THE CONCEPT OF ZEROThe concept of zero was created by the Babylonians and the Mayas but the Indians were the ones who invented thesymbol of the number zero because in their culture “to be” and “not to be” were set on the same level. The Arabsdiffused it in China and Europe.“Zero” stands for nothing. In the western philosophy the concept of nothing opposed to the concept of infinitycontinued to obsess thinkers and writers like a famous Romantic poet, Giacomo Leopardi, who wrote "the origin ofthings and of God himself, is nothingness".“Zero” is a concept that the whole world has in common and can be considered a good example against xenophobia.Zero is perfect! Look at it and you will see nothing, but if you look through zero more deeply you will see acompletely new world. TOGETHER INFINITY JOINED TO IN PEACE NOTHING FROM
PEYO YAVOROV SCHOOL - BULGARIA Peyo Yavorov school in Varna is situated in one of the biggest housing complexes called Vladislav Varnenchik. It includes elementary, middle and high school levels. The students are aged 7 to 19. Two years ago the school celebrated its 30-th anniversary. The school offers a variety of facilities – four computer rooms, three gyms, a fitness room, a concert hall, a library, a school museum, aswimming pool. The students can attend extra-curricular clubs like Ecology, a choir, Cheerleaders, basketball, football and handball teams.Peyo Yavorov school was the first school in Varna region which was awarded the internationalprize Eco Schools Green Flag in 2000. Many eco projects have been held so far. The schoolcommunity also works on projects in other areas aiming at developing student’s personalityand protecting the physical and the mental health of the children. Еco Classroom The Bread Day Folk Celebration A Swimming Contest
MY SCHOOL - ITALY Istituto magistrale statale`Francesco Angeloni`F.Angeloni Institute is located in a town of small dimension, with a long historical past. The urbanarea occupies the southern part of Umbria and has represented, during the period of industrialrevolution, a national pole of the great steel and chemical industry. Unfortunately, nowadays because ofthe problems of the steel industry in the context of the international globalization, Terni is crossed by acrisis that makes all the area exposed to phenomena of occupational decrement. Engaged in the searchof an alternative economic development, the town lives a crisis of identity looking for a new model ofdevelopment. The town now is a depressed area and it receives incentives, typical of the industrialareas in crisis, addressed towards tourism, and movie production ( “La vita è bella”, Oscar movie byRoberto Benigni ,was in fact produced in Terni ). Also in the technical literature, the “ Terni case” is ametaphor of a social-economic-cultural situation, typical of the crisis and the search for a newanthropological identity. The ‘Magistrale’ Institute, in the Italian school system, is a type of schoolmainly focused on teachers education. Because of the development of the Italian Educational System,“Angeloni” Institute evolved from the formation of the future teacher to the direction of Courses like :Music Liceum, Linguistic Liceum, Human Sciences Liceum, Dance Liceum maturing a long Europeanexperience, with the `mission focused on the Comenius partnership, careful to the teachers trainingprocess. “F.Angeloni” is also a DEURE centre strongly engaged in the planning of the Europeanprojects.
MY SCHOOL - LATVIA Oskara Kalpaka Rudbāržu primary schoolHistoryRudbarzi school was mentioned in Courland (Kurzeme) province statistics book in 1828. For thefirst time officially Rudbarzu school was mentioned in the statement of the nobility in 1849. School’s motto – poetess words dedicated to Oskars Kalpaks: - Where will I get a strenght for Latvia? - Developing yourself you become this force! (Anna Brigadere) In honour of Oskars Kalpaks, the commander of the first armed unit of Latvia, the 1st Latvian Independent Battalion, in 1919, and his soldiers there is a memorial roomOskars Kalpaks 1882-1919 at school - Heroes hall. In 2010 / 2011 school year: kindergarten children and pupils (form 1-9) – 101, teachers –20, technical staff – 11 were in our school. In a special way we celebrate the anniversary of Latvia. On the 18th of November we gather at the school, light hundreds of candles in the windows and around the building, too. We listen to music and enjoy fireworks . Students participate in international Comenius projects. Thereby they have possibilities to improve their personal development very much.
NAISIAI BASIC SCHOOLThis is Naisiai basic Twenty-one teacherschool which is work in our school.located in Naisiai The headmaster isvillage, Šiauliaidistrict. In 1904 Vytautas Šimkus andV.Zubov was the the deputy is Stasėfirst man in Naisiai Grušienė.who opened theschool. In 2004school celebrated a100 yearanniversary. Ourschool consists oftwo buildings. Oneis wooden schoolwhere young pupils,from 0 to 4 classes, Students feel safe and happy in ourlearn and a new school so they can choose theirbrick school for 5-10 favourite activity like dancing, riteclasses students. Inthe new school also singing, painting and other things. Wethere is a canteen, a have a tradition at school that everycloakroom, a gym, class from 5 to 10 grade must prepareheadmaster and one event in a year. These event eventsteachers’ rooms. involve all students in this fun funnyAbout 100 students activity and make our school morefrom Naisiai and interesting and attractive.nearby villages studyin our school. Ourschool has its ownflag and emblem.
MY SCHOOL - ROMANIAThe School 26 was founded in 1889 on Ion Mos Street, next to the church with the samename. From 1960 the school develops its activity in the building situated on Cobilitei Street. Our school has classrooms and laboratries where the students learn not only generalknowledge but also how to build their future in a Romanian society in permanent change. In our school functions a kindergarden and a Students’ Club where the children candevelop their skills in different fields.
ZŠ akad. Jura Hronca,Zakarpatská 12, Rožňava ABOUT US 456 pupils ACTUAL AGE STRUCTURE 22 classes Primary level : 6 – 9- year-old pupils 41 pedagogical employees 18 non-pedagogical employees Secondary level : 10 – 15- year-old pupils A canteen, 2 gyms, a fitness 15 special classroomsHEADMASTER OF THE DEPUTY HEADMISTRESS DEPUTY HEADMISTRESS SCHOOL FOR PRIMARY LEVEL FOR SECONDARY LEVEL RNDr. JÁN DŽUBÁK Mgr. ILDIKÓ STRINKOVÁ Mgr. ADRIENA KOREŇOVÁ certification: Maths certification: Primary Education certification: Slovak Physics Ethics Civics TEAM OF THE TEACHERS SCHOOL PROJECTS Infovek Open school Socrates – international project School encouraging health Reconstruction and modernisation of the school Wider introduction of ICT into teaching Commenius – school partnerships TECHNICAL CONDITIONS 3 PC classrooms with 80 PCCOMPLETE RECONSTRUCTION AND MODERNISATION altogether 60 school notebooks for work OF THE SCHOOL and study use 4 interactive whiteboards 13 dataprojectors Photo and video equipment Wi-Fi Internet conection in the whole school building
MY SCHOOL GAZİ PRIMARY SCHOOL Our school was established in 1962. This year we are going the celebrate 50thEstablishment Anniversary. Our school is in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. Gazi PrimarySchool lies within the Yenimahalle District.
