The education system inRomaniaThe structure of the education system inRomania include: pre-primary, primary,lower secondary education, uppersecondary education, arts and craftsschools, apprenticeship schools, post-secondary and higher education.
Pre-school education Children can start as early as three yearsold and can stay until they are six or sevenyears old. Kindergarten is optional and typically lastsfor 3 or 4 forms - "Small Group" forchildren aged 3–4, "Middle Group", forchildren aged 4–5, "Big Group"for childrenaged 5–6 and "School Preparation Class" for children aged 6–7.The preparation class becamecompulsory, and is a requirement in orderto enter primary school.
Services include initiation in foreignlanguages (typically English, French orGerman), introduction in computer studies,dancing, swimming etc. All kindergartens will provide at least onemeal or one snack, some having their ownkitchens and their own cooks, othersopting for dedicated catering services. Many kindergartens (especially privatevenues) will provide children withtransportation to and from thekindergarten. Groups typically have 1-2 teachers and10-15 children (typically more in statekindergartens).
Elementary school• Elementary school lasts eight years in Romania. Mostelementary schools are public; MEC statistics showless than 2 percent of elementary school studentsattend private school.• Unless parents choose a school earlier, the futurestudent is automatically enrolled in the school nearestto his or her residence. Some schools that have agood reputation are flooded with demands fromparents even two or three years in advance.• A negative consequence of this is that in many schoolsclasses are held in two shifts lasting from as early as 7a.m. to as late as 8 p.m. Education is free in publicschools (including some books and auxiliarymaterials), but not entirely (some textbooks,notebooks, pencils and uniforms might be required tobe purchased).
• School starts in the middle of Septemberand ends in the middle of June thefollowing year.• It is divided into two semesters(September to December and January toJune). There are four holiday seasons(Christmas — 3 weeks in December-January; Spring (previously Easter) in April- 2 weeks; and Summer, spanning from themiddle of June to September 15), with anadditional free week in November forstudents in the first 4 years.• Additionally, during the week before theSpring holiday, special activities (e.g. trips;
A class can have up to 30 students(25 is considered optimum), andthere can be as few as one classper grade or as many as twentyclasses per grade. Usually each group has its ownclassroom. Each group has its owndesignation, usually the gradefollowed by a letter of the alphabet(for example, VII A means that thestudent is in the 7th grade in the A
Primary schoolThe first four years are taught by a single teacher forthe most subjects. Additional teachers are assignedonly for a few specialized subjects (ForeignLanguages, Introduction to Computers, etc.). At theend of primary school, curriculum starts to becomecongested and it led over time to the high performanceeducational system we known today. For instance, a4th grade student (9–10 years of age) may have on aweekly basis4 classes of math4-5 classes of Romanian Language1 class of history1 class of geography1-2 classes of science2 classes of art1-3 classes of a foreign language (Usually French,
1 or 2 classes of Introduction to computers**1 class of Civic Education (a subject teachingeverything from personal hygiene to theConstitution to manners in society)1 of religion* (optional; parents can withdrawchildren from these classes. The situation is,however, fuzzy, with many parent groups andassociations being against teaching religion inschools. Attempt of withdrawal of the studentfrom these classes by a parent is usually met withopposition by teachers in most schools.)1 of music2 of physical education*These subjects may or may not have teachersother than the main teacher.** These subjects almost always have teachersother than the main teacher.
Gymnasium• Classes are reshaped at the end of the 4th grade,based on academic performances.• Many schools have special classes (such asintensive English classes or Informatics classes,providing one or two more courses in thesesubjects).• Selection for such classes is done based on localtests. Assessing the students performance is alsodifferent between primary and gymnasium cycles.• Starting with the 5th grade, students have adifferent teacher for each subject. Furthermore,each class has a teacher designated to be classprincipal, besides teaching his or hers usualsubject. Additional counseling may be provided bya special counselor (counselor on educationalissues) or by a school psychologist.
