DEATH IN SEPTEMBERINTRODUCTION∞ The battle of Antietam is the bloodiest single day in U.S. history. ∞ 6,300-6,500 soldiers on each side died in a single battle. ∞ More than any other War since, 4 times the death toll of D-Day landings in Normandy, and more than the cumulative casualties of all of the wars in the 19th century.
PENDULUM OF WAR II 1861-1862α In 1861 The Union position in the civil war was precarious.α British interest in southern cotton made many nervous, Lincoln, already engaged in a war with the south, could not afford to wage war with the super power.α Lack of confidence within the Union made it hard to finance the war.α Selling bonds became difficult with the outcome of the war unsure.α Mc Clellan was chosen to lead the Potomac army, he creates a Napoleonic image of himself. Not up to par, low mobility and afraid of failure/risk.α Ulysses S. Grant took command in Illinois, and almost immediately things started to turning around. He opened a joint navy task force and to open up the rivers on the Cumberland, Tennessee α Cumberland, Tennessee rivers connect to Ohio<very strategic.>.
PENDULUM OF WAR II1861-1862α Leading into 1862 Grant leads the armies to victories by securing Nashville α Nashville (a large iron/agricultural producer)α General Ambrose in 1862 helped secure almost every port in North Carolina. α Good news! boosted moral in Unionα Continued Federal victories hurt moral of South – “tired of bad news”α British and French are becoming increasingly concerned about the outcome of the war because the cotton reserves had been depleted. α People losing jobs, factories shut down, bad news!α Many Europeans were in favor of recognizing the Confederate states. α The south was winning most of the battles In 1861α Union knew it would need victories on the battle field to finish and win the war.
TAKING OFF THE KID GLOVESJUNE-JULY1862β May 1862 -- "Stonewall" Jackson Defeats Union Forces. β Stonewall becomes a popular icon in the south, known for his impressive tactics and successesβ Seven Days Battles, rebels take Gains’ mill, and push union troops back to Harrisons landing.β July 11 Lincoln appoints Henry W Halleck to as general in chief. β It doesn’t look promisingβ Recent Confederate success creates an urge to recognize south. β Europeans dependent on cotton from the south was cut off. β The waning supply of cotton and the rising unemployment rates in England and France urged some to side with the south for economic benefit.β The issue of slavery was a factor in European Intervention β The working classes didn’t want to support slavery/compete with free labor β This had a big impact on European involvement Stonewall Jackson
TAKING OFF THE KID GLOVESJUNE-JULY1862∞ Fredrick Douglas strongly urged the emancipation of slaves ∞ He thought the easiest way to quell a rebellion is to prevent it∞ The idea was spreading that removing slaves from the southern states would cripple their war machine. ∞ Slaves were leaving their plantations and fleeing north where they were being set free, making the idea a reality.∞ Congress Institutes confiscation laws. ∞ Confiscated slaves called, contraband.∞ Lincoln calls a meeting to discuss if an emancipation proclamation is a good idea. ∞ Cabinet suggests a stronger stance on the battlefield will make it mean something ∞ Saying it now would be like “shouting it on your retreat”
THE FEDERALSGOT A VERY COMPLETE SMASHING Not a lot of good news came out of July-August 1862 for the Union army. Union forces in Tennessee and northern Mississippi experienced even greater embarrassments. The capture of Corinth (May 30) and Memphis (June 6) forced union commanders spread out, with low rivers union dependent on railroads. South was attacking railways to disrupt resupply. Buell took his army to capture east Tennessee and failed. Popes scouts misjudged confederate intentions and capture a supply depot with no resistance. Incompetent generals were ruining chances to win battles. Although Mc Clellen showed numerous faults, Lincoln left him in charge he had no one else that the soldiers respected.
THE FEDERALSGOT A VERY COMPLETE SMASHING The political turmoil following these events was enormous Many people wanted to reunite the country (republicans) The democrats were split in two: Some wanted to separate and stop fighting and some wanted to keep the south from succeeding Europe was chiming of talk that it was Impossible for the north to conquer the south England and France, anticipating that the democrats would control the house They created a joint “Manifesto” calling for mediation There was a lot riding on Lee’s decision to cross the Potomac Victory, defeat, foreign intervention, the emancipation proclamation, northern elections, & the willingness of the northern states to keep fighting.