VARNA - BULGARIA Varna is the third biggest town in Bulgaria and is situated by the Black sea coast. Varna is a cultural and tourist centre. According to a national survey it is the best place for living in Bulgaria. Lots of tourists visit Varna especially in summer to have their holiday in the hotels nearby. The town history can be traced back to a period of 7000 years ago. There are a lot of tourist sights which include the Archeological museum, The Dolphinarium, the Roman baths, the cathedral, the sea garden. Varna summer is a famous music and theatrefestival that takes place here every summer. Varna is an industrial city. There is a ship repair yard, a big port, chemicalplants. Varna has an international airport and a passenger port.The Cathedral The Royal Residence Evksinograd The TheatreThe Archeological museum The Palace of Culture and Sports The AquariumThe Sea Garden The Sea Garden The Swimming Pool
MY TOWN - ITALY Our Our Town : TERNITerni is a town in southern Umbria, central Italy, capital of the province ofTerni, located in the plain of the Nera river. It is 104 km (65 mi) N of Rome.The town was probably founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians, ina territory inhabited as early as the Bronze Age. In the 3rd century BC it wasconquered by the Romans and soon became an important municipium lying onthe Via Flaminia. The Roman name was Interamna, meaning "between tworivers". During the Roman Empire the town was enriched with several buildings,including aqueducts, walls, amphitheaters, temples and bridges.During the Middle Ages went under the reign of Longobards and after thisdirectly under the power of the Catholic Church, this up to the end of the 19thCentury when in 1861 Italy finally became a Nation under the command of kingVitttorio Emanuele II.In the 19th century Terni took advantage of the Industrial Revolution alsobecause plenty of water sources in the area. New industries included asteelwork, a foundry, as well as weapons, jute and wool factories. In 1927 Ternibecame capital of the province. The presence of important industries made it afavourite target for the Allied bombings in World War II, totalling 109 raids.Despite of this, the industrial environment increased quickly, in fact the town iscalled "the Italian Manchester".Terni has three important industrial hubs: the first one is the Stainless called AST(part of the ThyssenKrupp group) , this is a wide area located in the westernpart of Terni. In the East there is a second industrial hub with four differentchemical multinational industries. The third industrial hub is the "TERNIResearch", which produces technologies employed for green energies and buildsgreen power plants in Italy.
MY SCHOOL - LATVIA LATVIA RU DBĀRŽI Oskara Kalpaka Rudbāržu prim ary schoolThe rural municipality of Rudbārži • Status - an unit of the Skrundas self - governing territory • Centre - Rudbārži village • Area – 110 km2 • Population (in 2009) - 1099 • Density of population -10 people per km2 The white stork in Latvia symbolizes stable and happy family. Where live storks, there everything would be all right! Small Rudbārži Church 200 m from school Rudbārži municipality-house Kalnamuiža manor-house in Sieksāte
MY CITY – ŠIAULIAIThe name of the city came fromthe battle of the Sun which tookplace near Šiauliai in 1236.Seven objects of the Sun 1 81. The square of Golden Boywith the statue which showsthree symbols of the town : theSun , the Archer and the Timewhich has passed from the firsttime the name of the town was 2mentioned.2. Stained glass “The battleof the Sun“.3. The statue of Aušra. It Šiauliai is the fourthwas built in 2003 near the park. largest city inThe author of this statue is Dalia Lithuania. Every yearMatulaitė. our town celebrates its4. St. Paul and Peter’s birthday on the 22ndCathedral. It was built at the of September. Thebeginning of XVII century. On town is proud of its St.the southern wall of this church Paul’s Cathedral(8). 3you can see one of the oldestsun clocks in Lithuania whichshows the correct time.5. The memorial for Sunbattle was built for the honourof the victory of Sun battlewhich was one of the mostimportant events in the history 4of Lithuania.6. Fountain “Solar disks”.It was opened on 1st October,2006 during the 770 birthday ofŠiauliai city.7. The square of Rooster’sClock. It is in the center of thecity and welcomes the people.who come to Šiauliai. 6 7 5
My cityThis is the emblem of Katowice Spodek – a sports and music hall Theatre Silesian Stadium “Wujek” coal mine Silesia Insurgents Monument
MY TOWN - BUCHARESTBucharest is the capital city, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest cityin Romania, located in the southeast of the country, and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River.Bucharest was first mentioned in documents as early as 1459. Since then it has gone through avariety of changes, becoming the state capital of Romania in 1862 and steadily consolidating itsposition as the centre of the Romanian mass media, culture and arts. In the period between the twoWorld Wars, the citys elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest thenickname of the "Little Paris of the East" (Micul Paris). Although many buildings and districts in thehistoric centre were damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes and Nicolae Ceaușescus program ofsystematization, many survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic andcultural boom.Bucharest is the 6th largest city in the EuropeanUnion by population within city limits.Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city inRomania.Bucharest is situated in the south eastern corner ofthe Romanian Plain, in an area once covered by theVlăsiei forest, which, after it was cleared, gave way toa fertile flatland. As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to have seven hills, similarto the seven hills of Rome. Bucharests seven hills are: Mihai Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă,Cotroceni, Spirei, Văcărești and Sf. Gheorghe Nou. In the centre of the capital there is a small artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu (right picture) – surroundedby the Cișmigiu Gardens. The Cișmigiu Gardens have a rich history, being frequented by famouspoets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans of Germanarchitect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are currently the main recreationalfacility in the city centre.Besides Cișmigiu, Bucharest contains several other large parks and gardens,including HerăstrăuPark and the Botanical Garden. Herăstrău is a largepublic park located in the north of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and thesite of the Village Museum, while the Bucharests botanical garden is thelargest in Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants, many ofthem exotic; it was once a pleasure park for the royal family.Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after 1989,new suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov county.
Welcome to ROŽŇAVAThe medieval mining town of Rožňava with over 700 years history lies in the heart of North Gemer. Thetown and surrounding areas offer a wealth of experiences for tourists in all seasons of the year. Rožňavais a significant centre of tourism and a good starting point for discovering the natural beauties andhistorical sights of this wonderful part of Slovakia. By the end of the 15th century the essential characterof the town had already been created, it was based in a central square consisting of merchant’s housesand a network of narrow streets. The original medieval town square is the largest of its kind in the wholeof Slovakia and is one of the most interesting heritage sites in the town . Most of the towns architecturaland historical treasures are concentrated around the square and include: the Renaissance Watch Tower,Bishops Palace, The Convent of the Vincent order, the building of the former Mining Association. Otherwell known heritage sites include: the 14th century gothic Bishop´s Cathedral, the Evangelic Church andthe Town Hall. Visitors of the town can admire the architecture and panoramatic views across the townfrom the viewing gallery at the top of the Renaissance Watch Tower. The Mining Museum exhibits showthe history of the mining. A separate exhibition shows the natural history of the Slovak Karst area. Historical sights of Rožňava Watch Tower Memorial of Františka Plague Column Andrassy Town Hall Church and Monastery of Jesuit Church Bishop´s Cathedral Franciscans Reformed Church Medieval Burgess House Mining Museum
ANKARA My city, Ankara is the Capital City of Turkey which situated at the core of Turkey.The history of Ankara and its surroundings stretches back to the Hatti civilisation of the Bronze Age. After Hittites. Ankara has been a part of historicevents through several great civilizations, including the Phrygians, Lydians, Persians, Greek, Romans, Galatians and Ottomans. The name Ankara comes from the word Ancyra, which means anchor’. Ankara is known for its wool, goat, cat, pear and honey In 1923, the founder of Turkish Republic, M. Kemal Ataturk chose the same district to be the capital of newly founded Republic. Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Turkish Republic stands in Ankara. Ankara today is a center of history and culture. There are very notable museums to be found within Ankara, offering a broad spectrum of information on a range of different topics. In Ankara there are some sites of natural importance, such as the lakes of Golbasi, Cubuk Dam, Kurtbogazi Dam, Karagol for resting, andMount Elmadag for winter sports. In addition, Kizilcahamam is a thermal and hot springs center for places such as Ayas, Haymana and Beypazari.Central Ankara has a population of nearly 5 million. and also ,Ankara is home for the multitude of universities. Ankara has a continental climate, with cold, snowy winters due to its elevation and inland location, and hot, dry summers. Rainfall occursmostly during the spring and autumn.