An 8th grade schedule may contain up to 30–32 hours weekly, or 6 hours daily,thus making it quite intensive, for instance: 4 classes of math 4 classes of Romanian language 2 classes of history 2 classes of geography 2 classes of biology 1 classes of introduction to computers 4 classes of a foreign language, usually French language and English language 2 classes of physics 2 classes of chemistry 1 (only in the 8th grade) class of Latin 1 class of art and music 1 class of religion (optional; same situation like in Primary School regardingteachers.) 1 (only in the 7th and 8th grade) class of civic education 1 class of technology 2 (1 in the 8th grade) classes of physical education In addition schools may add 1 or 2 subjects at their free choice. This possibilitygave rise to Intensive English Classes or Informatics Groups, accessible only byspecial exams in the 5th grade.
Admission to highschool• At the end of the 8th year of school (at age 14 or 15) anation-wide test is taken by all students. Starting with 2004,this examination is called -The National Test-and can betaken only once, in June.• The subjects are Romanian Language and Literature andMathematics(and additionally the language of the schoolfor ethnic minority schools or classes and for bi-lingualschools).• Many high schools provide classes with intensive study of aforeign language, such as English, French, German orSpanish; a two-part examination (Grammar/Vocabulary andSpeaking) is required for them. The passing mark is 5 foreach of the exams.• If the student passes, he is allowed to enrol in a highschool; should he fail, he will have to join a School of Craftsand Trades for two years.• The finishing grade (also known as the admission grade) iscomputed as an average, taking into account for 50% anaverage of all the Yearly General Averages starting with
Types of Romanian high schools• There are five types of high schools inRomania allowing access to university,based on the type of education offeredand their academic performance.• All of these allow for a high schooldiploma, access to the Bacalaureatexam and therefore access toUniversity studies.
National College (Colegiu Naţional) — the most prestigious[citationneeded] high schools in Romania, most are each part of at least oneinternational program such as Cervantes, SOCRATES, Eurolikesetc. All are "theoretical" (see below). Some of them are over 100years old, and have a very strong tradition in education: Saint SavaNational College in Bucharest (1818), National College in Iaşi(1828), Gheorghe Lazăr National College, Bucharest (1860), MihaiEminescu National College, Iaşi (1865), Frații Buzești NationalCollege in Craiova (1882), Costache Negruzzi College, Iaşi (1895).Other national colleges are Tudor Vianu National College ofComputer Science Bucharest, Emil Racoviţă National College Iaşi,Carol I National College Craiova, Barbu Ştirbei National CollegeCălăraşi, Mihai Eminescu National College Constanţa, VasileAlecsandri National College Galaţi, etc.. The last admission averagefor these is over 8.70, but for the best national colleges an averageresult of 9.50 is not enough. Entering in one of these nationalcolleges is usually a sure ticket for a good universityscholarship. Military College (Colegiu Militar) — there are 3 high schoolsadministered by the Ministry of National Defense. They areconsidered extremely strict and legally they have the same regimeas army units, being considered military installations with allstudents being members of the army and abiding army rules andregulations, including lights out at 10 oclock. The Military Collegesare Colegiul Militar Liceal Mihai Viteazu in Alba Iulia, Colegiul MilitarLiceal Ştefan cel Mare in Câmpulung Moldovenesc and ColegiulMilitar Liceal Dimitrie Cantemir in Breaza.
Economic College or Technical College . Ahigh school with relatively good results andwith an academic program based ontechnical education or services (seebelow). An admission average of 8.00 isusually enough. Standard High school— An average highschool, providing one of the availableacademic programs. The type of academic program offered isadded after this designation A group of two schools — a high school(usually offering academic programmes inthe field of technical or services education)and a Craft and Trade School. Some are regarded as being the worstalternative to allow access.
