon Small intestine
  53. 82. Absorption of Proteins and Carbohydrates Figure 14.13
  54. 83. Absorption of Fats Figure 14.14
  55. 84. <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric Secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory organs- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pancreas, liver, gall bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and Nutrients </li></ul>
  56. 85. Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display .
  57. 86. <ul><li>General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal </li></ul><ul><li>A. The alimentary canal is a muscular tube that passes through the body's ventral cavity. </li></ul>Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display .
  58. 94. <ul><li> Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>A. The pancreas has an exocrine function of producing pancreatic juice that aids digestion. </li></ul>
  59. 95. <ul><li>3. Cholecystokinin from the wall of the small intestine stimulates the release of pancreatic juice with abundant digestive enzymes. </li></ul>
  60. 99. Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display .
  61. 102. Goblet cells
  62. 104. <ul><li>Large Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>A. The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes and forms and stores feces. </li></ul>Copyright  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display .
  63. 108. Nutrients: Utilized or Stored Until Needed Figure 14.15
  64. 109. Food Guide Pyramid Figure 14.16

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