BULGARIA – БЪЛГАРИЯ Bulgaria is a parliamentary industry, power engineering andrepublic in Southeast Europe with a territory of agriculture, all relying on local natural resources.110,994 square kilometers. There are 3 national parks, 9 nature parks and 55 Its ancient history has been marked by the presence nature reserves.of the Thracians, and later by the Greeks andRomans. The First Bulgarian state dates back to theseventh century. With the downfall of the SecondBulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came underOttoman rule for nearly five hundred years. Some of the main rivers running through the territory of the country are The Danube, The Maritsa, The Iskar, The Yantra. There are five mountains. The Rila mountain has the highest peak on the Balkan peninsula – Musala /2925m/ and over 219 lakes. The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast stretching for 236 miles offers wonderful beaches and calm sea.The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 resulted in the Bulgaria is the birthplace of the Cyrillic alphabetThird Bulgarian State, recognised in 1908. Shortly which was developed in 10th century. Today moreafterward, Bulgaria engaged in a series of major than 200 million people from different countries useconflicts with its neighbours and allied with Germany it.in both World Wars. In 1946 it became a communistrepublic and it was a satellite member of the WarsawPact until 1989, when the Communist Party allowedmulti-party elections. After 1990 Bulgariatransitioned to democracy and introduced free-marketcapitalism. In Antiquity Bulgarian lands were inhabited by Thracians. They left us amazing artifacts – unique tombs with murals and precious golden and silver treasures. Bulgaria is one of the biggest producers of rose oil in the world.Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, One of the famous Bulgarian folk songs is travellingthe Council of Europe. in deep space on NASA’s “Voyager”.The population of 7.36 million people ispredominantly urban and mainly concentrated in theadministrative centres of its 28 provinces. With 1.2million people, the capital Sofia is the largest city andconcentrates most commercial and cultural activities.The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy
MY COUNTRY - ITALYItaly officially the Italian Republic is located in south-central Europe. Republic, centralTo the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula Sicily, Sardinia – Peninsula,the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea – and many other smallerislands.The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are included in thenation of Italy.For centuries The capital of Italy, Rome, was the political centre of Western ,civilization as the capital of the Roman Empire. After its decline Italy would decline,endure numerous invasions by foreign peoples, from Germanic tribes such as the merousLongobards and Ostrogoths, to the Byzantines and later, the Normans among the , Normans,others. Centuries later, Italy would become the birthplace of the Renaissance, animmensely fruitful intellectual movement that would prove to be integral inshaping the subsequent course of European thought.Through much of its post-Roman history, Italy was fragmented into numerous Romankingdoms and city-states (such as the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the states ,Two Sicilies and the Duchy of Milan but it was unified in 1861, Milan), following atumultuous period in history known as " "Risorgimento" . In the late 19th century, "through World War I, and up to the World War II, Italy possessed a colonial , ,empire, which extended its rule to Libya, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Albania, , ,Rhodes, the Dodecanese and a concession in Tianjin, China.Modern Italy is a democratic republic. It has been ranked the worlds twenty twenty-third most-developed country and its Quality-of-Life Index has been ranked in the developedtop ten in the world. Our Region : UMBRIA Umbria is a region of modern central Italy. It is defined “the Green . Heart of Italy”. It’s one of the smallest Italian regions and the only peninsular region that is landlocked. Its capital is Perugia. The region was named after the Umbrian tribe, one of those who were an absorbed by the expansion of the Romans, but our region was also inhabited by The Etruscans. They were the chief enemies of the Umbrians, and the Etruscan invasionwent from the western seaboard towards the north and east eventually driving theUmbrians towards the Appennini.
"For Fatherland andFreedom"Freedom Monumenterected in 1935(Again sinceindependence in 1992,honor guard stands)
LITHUANIA Lithuanian national flag consists of three colours: yellow, green and red. 1 Parliamentary republic The coat of arms of Lithuania is Vytis. President Dalia Grybauskaitė Population 3,1 millions, area 65300km². Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania is a member of the European Lithuania(1). It has always been a Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (2004). multinational, multilingual, and multicultural European city. We have a very Lithuania is the land of old Gediminas Castle huge forests and wonderful in Vilnius(2), which was built many years lakes (3). We are proud of ago by Duke 3 our seaside (5) and the Gediminas. Now the castle is the pride of 4 great dunes (6). The most Lithuania. . In 1579, famous landmarks in Vilnius University, an Lithuania: Trakai Castle important scientific 4 and education centre of (7), the Hill of Crosses (4), the European scale, Open air museum of the was opened. centre of Europe, Neringa- 5 the Curonian Spit. 52 6 Lithuania is the only Baltic countrywith nearly eight hundred years of statehood tradition, while itsname was first mentioned almost one thousand years ago, in 1009. Wedged at the dividing line ofWestern and Eastern civilizations, Lithuania battled dramatically for its independence and survival.Once in the Middle Ages, Lithuania was the largest state in the entire Eastern Europe, where crafts andoverseas trade prospered. 2 6 7
SLOVAKIASlovakia is a mountainous country. There are the High and Low Tatras, the Big and Small Fatra, the SlovakOre Mountains, the Štiavnica Mountains, etc. These parts are perfect for hiking in summer and skiing inwinter. There are plains in the south with agriculture and the river Danube, the biggest European river.There are big cities with industry and small historical towns with nice scenery. There are a lot of spas,thermal parks, caves and mineral springs in Slovakia. PRESIDENT GENERAL INFORMATION Area: 49 035 km² Population: 5 500 000 Location: Central Europe Official name: The Slovak Republic (SR) State formation date: 1 January 1993 State system: republic Political system: parliamentary democracy President: Ivan Gašparovič EU member since 1 May 2004 Currency: Euro Ivan GašparovičBratislava the Capital of the SR Košice Banská Bystrica Spa Piešťany Chateau Betliar The Hight Tatras Ivan Bella the first Slovak astronaut colonel of Slovak Army he flew to the Space Station MIR within the mission Sojuz TM – 29 20 February 1999 Caves Domica
MY COUNTRY TURKEYTurkey stretches over two continents and bridges Turkey , encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean SeaEurope to Asia. to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south, has been the cradle of several civilizations.Istanbul is the only city in the world to straddle two Two of the original Seven Wonders of the (Ancient)continents. Once was capital of the Ottoman Empire, World, The Temple of Artemis and the Mausoleum ofstill remains the commercial, historical and cultural Maussollos are in Turkey.pulse of Turkey.Ankara is the capital city of Turkey and the There are seven regions in Turkey and each has apopulation of the country is 73 million. different climate depending on its location from theRepublic of Turkey is a parliamentary representative mountain ranges, seas. You can swim under the sunshinedemocracy. while others are skiing.Agriculture, industry and tourism are the major Turkish culture is as diverse as its climate, and reflects itspillars of the Turkish economy. rich cultural heritage.Mount Nemrut Sumela Monastery Pamukkale Cappadocia
