Childhood Obesity

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Child Obesity: The Parent Role
NURS515

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Childhood Obesity

  1. 1. Peacemaker Mgboji Megan Dingus Pawn Johnson-Hunter Ifeoma Dike Katrina Hoadley NURS515
  2. 2.  Childhood obesity is a serious issue that has become the source of many illnesses for young children and adolescents in the nation.  This pandemic is introducing children to sicknesses that were once common only in adults.  Many children today are being treated for hypertension, diabetes, or high cholesterol.  The percentage of obese children in the U.S. has increased from 7% to nearly 18% within the past thirty years (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013).
  3. 3.  A few of the major influences that contribute to childhood obesity are environment, lack of resources, lack of education and decreased financial income.  All of these hindrances are usually found in communities that considered to be urban or low income.  This project will demonstrate how obesity in children has become a problem for this generation and possible solutions to combat the pandemic.  The following information is targeted at parents of children who are 6-11 years old, as they play a major if not central role in battling childhood obesity.
  4. 4.  Obesity in children is defined or diagnosed when a child reaches above the 95th percentile for body fat in their respective age and gender according to the growth chart.
  5. 5.  African Americans and Hispanic Americans are more likely than the Caucasian children to be overweight  Minority children are more likely than Caucasian children to have health problems related to obesity (Amico & Barbarito, 2012)
  6. 6. Although there are some genetic and hormonal causes of childhood obesity, most of the time it’s caused by kids eating too much and exercising too little. (Mayo Clinic, 2012)
  7. 7.  Rate of childhood obesity  18.8% of children ages 6-13 are overweight  This is more than 20% of the school children that are at risk for obesity in the school (Nies & McEwen, 2011)
  8. 8. Diet: Regularly eating high calorie foods, such as fast foods, baked goods and vending machine snacks can easily cause your child to gain weight. Loading up on soft drinks containing sugar, candy, and dessert also can cause weight gain. Lack of exercise: Children who don’t exercise much are more likely to gain weight because they don’t burn calories through physical activity. Inactive leisure activities, such as watching television or playing video games, contribute to the problem. (Mayo Clinic, 2012)
  9. 9. Family history: If your child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on excess weight, especially in an environment where high- calorie food is always available and physical activity isn’t encouraged. Psychological factors: Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Family factors: If many of the groceries you buy are convenience foods, such as cookies, chips and other high- calorie items, this can contribute to your child’s weight gain. (Mayo Clinic, 2012)
  10. 10. Socioeconomic factors: Foods that won’t spoil quickly, such as frozen meals, crackers and cookies often contain a lot of salt and fats. These foods are often less expensive or an easier option than fresher, healthier foods. (Mayo Clinic, 2012)
  11. 11.  Common medical consequences  Obese children tend to be taller than peers, have advanced bone ages, and mature faster  Hyperlipidemia: excess of lipids in bloodstream  Glucose intolerance and diabetes  Less common medical consequences  Hypertension  Pseudotumor Cerebri: increased intracranial pressure  Sleep Apnea  Orthopedic complications (Dietz, 1998, p. 519)
  12. 12.  Parents have more influence over their child’s weight than they may initially think  For example, a study on 60 obese children (aged 6-11 years) was performed  Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were completed for both parents and children  Hour long education sessions were held for both the parents in the experimental group and the children in the conventional group  Great changes were observed between the two groups in reduction of exposure to food stimuli and in eating habits (eating while standing, watching TV, etc) (Golan, Fainaru, & Weizman, 1998, p.1217)
  13. 13.  Mean weight reduction was much higher in experimental group (parent-only treatment) than conventional group (child-only) treatment)  The experiment concluded that “treatment of childhood obesity with the parents as the agents of change induces more behavior changes as well as weight loss than the conventional approach” in which children are responsible for their own weight loss. (Golan, Fainaru, & Weizman, 1998, p.1217)