SHOWDOWN AT: SHARPS BURG Richmond news papers say confidently that Confederate forces would take Mary Land Confederate soldiers were getting worn out from all of the fighting Their moral stayed high. Newspapers in the north all were very unsure that the north would be able to defeat the south. But after entering Maryland the Union troops are inspired by Mary Lander’s hospitality While resting in Fredrick Mc Clellans army finds a copy of General Lee’s orders. Mc Clellan waits 14 hours to do anything about it… Allows Lee to avert disaster.
SHOWDOWN AT: SHARPS BURG September 1862 -- Antietam. On September 17, Confederate forces under General Lee were caught by General McClellan near Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle proved to be the bloodiest day of the war. General Lee withdrew to Virginia, having lost many men McClellan was considered the “victor”. However he Blew it by not perusing Lee south. Antietam decided the fate of the country in two ways Before the battle, Lincoln rode the fence between a northern political stance promoting "crosscutting pressures from various quarters for and against emancipation as a Union war policy“ And “..the need to keep border slave states and Northern Democrats in his war coalition." Lincoln said, "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong,” Lincoln knew his power and his political base too well to jeopardize the war effort by being eager to free the slaves.
BEGINNING OF THE END After Antietam and the battles surrounding the northern press releases a barrage of uplifting news telling how the war has turned around. The southern papers insisted that Lee only intended to take Harpers Ferry. Five days after Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation was issued. The battle convinced the British and French to reserve intervening action Boarder States and democrats were upset about this. Lincoln announces his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (September 22), which would free all slaves in areas rebelling against the United States, effective January 1, 1863.
BEGINNING OF THE END Lincoln also suspends the writ of habeas corpus and authorized military trials for Rebel insurgents, their aiders and abettors within the states, and anyone who discouraged volunteer enlistment Democrats denounced emancipation The risk of “semi-savage” blacks overwhelming the north to enter the labor force. Demo’s prayed on fear of whites losing jobs to blacks. Before Antietam Democrats were getting close to taking over the house, many people were beginning to side with the peace democrats After Antietam Mc Clellen was stuck in his ways of temerity. Lincoln waited until after the elections to remove Mc Clellen of Comand. The elections went well for the Democrats, They almost took the house but because of the victory at Antietam the Republicans managed to remain in control.While Antietam was not the final battle of the war, the victory there preserved the moral of the north and stopped foreign intervention. The country would have had a much different fate had the results of Antietam been different.
Jamaica is the 3rd largest islandof the Caribbean archipelago Over half of Jamaica is at more than 1,609 m above sea level The capital Kingston, is located on the south eastern coast.
Narrow coastal plains are typical of the north coast while wider coastal plains and broad embayments occur along the south coast. The mountainous terrainThe island of Jamaica has many rivers whichconsists of interior permeate the island.mountain ranges, and together with the fertilevalleys, limestone coastal plains, these formplateau and hills, ideal agriculturalsurrounded by coastal conditions.plains.
The indigenous people of Jamaica were theArawaks Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain, and a decade after his death the native Arawaks were exterminated During the Atlantic slave trade Africans were brought to Jamaica
92% of Jamaica’s residents are of Africandecent. 3.4% of the population is African-East Indians 3.2% are Caucasians and little over 1% Chinese and African-Chinese residents
The national language of Jamaica is EnglishMany of the islands inhabitants speak a hybrid of English, Spanish, and Portuguese, called Patois
There are large groups of Roman Catholics, Baptists, Anglicans, Jehovahs Witnesses, and the Rastafarian.Jamaican traditions are also a hybrid of thevarious religions on the island.
• Columbus arrives in the island in 1494 and the Spanish control it until 1692 when the British seize control. Little is known about the days when the Spaniards were masters of Jamaica.• In 1807, Jamaica flourished as an agricultural colony and became very rich.• It reached the height of its prosperity just before the slave trade was abolished.
• The years between the abolition of the slave trade and the Morant Bay rebellion in 1865, the country faced many hardships manifesting a uneasiness amongst the classes.• The Jamaica as we know it today came to be on August 6, 1962, and records the history of Jamaica as an independent country.