PEACE LETTER - ITALYHi! My name is Leonardo Ungarini , I’m sixteen years old and my birthday’s on the 17 July . I amfrom Terni and I’m attending F. Angeloni high school , the third school year specialised inlanguages . My favourite subjects are : English , French , History , Spanish , and Art . I am tall andthin , I’ve got short, brown hair and brown eyes . I’m easy-going , generous , sociable , cheerful ,chatty and I like staying with people .I live in a flat with my mother Rita and at the week-end I usually stay with my father Gustavo . Ihaven’t got any pet but I love animals . During the week I go to school , I do my homework , and I go out with my friends . I don’t practise any sport but three times aweek I go to the gym . I like reading books to the children at the public library , I like going to thecinema , I like listening to music and I love eating : pizza , every type of pasta , meat etc.. One ofthe things I love most is travelling and sightseeing ; for example I visited : Madrid , Prague ,Budapest , Munich , Paris and Innsbruck . I hope I’ll meet you as soon as possible to share ourideas on young people’s lifestyles
PEACE LETTER - LATVIA Dear friend, I will tell you about peace. Tell that it is difficult to keep the peace and that it is difficult to control anger. I think my classmates won’t understand this text, but the teacher will. I hope all will understand. Peace. It sounds so nic but so difficult to realize. Peace is such a difficult thing nice,to do. You can just keep the peace for yourself, just keeps it in the country and in outhe world. If one person takes over the anger, the anger takes over all. Peace sinks ersonlike a ship in the sea. If one person takes over the anger and the other see it, then othersall fly into a rage. You cannot retain peace for yourself, in your town, country, oucontinent and in the world But there is someone who can pull the Peace ship out world.of the sea. Someone who ha a clear heart. Someone who can keep the peace for omeone has oneoneself, and this one pulls the Peace ship out of the sea. There is a peace in the dworld now. We all are happy. The Anger ship sinks and doesn’t show above thesea for a long time. Now y can keep the peace for yourself, in your family, city, youcountry, continent and in the world. But you must be ready for the next battle withanger, because there is someone who can pull the Anger ship out of the sea, but we rewill hope it never happen. Quite honestly, raise your hand, who understands! Once again, for those who ,don’t understand. Its hard to keep the peace. If one is angry, it searches for a ,dispute with each other and all are in hostility, but there is someone who can settlethis dispute. If someone can do it, then man will be special.Author - Annija Elizabete MeijaForm - 6School - Oskara Kalpaka Rudb Rudbāržu primary schoolCountry - Latvia
LetterDear Friend!My name is Marta. I’m thirteen years old and I’m from Poland.When I look at the world around I can see many people arguing and warring.Sometimes I wonder how to stop this and then I think there is no hope for a change,because so far no one has ever done anything about it. It seems wars will never end. But isthe situation really hopeless? I remember one film about a boy who decided to dosomething special. He came up with the project called “Pay it forward”. He wanted to helpthree people, and those three people were to help some other three people. That’s how thechain was created. In the end, he made many people happier. And I think this is the key.Maybe we cannot save the world, but we can make some small changes first. Let’s start withourselves. Let’s just be nice and kind to everyone, beginning with the members of ourfamily. Let’s try to get to know our neighbors better. If we can, let’s help people around us –even if it was only the matter of carrying some shopping bags for an elderly lady. Let’s stopour anger and annoyance, whenever possible. And what is most important, let’s take careof our friends and make some new ones as often as we can. This may be our small, but inthe end, a very big role in peace – making!Greetings from Poland!
PROVERBS - BULGARIA BETTER STALE BREAD IN PEACE THAN PLENTY OF MEALS IN HATRED In Turkish: Barış döneminde kuru ekmek, nefret dönemindeki ziyafetten iyidir. In Slovak : Lepší je kúsok chleba v pokoji než mnoho jedla s nenávisťou. In Bulgarian: По-добре сух хляб с мир, отколкото много ястия със зехир In Latvian: Labāk cieta maize mierā dzīvojot, nekā bagāti mielasti naidā. In Italian: Meglio essere poveri nella pace che ricchi nell’odio. In Romanian : Mai bine o paine veche in pace,decat o multime de mese cu ura. In Polish:Lepszy czerstwy chleb w czasach pokoju niż wykwintne posiłki w czasach nienawiści. In Lithuanian: Geriau sužiedijusios duonos riekė taikoje, negu perteklius nesantaikoje.
PROVERB - ITALYPeace comes from prudence, And richness comes from peaceDalla prudenza viene la pace,dalla pace viene l’abbondanza
Kur mīlestība, tur miers un patiesība. lestība, ba, paties Latvian proverb Where love is, there’s peace and truth truth. In Turkish: Sevginin olduğu yerde, Barış ve Dürüstlük vardır. ğu Barı In Slovakian: Kde je láska, tam je mier a dôvera. In Bulgarian: . Където има любов, там има мир и истина. любов In Italian: Dove cè amore, cè pace e verità. In Romanian: Unde este dragoste,este si pace si adevar. In Lithuanian: Kur meilė, ten vyrauja taika ir tiesa. In Polish: Gdzie jest miłość miłość, tam pokój i prawda.
LIVE LIKE BROTHERS, LOVE LIKE SISTERSIn Turkish: Erkek kardeşler gibi yaşa, kız kardeşler gibi sev.In Slovak Language: Žite ako bratia, milujte ako sestry.In Bulgarian: Живейте като братя, обичайте се като сестри .In Latvian: Dzīvot kā brāļiem, mīlēt kā māsām.In Italian: Vivete come fratelli, amatevi come sorelle.In Romanian Language: Traieste ca fratii,iubeste ca surorile.In Lithuanian: Gyvenkime kaip broliai, mylėkime kaip 3ed meeting in Lithuania, 2011seserys.In Polish: Żyjcie jak bracia, kochajcie jak siostry. 10th form students, 2011 Mantas Grigalauskas, 6th form, 2011 5th meeting in Poland, 2011 Lukas Šimkevičius, 9th form, 2011
Words of peace Gość w dom, Bóg w dom.A Guest is coming, God is coming. Turkish: Misafir geliyor, Tanrı geliyor. Slovak: Hosť do domu, boh do domu. Bulgarian: Гост е дошъл, Бог е дошъл. Latvian: Ciemiņš nāk, Dievs nāk. Italian: Quando arriva un ospite arriva Dio. Romanian: Un invitat vine, Dumnezeu vine. Lithuanian: Jei svečiai ateis, Dievas kartu su jais.
ROMANIAN PROVERBLet peace be your thought, your word, your greatest virtue = Fie ca pacea sa-ti fie gandul,cuvantul, cea mai mare virtute.
PROVERBS SlovakiaTurkish Proverb: Peace at Home, Peace in the World.In Slovak Language: Mier doma, mier vo svete.Romanian Proverb: Peace means prosperity.In Slovak Language: Mier znamená rozvoj.Slovak Proverb: Offer bread to the man who throws a stone at you.In Slovak Language: Kto do teba kameňom, ty doňho chlebom.Italian Proverb: Peace would be great if there weren’t “mine and yours”In Slovak Language: Mier by bol úplný, keby nebolo “tvoje a moje”.Lithuanian Proverb: Live like brothers, love like sistersIn Slovak Language: Žite ako bratia, milujte ako sestry.Bulgarian Proverb: Better stale bread in peace than plenty of meals with hatred.In Slovak Language: Lepší je kúsok chleba v pokoji než mnoho jedla s nenávisťou.Latvian Proverb: Where love is, there’s peace and truth.In Slovak Language: Kde je láska, tam je mier a dôvera.Polish Proverb: A Guest is coming, God is coming.In Slovak Language: Hosť do domu, boh do domu.
