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Ch.25 1 10


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NUR 221 Ch. 25 infection

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Ch.25 1 10

  1. 1. Chapter 25<br />Care of Patients with Infection<br />
  2. 2. Pathogen—any microorganism capable of producing disease<br />Communicable—infection transmitted from person to person<br />Pathogenicity—the ability to cause disease<br />Virulence—the degree of communicability<br />Definitions<br />
  3. 3. Normal flora—characteristic bacteria of a body location; it often competes with other microorganisms to prevent infections<br />Colonization—the microorganism present in tissue but not yet causing symptomatic disease<br />Surveillance—the tracking and reporting of infections<br />Definitions<br />
  4. 4. Reservoirs <br />Pathogens:<br />Toxins<br />Exotoxins<br />Endotoxins<br />Host Defenses:<br />Susceptibility<br />Overview of Chain of Infection<br />
  5. 5. Resistance to infection is usually associated with the presence of antibodies or cells acting on specific microorganisms.<br />Passive immunity is of short duration, either naturally by placental transfer or artificially by injection of antibodies.<br />Active immunity lasts for years and occurs naturally by infection or artificially by stimulation (vaccine) of immune defenses<br />Immunity<br />
  6. 6. Respiratory tract<br />GI tract<br />Genitourinary tract<br />Skin/mucous membranes<br />Bloodstream<br />Portal of Entry Sites<br />
  7. 7. Contact transmission by direct or indirect contact<br />Droplet transmission such as in influenza<br />Airborne transmission such as in tuberculosis<br />Contaminated food or water<br />Vector-borne transmission involving insect or animal carriers, such as in Lyme disease<br />Portal of exit<br />Mode of Transmission<br />
  8. 8. Body tissues<br />Phagocytosis<br />Inflammation<br />Immune systems:<br />Antibody-mediated immune system<br />Cell-mediated immunity<br />Physiologic Defenses Against Infection<br />
  9. 9. Infection Control in Inpatient Health Care Agencies<br />Health care–associated Infection (HAI) is acquired in the inpatient setting; not present at admission.<br />Endogenous infection is from a patient’s flora.<br />Exogenous infection is from outside the patient, often from the hands of health care workers. <br />
  10. 10. Practice hand hygiene and proper handwashing.<br />Personal protective equipment (PPE).<br />Methods of Infection Control<br />