The language spoken in Jamaica is a patois, which is a language that is nonstandard, meaning it does not adhere to the rules of European language that it may be derived from.Thomas Mac Dermot is credited for the beginning of modern Jamaican literatureThe music of Jamaica includes Jamaican folk music and many popular genresJamaicas music culture is a fusion of elements from the United States, Africa and neighboring Caribbean islandsReggae is especially popular through the international fame of Bob Marley
Architecture reflects a synthesis of African, Spanish, and baroque British influences. Traces of pre-Columbian can be seen in the use of palm fronds thatch and mud walls (daub). Styles, materials, size, and furnishings differ more by class than by ethnicity.Photo: Roberto Albert Huie. Woman in Gabriel Garcia MarquezsRibeiro OAS the Sun. c. 1940. Love in the Time of Cholera
• Jamaican theater does not resemble Western theater.• Ceremonies combined music, dance, and poetic songs to celebrate the heroics of their chieftains• African song, dance, and storytelling greatly influenced the black community. Their dances and games sometimes involved acting and role- playing. Fund-raisers called tea meetings resembled a variety show, with audiences dressed up in elaborate finery to parody Theatre Royal patrons.Jamaicas diverse landscape offers a variety of shooting locationsfor movies.However local Jamaican productions have never really flourished,due to a distance from mainstream western film.
• http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jamaican- people-traditions-art-and-culture.html By Prabhakar Pillai Published: 5/28/2008• JAMAICAN HISTORY I http://www.discoverjamaica.com/gleaner/disc over/geography/history1.htm Published by: Gleaner
CHANGE IN 19TH CENTURY LATIN AMERICAPhillip Gaitan HIST141 11:00
Latin American Independence• Latin American Independence (1807-1824), – a political and military movement that ended colonial rule by Spain and Portugal over Mexico, Central America, and South America and gave birth to the modern independent nations of Latin America• 19th century, – Latin America was part of the Spanish and the Portuguese empires.• By the mid-1700s – the colonists complained about economic restrictions and tax burdens imposed by the imperial powers.• Influenced by new political ideas from Europe’s Age of Enlightenment, – colonists questioned traditional beliefs and authority and introduced such concepts as limiting the power of monarchs.
Latin American Independence• In 1807, Warfare with France – caused Spain & Portugal to loosen control over its American colonies, which led to a degree of colonial self-government and by1824 both of the great empires had collapsed.• Newly liberated colonists – found themselves ill-prepared to function effectively because their• Economies were not diversified• Leaders – were divided over the roles that government and the church should play in the new nations.• The independent nations – created somewhat more open societies than the colonial regimes they replaced, – But many of the countries came under the control of military dictators, setting a pattern that continued into the 20th century.
Midcentury Latin America• The first quarter-century brought numerous changes to Latin America. – There had been an increase in political turbulence, an increase in the extent of political participation, yet for the great majority of Latin Americans national politics had little meaning. They were still illiterate, still more susceptible, though seldom were exposed to actual hunger.• The decade of the 1820s did in fact see a flurry of reform activity almost everywhere. – the "reforms" had only superficial effect, some were quickly repealed, and, The 1830s and 1840s were typified instead by a preoccupation with the attainment of order and a generally moderate approach to questions of religious, social, or economic policy, waning of the impulse to change things.• until political order was more firmly established, even the most inherently desirable reform measures were premature. – about mid-century, as most countries entered a period of around twenty-five to thirty years in which economic growth provided a renewed basis for optimism• International trade increased five times from 1840 to 1870, – U.S. exports almost eight times from 1845 to 1880• North Atlantic capitalist economy about 1850 was entering a phase of sustained expansion. This phase lasted until roughly the mid-1870s, – European & the US were beginning to industrialize. – This put on a new demand for resources and South America was one of the targets for trade.