MAN OF PEACE - BULGARIA Nikola Yonkov Vaptsarov ( 1909 -1942) Nikola Yonkov Vaptsarov –( 1909 -1942) was a Bulgarian poet and revolutionary. Working most of his life as a machinist, he only wrote in his spare time. Despite the fact that he ever published only one poetry book, he is considered one of the biggest Bulgarian poets. Trained as a machine engineer at the Naval Machinery School in Varna, which was later named after him, his first service was on the famous Drazki torpedo boat. Later he went to work in a factory - at first as a stoker and eventually as a mechanic. He was elected Chairman of the Association protecting worker rights in the factory. He successfully led a strike of about 300 workers in 1936 to reinstate workers after a lock- out.In early 1941 Nazi forces were allowed to enter Bulgaria and take control of the country as a prelude to the attack on theUSSR. Vaptsarov joined the armed resistance movement and was active in the ‘military centre’. His training as an engineerand mechanic proved useful at this juncture. This was an extremely tiring and hazardous task and Vaptsarov found littletime to write poems. Yet he was urged by his comrades to keep writing as one of them put it, ‘Though at the moment thefate of the world is being decided by arms, a stirring contemporary poem is no less important than arms.’Vaptsarov was arrested in 1942 and subjected to inhuman torture and finally executed on 23rd July, 1942. He continued towrite till the very end, and indeed his last verse addressed to his wife is one of the most moving and inspiring.His only released book of poetry is Motoring Verses (1940).In 1952, he received posthumously the International Peace Award.His poetry has been translated in 98 languages throughout the world.History That’s why the poems I’m writing In hours I steal from sleepHistory, will you mention us Have not the grace of perfume,In your faded scroll? But brief and scowling beat.We worked in factories, offices –Our names were not well known. For the hardship and afflictionWe worked in fields, smelled strongly We do not seek rewards,Of onion and sour bread. Nor do we want our picturesThrough thick moustaches angrily In the calendar of years.We cursed the life we led. Just tell our story simplyFor life, showing no mercy, To those we shall not see,With heavy brutish paw Tell those who will replace us –Battered our hungry faces. We fought courageously.That’s why our tongue is raw.
SAN FRANCESCO – A MAN OF PEACE – ITALY Praised be You, my Lord, hrough our sister mother Earth, The Canticle of the Creatures who sustains and governs us, San Francesco dAssisi producing varied fruits with coloured flowers and herbs. Most high, all powerful, all good Lord Praised be You, my Lord, through those who grant pardon All praise is yours, all glory, all honor for love of You, and all blessing. and bear sickness and trial; To you alone, Most High, do they belong blessed are those who endure in peace, and no human being is worthy to by You, most High, they will be crowned. pronounce your name. Praised be You, my Lord, through our corporal sister Death, Praised be You, my Lord, through all that from whom no mortal can escape: you have made, woe to those who die in mortal sin; and first my lord brother Sun, blessed are they she finds doing who brings the day and light you give us your will, through him; no second death can do them harm. Praise and bless my Lord, How beautiful is he, how radiant in all his and give him thanks and serve him splendour: with great humility. of you, Most High, he bears the likeness. ……… Francis was born in Assisi in 1181. Son of a cloth merchant, he wanted to become a member of the lesser nobles in his town: He took part in the war against Perugia and, while he was travelling to Puglia to participate in the Crusade, he heard a voice which invited him to rebuild his Church. Francis obeyed and left his family and friends to lead a poor, solitary and penitential life for several years. In 1209 he started to preach the Gospel in various towns and, together with his followers, he went to Rome to gain the Pope’s approval of his choice of life. From 1210 to 1224 he wandered in the streets and the squares of the Italian towns gathering crowds and crowds of people and followers called by him friars. He welcomed Clare who started the second Franciscan order and next he founded a third order for those who wished to live a life as penitents with rules suitable for laical people. He died during the night between the third and the fourth of October in 1228. Francis is one of the leading figures in the human history and still speaks to every generation. His charm comes from his great love for Jesus from whom he received the stigmata. Assisi "World Heritage of Humanity It is a “Holy City” loved by God, gate of the Paradise for the salvation of many, called to return to the splendour of Saint Francis’ s times, the most beloved Saint of the world, who, before dying blessed Assisi with this prayer: Lord, I believe that this city was in ancient times shelter and home of evil wicked men, infamous in all these regions. But for your abundant mercy, in the time that pleased you, I see that you have shown the overabundance of your goodness, so that the city has become refuge and stay of those who know you and give glory to your name and spread scent of holy life, direct doctrine and good reputation among all the Christian people. I pray you therefore, O Lord Jesus Christ, Father of mercy, not to look at our ingratitude, but to remember only the abundance of your goodness, that you have shown. This city may always be land and home of those who know you and glorify your name, blessed and glorious in the centuries of the centuries. Amen.“ World Day of Prayer for Peace summoned at Assisi by John Paul II on October 27th, 1986.
One of the most popular Latvian writer: • poet; • playwright. Social and political figure.11.09.1865 – 12.09.1929Rainis’ idejas • oposse to uncritical treatment of the past heritage and ostentatius transformation of national identity, • through folklore images found national unity, independence and the struggle for human freedom, ethical issues and talk about responsibility for the future ahead.Rainis about peace „Only man achieved „Not the nation against freedom of great peace nation will be at war, inwardly, can go to the but all together against „God gave funny, enjoyable blessed great life…” the darkness.” peace of mind - full of peaceful labour.”Rainis literary works are immortalized in the songs, plays and films. Choral songs by Rainis words to the Latvian people have become the same symbols as theanthem, flag, coat of arms. When you listen to these songs people experience stronger feelings of patriotism and evengreater attachment to their nation, land. Rainis poem „The Broken Pines” has gained great popularity since it was written in 1905 and dedicated to the revolutionaries who fought for workers’ freedom and rights. This poem translated into 43 languages. Emils Darzins composed the music for this poem. This song has become one of the choral song pearls for Latvian people.