Each type of high-school is free to offer one or more academicprograms (profile). These are: Theoretical program Science — Profil Real ("mathematics and computer programming" or "earthstudies") — this is the most demanding of all the academic programs, and themost sought-after as it offers the best chance for university admission,teaching as it does most of the subjects needed for admission. There are 15different subjects per year, with 30–35 hours weekly : e.g. Latin is compulsory fora year, Math for 4 years (4–7 hours/week — Calculus, Trigonometry and Algebra),Computer Programming (4 hours weekly — 4 years), two modern languages,such as English for 2–6 hours/week and French for 2 hours/week, also 4 years,Literature 3 hours/week 4 years, Geography, History, Chemistry, Physics (all ofthese 4 years, 1–2 hours weekly each), Economics, Philosophy, Logic,Psychology (1 year each — 4 years) etc. This will give an " ComputerProgrammer" qualification. Besides being the hardest, this is the most commonprogram, as it is the most sought after. Humanities — Profil Uman ("social studies" or "languages") — 3 or 4 modernlanguages, 4 years of Latin or Ancient Greek, literature (both Romanian andforeign), two years of each of the studied social sciences, more history andgeography than in the case of real studies, but almost no mathematics, chemistry,physics or biology. This program still demands over 30–35 hours weekly but willgive no work qualification, with the exception of bilingual colleges, which offer atranslator qualification. Classes specialized in Humanities sometimes provideintensive study of a foreign language (at least 5 hours per week), along with thestudy of the literature, history and geography of the respective
Technical programs — Profil tehnic will give a qualification in a technical field suchas electrician, industrial machine operator, train driver and mechanic etc. A lot ofsubjects are technically based (e.g. Calibration of Technical MeasurementMachines, Locomotive Mechanics), with some math, physics and chemistry andalmost no humanities. Vocational programs — Profil vocaţional will give a qualification in a non-technicalfield, such as kindergarten educator, assistant architect, or pedagogue. A lot ofsubjects are based on humanities, with specifics based on qualification (such asTeaching) and almost no math, physics or chemistry. Art, music and design highschools are grouped here. High schools belonging to religious cults are alsoincluded. Usually, admission in these high schools is done by a special exambesides the National Tests in music or art. Services and Economics programs — Profil economic will give a qualification inthe fields of services, such as waiter, chef, tourism operator. Offering a quitebalanced program, similar to the real studies in the theoretical program, but a bitlighter, and giving a valuable qualification, this program is very sought after (beingsecond only to the real program). The following high-schools forms does not allow entrance to universities: School of Crafts and Trades (Şcoalǎ de Arte şi Meserii) — a two-year schoolproviding a low qualification such as salesman or welder or builder. In case thestudent wants to continue to high school he or she must attend a special yearbetween the 2nd year in the School of Crafts and Trades, and the 11th year inhigh school. Apprentice School — a two-year school, almost integrally based onapprenticeship with a company, that usually also hires the graduates. Once highlypopular, nowadays only a handful remains and will be almost completely phasedout by 2009. There is no access to high school from this type of school.
• Post-secondary education is organizedat the initiative of the Ministry ofEducation or at the request of traders.• Studies have a period of 1-3 years,depending on the complexity ofprofessions.• Admission is done by competition.
Higher education List of universities in Romania University of Bucharest Higher education in Romania is less centralized than in many countriesin the West, with every university having its own internal policiesregarding admission, exams and conditions for graduation. With historically established universities in major cities such as Iași,Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Târgu Mureș, Craiova, Romaniashigher education institutions form a much looser network than in otherEuropean countries, albeit offering most of the qualifications sought afterby todays high-school graduates. Romanian universities have historically been classified among the bestin Eastern Europe and have attracted international students, especiallyin the fields of medicine and technology. However, its system of highereducation has suffered both from a lack of qualified professors and fromno government initiative to support and expand the network ofuniversities. Romania also has a private system of higher education, with privateuniversities operating in the larger cities. The first modern Romanianuniversities are: University of Iaşi (1860) University of Bucharest (1864) University of Cluj (1919
Admission•Most universities will give an "admission exam" in ahigh-school subject that corresponds best to thetraining offered by the university.•Some, however, due to the lack of relevance of thesystem have begun implementing a differentscheme, based on essays, interviews andperformance assessments.•This was done because in most cases tests,especially multiple choice ones, offered just asuperficial assessment and a limited outlook of thestudents actual performance.•The admission process is left to the Universities,and, as of 2007, there is no integrated admissionscheme.
Higher educationHigher education is organized inthree cycles according to Law. 288of 24 June 2004 on the organizationof university studies, studiesundergraduate studies, masterstudies and doctoral studies.
• Cycle includes undergraduatestudies with a duration of about 3years.• Second cycle comprises masterstudies.• At full time, the normal of theMaster is 1 to 2 years.• Cycle III includes doctoral studieswhich usually lasts 3 years.