Midcentury Latin America• Andre Gunder Frank, believes – If the colonies had not let large scale cultivation take place, the social climate never would have been cool enough to implement liberal ideals, that because of urbanization you see increased commerce. – That individual freedoms took precedent over arbitrary authority and allowed entrepreneurs room to catch up with the world.• Around 1850 – A new generation of men, who were not disillusioned by the things they had seen became eager to do better than the men they were to replace.• Positivism, whose creed of "Order and Progress," standing for a more tough-minded approach to Latin American problems. – Latin America as well as strict Comtians were ready to accept some sacrifice of political liberty – They were prepared to do so because they, had come to feel some disillusionment with the results of doctrinaire liberalism as feverishly practiced above all in the 1850s and early 1860s.• Whatever may have been the precise causes-economic, generational, intellectual, and other- – the fact is that in roughly the third quarter of the nineteenth century Latin America experienced a concerted effort to implement liberal measures of every kind.• All this happened with a degree of synchronization from country to country. – No less than six sovereign South American republics carried out the final abolition of slavery in the same four-year period from 1851 through 1854.
British Interest in Latin America• The British understood that they need to get in on South America.• In 1810 • they negotiated with the Portuguese and opened Trade with Brazil.• In 1845 • The British economy goes in the dumps because investments in Brazil aren’t yielding. • Exports to the region were estimated at £6m• British and continental European markets grew rapidly and the costs of shipping began to fall • Exports to the region estimated at £13.6 million in 1860
British Interest in Latin America• Between 1870 and 1914, • despite setbacks in the mid 1870s and the early 1890s, Britains economic interests in Latin America reached their peak.• 1900 and 1914, • The United States consul in Buenos Aires had claimed: – It almost seems that the English have the preference in everything pertaining to the business and business interests of the country’ • These assets represented almost 10 per cent of Britains total overseas investment in 1913. • Britain possessed important interests in Peru, Chile and Uruguay, and many smaller investments elsewhere.• By the middle of the twentieth century • Britains influence had disintegrated. The First World War allowed the United States to move into Latin America • WWII further removed British interests in South America, and raised debts which were surrendered to South American governments.
Argentina• Argentina or Argentine Republic is the second largest country in South America after Brazil• Bordered by Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean• Argentina consists of diverse terrain. • In the middle of the country are the Pampas, vast fertile prairies that produce much of the country’s agricultural wealth.• In 1803 British tried to take Buenos Aires but the argentines fight them off and succeeded • Also rejected Napoleons claim to Argentina• Argentina has had a volatile political history • From 1810-1824 Argentines would fight to remove Spanish control• Unitarians Federalists – Favored Centralized Gov’tFavored Provincial self-government – Similar to the north and south during the US civil war.• There was a civil war in 1819 • Provincial armies occupied Buenos Aires, Peace was founded but solution was not.
Argentina• The military controlled the Argentine government at different times throughout the nation’s history.• The most notorious regime ruled from 1976 to 1983. • It committed gross human rights violations and killed thousands of people• 1879 General Julio A. Roca led an invasion of the southern Pampas, • They destroyed the indigenous people there and opened up vast amounts of farm land• There was a great economic boom • from 1880 to 1890 but in 1890 the market crashed then rebounded.• Early 1900 were good for Argentina,• Up until the first world war. • European Preoccupation with war limited goods being exported
Cause For War• Battles Fought in Latin America – race war, the ideology of independence, separation versus union, boundary disputes » territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, intra-class struggles • interventions caused by capitalism, and religious wars.• RACE WAR• The Haitian War for Independence (1791-1803) – In 1791 the affranchis sought the liberties given to all citizens by the French Revolution. » a struggle between the privileged white planters and the less privileged affranchis • rapidly became an all-out race war when the blacks ultimately dominated.• IDEOLOGY OF INDEPENDENCE – Spaniards born in colonies were in a lower class than their European born counterparts- These men began to yearn for freedom. – Napoleon takes Spain, at this point Spain looses a hold on its colonies but tries to hold on• Separation vs. Unity – After the loss of support from Spain would the colonies split or stick.• BOUNDARY DISPUTES – Newly formed nations fought for loosely defined borders
Cause For War• WARS OF TERRITORIAL CONQUEST – Stealing a neighbors watering hole. or grazing lands or mining or whatever.• CAUDILLOISM – Militaristic land lords, most were small but some got large and fought wars to control areas• RESOURCE WARS – Not enough nitrates to go around• INTRACLASS WARS• INTERVENTIONS CAUSED BY CAPITALISM – By the end of the civil wars many countries were devastated, and bankrupt – Feels like US saw a gold mine and wanted to make sure that republican capitalist free trade was open to it• RELIGIOUS WARS