SIGITAS KU AS , A MAN OF PEACE KUČAS Sigitas Kuč a 47- year – old physicist from Vilnius Theoretical physics and Kučas, astronomy institute and his fellow Lithuanians were the organizers of this daring experiment – "a social experiment to celebrate diversity and honor traditions of peace embedded in many cultures". THE GREAT Millennium Peace Ride - eleven cyclists from seven different countries were the people spreading a message of peaceful cross cross-cultural co- existence. The idea of cycling around the world he was initiated by a small internationalgroup of cyclists in Athens, Greece in 1993, who proposedthat hundreds of cyclists should come together to promotepeace around the world and create opportunities for peopleof different nationalities to live and cooperate together. ferentHundreds of people from 185 countries worked together toplan the route through 64 countries and raise funds for thePeace Ride project. Three Lithuanians, two Italians, two Poles, a German, a Mexican, a Croat and a Peruvian, all committed cyclists, began their odyssey on August 6, 1998 in Seattle. Their final destination was Nagasaki, Japan, where they arrive arrived in January 2000. The cycling marathon riders were he marathon‘s between the ages of 23 and 62. "This trip is really from the heart. Each of us can personally appreciate what peace in the world means to the ordinary person." Sigitas Kučas časWith the Peace flag and love in their hearts they reached Hiroshima on the eve of the New hMillennium. During the seventeen months of cyclingaround the world, they visited 45 countries in North andSouth America, Africa, Europe, and Asia. They made ca,23,500 km by bike; more than 600 cyclists joined them forshorter or longer distances in different parts of the route.On the road there were thousands of peopleenthusiastically supporting the ideas of the Peace Ride.Only four cyclists began and ended the journey, with like like-minded cyclists joining along the way to support these determined individuals. Sigitas Ku Kučas(physicist), Edvardas Žižys (economics professor), Goda Ciplyt (English translator in the vardas CiplytėLithuanian Prime Ministers office), of Lithuania, and Slavomir Platek, of Poland, were the originalcyclists."If you can change yourself, you can change the world." Sigitas. 1
Man of peace POPE JOHN PAUL IIPope John Paul II (18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005, bornKarol Józef Wojtyła) reigned as Supreme Pontiff of theRoman Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican Cityfrom 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005.John Paul II has been acclaimed as one of the mostinfluential leaders of the 20th century. It is widely heldthat he was instrumental in ending Communism in hisnative Poland and eventually all of Europe as well as significantly improving the Catholic Churchsrelations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. …THERE’S NO PEACE WITHOUT JUSTICE, THERE’S NO JUSTICE WITHOUT FORGIVENESS… Nie ma pokoju bez sprawiedliwości, nie ma sprawiedliwości bez przebaczenia… …BE DEMANDING OF YOURSELF EVEN IF OTHERS DON’T DEMAND IT… Wymagajcie od siebie choćby inni od was nie wymagali… A RICH MAN IS NOT THE ONE THAT OWNS A LOT BUT THE ONE WHO GIVES… Bogatym nie jest ten co posiada, lecz ten kto daje…
NICOLAE TITULESCU (1882 -1941)Nicolae Titulescu has occupied, for almost four decades, a leading part in the public life of Romania,and became, between the Two World Wars, one of the remarkable personalities of the internationallife.His political activity began in 1912, the year of his election as member of the Parliament. After fiveyears he got his first mandate at the Ministry for Finance. In early 1918 he went to Paris where heparticipated as a member of the Romanian delegation to the Peace Conference. In 1922 he wasnamed Ambassador of Romania in London.In autumn 1930 he was elected President of the General Assembly of the League of Nations, as a signof recognition of his high reputation on the international ground.In 1931, contrary to the usual practice (not to renew the mandate of the same person), he was re-elected President of the General Assembly of the League of Nations, thanks to his sustained activityin this post.In 1932 he returned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs until 1936. His qualities were utterlyexceptional: passionate and convincing orator who excelled in logic, precision, elegance; versatilediplomat, constantly defending not only the Romanian interests but also the interests of theinternational peace. In a period which gave a lot of political personalities, Titulescu had won the fameof one of the most imposing orators of his time. A French writer considered him as the greatestpublic-speaker in the Voltaire’s language.Titulescu was called “Ambassador of peace” , ”Minister of Europe” ,“Tribune of peace”. A. Frangulis,President of the International Diplomatic Academy, described him as “a legendary figure of theinternational congresses and meetings”. Moreover, he counted among the founding members ofInternational Diplomatic Academy in Paris and in 1934 he was elected President of this Academy.From this position, he presented, at the annual sessions, important speeches about problems ofminorities, collective security, united Europe, indivisibility of peace, principles of non-aggression. Hefought for the respect of the sovereignty and equality of all nations in the international community,for the preservation of stable borders through the maintenance of peace, for good relations betweenboth large and small neighbouring states.In 1942, shortly after his death, W. Steed, professor at King’s College in London, stated that NicolaeTitulescu, “man of an extreme intelligence and infallible charm”, had two dominant features:devotion to Romania and devotion to the general cause of “the European peace”.According to his views about the progress of the international relationships and about the partplayed by the International Law in the nations’ life, Nicolae Titulescu considered that peacerepresented the central element of reference, the premise and purpose of the harmoniousdevelopment of all states, the motivation and dynamic agent which lie at the basis at the generalprogress. “Peace”, wrote N. Titulescu in his famous speech in the Reichstag in 1929 (Dynamics ofPeace), “is a phenomenon in permanent movement. It’s something alive that accomplishes itself stepby step. Peace means neither rest nor neglect. Peace means goal and direction.”He understood, unlike not many in that period, that, to consolidate the friendship relations andgood-neighbour policy, represents the most solid guarantee of peace. He encouraged the efforts toestablish, to maintain and to put on a solid basis the Little Entente and the understanding among theBalkan countries.Raymond Cartier, a great publicist of those times, wrote: “Ti-tu-les-cu! The four syllables of his namefilled the diplomatic history after the War. He was one of the great men of Romania, one of the greatmen of Little Entente, one of the great men of Europe.” These words synthesize the enormousprestige Titulescu enjoyed during his life and the exceptional part he played in the very complicatedtimes of the European and World history.
Milan Rastislav ŠtefánikMilan Rastislav Štefánik was born on July 21, 1880 in Košariská and died on May 4, 1919in Ivanka pri Dunaji. He was a Slovak politician, diplomat and astronomer. During WorldWar I, he was General of the French Army, at the same time the Czechoslovak Minister ofWar, one of the leading members of the Czechoslovak National Council and he contributeddecisively to the cause of Czechoslovak sovereignty.Finally, Štefánik wanted to return home to see his family. He decided to flyfrom Campoformido by Udine in Italy and to use an Italian military plane, a Caproni 450. OnMay 4, 1919 around 11am, his plane tried to land near Bratislava (which was a militaryconflict area between the First Republic of Czechoslovakia and the Hungarian SovietRepublic at that time), but crashed near Ivanka pri Dunaji. Štefánik died along with twoItalian officers. The reason for the plane crash is disputed. The official explanation at thattime was that the airplane crashed due to bad weather accidentally. "Just at thattime Šrobár and all his government left Bratislava to Skalica to plant trees as a memorial ofthe founding of the new Czechoslovak Republic. It is also unlikely that his plane was shotdown by Hungarian communists standing on the middle of the Franz Joseph bridge ofBratislava. Štefánik’s sudden death, in combination with his preceding quarrels with Beneš,contributed to Slovak suspicion towards the Czechs during the First Republic ofCzechoslovakia. Štefániks tomb was built in 1927-28 on the Bradlo hill in Brezová podBradlom. The monumental yet austere memorial was designed by Dušan Jurkovič.
“Come, come, whoever you are, Wanderer, worshipper, lover of leaving, Ours is not a caravan of despair. Even if you have broken your vows a thousand times It doesn’t matter Come, come yet again, come” MEVLANA CELALEDDIN RUMI Seven advice of MEVLANA In generosity and helping others be like a river In compassion and grace be like sun In concealing others faults be like night In anger and fury be like dead In modesty and humility be like earth In tolerance be like a sea Either exist as you are or be as you look Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi is a 13th century Muslim poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic knownthroughout the world for his exquisite poems and words of wisdom. Mevlana was born in the city of Belh of the Horasan country in 1207 and Rumi and his familytravelled extensively in the Muslim lands, performed pilgrimage to Mecca and finally settled inKonya. Mevlana, who summarized his life with the words, "I was raw, cooked and then burned" diedon Sunday, December 17,1273. Mevlana believed the day of death to be a day of rebirth, thereunification to his beloved, that is, the God, he was referring to that day as "Sheb-i Aruz" whichmeans the bridal night. "When we are dead, do not turn your eyes to the ground, seeking my grave! My grave will be in the hearts of the wise" Hz. MevlanaMevlanas philosophy was mainly based on Love of humans, love of God, tolerance of humans to eachother, positive reasoning, goodness, charity and awareness through love. His works speak theuniversal language of love and tolerance, Mevlana’s words resonated with readers around the worldand transcending all religions with his common themes of unity and faith in God’s will.Mevlana’s works have been translated into many languages. Mesnevi, Divan-i Kebir, Fihi Ma Fih,Mektubat (Letters),Mecalis-i Seba (Seven Courts) are among his works.
NATIONAL HOLIDAY - BULGARIA3rd March – The National Holiday of Bulgaria – The Day of Liberation1st March – The Labour Day6th May - St. George’s Day24th May – The Day of the Bulgarian Alphabet, Culture and Slavonic Literature6th September – The Day of Bulgarian Unity22nd September – The Day of Bulgarian Independence1st November – The Day of the National Educators25th -26th December – Christmas15-16th April 2012 - Easter ST. JORDAN’S DAY On this day, according to biblical legend, Jesus Christ was baptized in the River Jordan by John the Baptist. At the time of baptism, heaven opened and the Holy Spirit descended on Christ as a dove from heaven and spread voice: “ This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. “ Hence the name of the holiday – Epiphany.On the 6th January after the service in the churchthe priest throws a cross into the water and itshould be found and taken out. It is believed thatthe one who has found the cross in the water willbe healthy and happy. He goes round the villagewith the cross.There is a belief that if the cross freezes in thewater, the year will be healthy and fertile.
Italian Holidays – ITALYJanuary 1st - New YearJanuary 6th - Epiphany of Our Lord 1- Easter and Easter MondayApril 25th – Anniversary of the liberation 2May 1st - Labour Day 3June 2nd – Republic Day 4August 15th - Assumption of MariaNovember 1st – All SaintsDecember 8th – Immaculate ConceptionDecember 25th -Christmas26 Dicember- Saint Stephen - First MartyrHoliday of the Patron Saint in Terni:Saint Valentine February 14th1 - Epiphany, from theGreek word “koine” which means "manifestation", "strikingappearance", or Theophany (meaning "vision of God") which falls on January 6th, is aChristian feast that celebrates the revelation of God’s Son as a human being in JesusChrist. Western Christians commemorate mainly the visitation of the Biblical Magi to theBaby Jesus, and thus Jesus’s physical manifestation to the people. Eastern Christianscommemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to theworld as the Son of God.2 - The Italian resistance day which celebrates partisans forces’ victory during WorldWar II.In 1944, with the Allied forces nearby, the partisan resistance in Italy staged an uprisingbehind German lines, led by the Committee of National Liberation of Upper Italy(CLNAI). This rebellion led to the establishment of a number of provisional partisangovernments throughout the mountainous regions of northern Italy. By the end of 1944,German reinforcements and Benito Mussolinis remaining forces had crushed the uprising,and the areas liberation had to wait until the final offensives of 1945.3 - May Day : May Day on May 1 is an ancient northern spring festival and usually apublic holiday.May Day is also a traditional holiday in many cultures.In many countries, May Day is synonymous with International Workers Day, or LabourDay, a day of political demonstrations and celebrations organised by communists,anarchists, socialists, unionists, and other activist groups.4 - Republic Day (literally Festival of our Republic) is celebrated in Italy on the second ofJune each year. The day commemorates the institutional referendum held by universalsuffrage in 1946, in which the Italian people were called to the polls to decide on the formof government, following the Second World War and the fall of Fascism. With 12,717,923votes for a republic and 10,719,284 for the monarchy, the male descendants of the House ofSavoy were sent into exile. To commemorate it, a grand military parade is held in centralRome, presided by the President of the Italian Republic in his role as SupremeCommander of the Armed Forces. The Prime Minister, formally known as the President ofthe Council of Ministers and other high officers of state are present too.
NATIONAL HOLIDAY - LATVIA Each year in November Oskara Kalpaka Rudbāržu primary school holds a festive concert on occasion of Proclamation Day of the Republic of Latvia. The event begins with a speech by the school headmaster. The best teachers and staff are greeted. The best student families are awarded with diplomas. After the formal part, pupils’ concert is starting. Every year after concert candles are lighted in all windows at the school and in the school’s yard, too. In the evening Rudbarzi residents and guests are welcomed by Skrunda county council chairman, Rudbarzu district manager and principal of the school. All together sing the national anthem and enjoy the beautiful fireworks. There are folk dances in the school’s Heroes hall after fireworks. Anniversary of Latvia is celebrated all around the country, especially in Riga. In the morning there is the ecumenical public worship in the Dome church. Members of Parliament listen to the Speaker declamation at the ceremonial meeting. President of the State and members of parliament put down flowers at the Monument of Freedom. Concerts are everywhere in Latvia.Candle procession at the In the evening thereFreedom Monument in Riga is a choral singing at the Freedom Monument. The President’s speech to the people always is expected. Firework in Riga – in the capital of Latvia
LITHUANIAN NATIONAL HOLI HOLIDAY 1st January New Year’s day The day of Lithuanian flag 16th February Day of Restoration of The 6th of July - Lithuanian Lithuania’s national festival, the first Independence Lithuanian ruler king 11th March People in the capital and Day of Mindaugas’ crowning day. Restoration of in the smaller towns The first and the only Independence of celebrate this national Lithuania Lithuanian King was crowned 8th April festival reminding the on the 6th of July, 1253. Easter past of Lithuania and 6st May ( first Lithuanian King Mindaugas its traditions. The Sunday ) united Lithuanians and made Mother’s day President of Lithuania one nation. 24th June Dalia Grybauskaitė Feast of St.John makes a speech on that 6th July Lithuanian day. On the 6th of July national festival, the President Dalia the first Lithuanian ruler Grybauskaitė honours king Mindaugas’ the worthy people of crowning day. 15th August Lithuania and gives The Feast of the them medals. It’s a Assumption of the tradition among the Blessed Virgin Mary Lithuanians in all over 1st September the world to sing The beginning of school year Lithuanian anthem at 9 5th October pm on that day. Teachers’ day 1st November All Saints Day 25th December Christmas
National holidays Polish Independence Day is a public holiday in Poland celebrated every year on 11th November. It marks the restoration of Polands independence in 1918. After 123 years of partitions by Russia, Prussia and Austria Poland reappeared on the map of Europe as a sovereign democratic state. Year after year, The Polish community, whether at home or abroad, gathers together to commemorate the 3rd of May Constitution and to honor all the great minds who took part in the creation of this revolutionary document in 1791. They celebrate because the constitution symbolizes the spiritual and moral renovation of the Polish nation after a long period of chaos and disorder. They celebrate because the constitution established a democratic philosophy of humanitarianism and tolerance, including entire liberty to all people. And, most of all, they celebrate because the 3rd of May Constitution is not only a milestone in the Polish political and social history. but it is also a landmark in the European tradition, being the second constitution ever written in the world, and a first on the European soil. One of the most celebrated days associated with workers group is St. Barbaras Day on December 4th. St. Barbara is a patron of coal miners.
SLOVAK NATIONAL UPRISINGThe Slovak National Uprising was an armed insurrection organized by the Slovakresistance movement during World War II against German Wehrmacht. It was launched onAugust 29 1944 from Banská Bystrica .The rebel Slovak partisan forces consisted 60,000 soldiers, plusplus 18,000 partisans from over 30 countries, like Russia,Poland, Czech, France, Bulgaria, etc, The Slovak forceswere defeated by Nazi Germany on October 28 1944 and,guerrilla warfare continued until the Soviet Army occupiedSlovakia in 1945.The famous memorial place is the Monument of SlovakNational Uprising in Banská Bystrica, where the celebrationstake place every August.This feast is during the summer holiday and Slovak people celebrate it individually in eachtown or village. We put bunches of flowers on memorial places to remember soldiers fallen inthe uprising.That day celebrations are taken place in town squares where folk groups danceand sing.Products of old traditional crafts are shown and sold there and people can buy drinks andfood.One of the traditions is making big camp fires in all villages and towns. People sit around,play the guitars and sing songs.
TURKISH NATIONAL HOLIDAYS April 23: National Sovereignty and Childrens Day (Anniversary of the establishment of Turkish Grand National Assembly) May 1: Labour and Solidarity Day (recently added in 2009) May 19: Atatürk Commemoration and Youth & Sports Day ( The arrival of Atatürk in Samsun, and the beginning of the War of Independence) August 30: Victory Day October 29: Republic Day (Anniversary of the declaration of the Turkish Republic) 23 APRIL NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY AND CHILDREN’S DAY 23 April National Sovereignty and Childrens Day is a national day which was dedicated to Turkishchildren by the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, to emphasize that they are the future ofthe new nation. The first celebration of it was held on April 23rd, 1920, when the Turkish Grand NationalAssembly met in Ankara and laid down the foundations of a new, independent, secular, and modern republic. The festival has been celebrated internationally since 1979 with The Turkish Radio and TelevisionCorporation. Today, TRT International 23rd April Children’s festival is celebrated every year with participationof approximately 50 countries. At Children’s Festival, all the children is speaking the same language, WorldPeace language. Every year, children coming from different countries stay with Turkish families, they present their folkloric dances in stadiums. Schools participate in week-long ceremonies marked by performances in all fields at schools and in large stadiums. Stadium shows broadcast from TRT television channels. Among the activities on this day, the children send their representatives to replace state officials and high ranking bureaucrats in their offices.
GAMES - BULGARIA The game can be played by a different Burn, burn handkerchief In this number of students - the more, the funnier. game the children squat in a circle. Only one kid holds a handkerchief and runs around the circle singing “Burn, burn handkerchief, the dog is pulling it!”. The task is to drop the hanky behind one’s back. The one that gets the hanky stands up and starts chasing the other one and tries to take his place in the circle. This game is real fun and you should try to play it.Wishbone is the name of an old game. It is usually played by two people. The one shouldn’t take any kind of objects that the opponent wants to give him. To start the game a branched chicken or turkey bone ("furcula", referred to as a jaw bone or the wishbone) need to be broken by two players. Their goal is to pass an object under some pretext that the other will take it. The player who has got the smallerpart is the only one that should not take anything.When one opponent passes an object to the other, the recipient must say:“I know!”. In this way you show the other that you have not forgotten about thegame. If you do not say it, your friend says "One, two, three ... Wishbone " andthat’s how he wins the game and you have to carry out his wish.
NATIONAL GAME - ITALYThis game is to be played against a wall and the ground must be without obstacles.The players (not less than two and no more than ten) must draw a line on the ground, 5 stepsdistance from the wall.Each of the players should take ten coins, while a big coin must remain at their disposal.Standing behind the line, one of the players, drawn lots, throws the big coin, trying to make itbounce against the wall and stop on the ground between the line and the wall.In turn , each player throws one of his/her coins against the wall, trying to make it bounce as closeas possible to the big coin.If one of the small coins doesn’t touch the wall , it will be picked up and laid on the ground far fromthe others .When all the players have thrown, the owner of the coin nearest to the big one, will win all theothers, provided that between his/her coin and the big one , there’s a less than 20 cm distance.If this hasn’t been the case, each player will take his/her coin back.The game will continue in the same way, throwing each time the big coin.Who remains without coins, will be eliminated.After a previously established time, the player who owns more coins, will be the winner of thegame.
NATIONAL GAME - LATVIA Game „Knit, children, knit!”1. All children stand in a circle.2. Choose a Goat and a Wolf (to rule a game).3. All go around in a circle, representing the movement of the hand knitting.Song: knit, knit, children, what you knit - knit socks for a wolf!4. Continue going around in the circle lifting knees high up.Song: wolf’s paws are suffered from cold; wolf’s paws are suffered from cold - walking throughswamps and forests.5. Join hands, raise them up.Song: make, children, high fence; make, children, high fence - let a goat come in a garden!6. Rise hands up and put down.Song: high, high, not so low; high, high, not so low, that wolf doesn’t catch a goat.7. Squat down and put hands on the cheek (sleeping).Song: now dogs and domestic animals are sleeping, shepherds themselves are sleeping, too.8. Clap your hands.Song: now is the time for the wolf to catch the goat in the garden.9. The Wolf catches the Goat.When the Goat is caught then another Goat and Wolf are choose.
CHILDREN‘S GAME „ THE MOUSE RUNNING IN THE HOUSE“ This game is very active and busy. It requires a lot of attention and fast reaction. It is a popular game in the evening parties and other entertainments. The movements illustrate thetext, which is sung. At the beginning all the players make a big circle. The music consists of twoparts. The first part is slow and it consists of 6 bars, time 4/4. The second part is fast and it consistsof 4 bars, time 2/4. The melody of four bars is repeated as many times as wanted. 1. A circle (6 bars) 1-6 bar “ All dancers in a circle Mouse, mouse are turning the circle was running in round in some the house while direction (one step the cat was every crotchet). sleeping „ 1 figure 2. Catching the mouse 1-4 bar „ The The player who is the ( 4 bars ) cat is so bad „cat“ tries to catch the because he player who is the can‘t catch the „ mouse“. mouse“ Party”Let’s be friends playing together!”, the 3rd meeting in Lithuania, 2011.
National gameTHIS IS A SPORTS GAME. THERE ARE TWO TEAMS AND A BALL…THIS IS THE ARRAGEMENT OF PLAYERSONE PLAYER MUST AIM AT OPPONENTS WITH THE BALLTHEY MUST AVOID TO BE HIT IF YOU ARE HIT YOU LOSE… AND MUST LEAVETHE GAME…THE WINNING TEAM CANNOT LOSE ALL PLAYERS
ROMANIAN GAME – SNAILS HUNTING Participants : 20-25 studentsAge : 10-14 years oldOrganization : - 5 students outside the circle : the snails’ team - 3 students inside the circle : the hunters’ team - the others students form the circle, holding by the hand. They are the defenders’ teamDevelopment –1. The snailsturn round the defenders outside the circle, and the defenders also turn round but in oppositedirection. 2. The hunters try to go out of the circle either by loosening the defenders’ hands or by going out undertheir hands. 3. When the snails feel the danger, they crouch. This moment they cannot be caught by the hunters. Whenthe danger ceases, the snails raise up and take again their way. 4. The defenders must not let themselves be cheated by the hunters and allow them to go out of the circle. 5. The hunter who catches a snail becomes a snail in his turn and the hunter takes his place. 6. The game can go on by changing the parts. 7. Everybody wins by joy, fun and entertainment. HAVE A GOOD TIME !
GOLDEN GATELyrics: translation in SlovakGolden Gate open, Zlatá brána otvorená,supported by a gold key, zlatým kľúčom podoprená,who enters into it, kto do nej vojde,apple finds, jabĺčko nájde,whether she or he is, či je ona, či je on,I will not let him out of the gate. nepustím ho z brány von.Rules: 1. Two children consist the Golden Gate. 2. They agree, what they will be an apple or a pear. 3. They hold their hands and they sing: ,,Golden gate…´´. 4. Others catch by the hands and they create a snake. 5. They go through the Golden Gate. 6. When they say the last world of the song, Golden Gate closes (the last player becomes a prisoner). Then they ask him what he chooses, whether apple or pear. 7. When he chooses the pear (or the apple), he goes behind the player, who is the pear (or the apple). 8. They again agree what they will be the apple or the pear and they start singing: ,,Golden Gate…”. 9. The game ends, when two players remain. They consist a new Golden Gate.