  14. 14.  In another study, the Framingham Children’s Study, children were monitored with a device called the Caltrac accelerometer  The study found that children of active mothers were twice as likely to be active themselves  When both parents were active, these children were 5.8 times more likely to be active than children of two sedentary parents.  Thus, parents help shape the lifestyle of their children as well by setting a healthy example (Gortmaker, Kim, Lindsay, & Sussner, 2006, p.4)
  15. 15.  Another study was completed in which a conventional (child treatment only) group was compared with an interventional (parent treatment only) group  Child Treatment Only Group: children were prescribed a diet; 30 group sessions held  Parent Treatment Only Group: 14 1-hour support and educational sessions; all suggested changes intended for entire family  Participants were followed up 1, 2, and 7 years later  Seven years after the program terminated, mean reduction in children’s overweight was 29% in the parent-only group vs. 20.2% in the children-only group (Golan & Crow, 2003, p. 357)
  16. 16.  In an alternate article describing a similar experiment with elementary school-aged kids, it was noted that “the parents-only group showed a significant improvement in reduction of overall obesogenic habits in the house compared with the parent and child group.”  Focusing on educating parents on nutrition has a great effect on the prevention of obesity and unhealthy habits. (Golan, Kaufman, & Shahar, 2008, p. 1008)
  17. 17. According to the World Health Organization (WHO):  Obesity has doubled since the 1980’s.  65% of the world’s population is overweight or obese.  60% of children who are overweight before puberty will remain overweight as adults. (WHO, 2013))
  18. 18.  The key is to eat nutrition-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy, and protein. The USDA also recommends the moderation of fats, carbohydrates and processed foods.  The next slide is from www.choosemyplate.gov and gives a recommendation on the plate serving size for each food group.  It maybe beneficial to print it out and put it on the refrigerator for reference or you can contact a pediatrician or dietician for more information. (United States Department of Agriculture, 2013)
  19. 19.  There are many benefits to physical activity. In addition to helping combat obesity, it also increases muscle mass, decreases fat, improves mood and sleep and helps promote a general sense of wellness.  According to the USDA, it is recommended school aged children receive 60 minutes of physical activity each day and that it be moderate to vigorous in intensity. (United States Department of Agriculture, 2013)
  20. 20. A great way to get your child to move more is to make it a social event!  Take a walk after dinner.  Encourage involvement in recreational and/or after school programs.  Get the family involved…better yet get the community involved!  Making it a fun thing will help your child look forward to it and encourages them to want to do it on their own. (United States Department of Agriculture, 2013)
  21. 21.  The most important thing in addition to teaching about a healthier lifestyle with good eating habits and physical activity is by following the guidelines yourself.  Be sure to discuss your new healthier lifestyle plan with your doctor. (United States Department of Agriculture, 2013)
  22. 22.  The previously described experiment supports the fact that parents have a huge role to play in battling childhood obesity  In addition to seeking advice from the family doctor or the child’s pediatrician, parents can also utilize the internet to their advantage  www.choosemyplate.gov is one site that the United States Department of Agriculture sponsors to provide nutritional information to children and their families  Parents who have accounts on Facebook, Twitter, and other popular social networking sites can follow nutritional pages for day to day advice  There is a plethora of articles, slideshows, and videos that can provide nutritional ideas
  23. 23.  Parents play an extremely significant role in preventing childhood obesity.  By gaining a firm understanding in their children’s dietary practices, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and more, parents can learn how to create a healthful environment for their children.  New interventions in childhood obesity should shift their focus to parents rather than children in order to see greater improvements.
  24. 24. Amico, D., Barbarito, C., (2012). Health and Physical Assessment in Nursing (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Adolescent and School Health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm Dietz, W. H. (1998). Health consequences of obesity in youth: Childhood predictors of adult disease. PEDIATRICS, 101. Golan, M., & Crow, S. (2004). Targeting parents exclusively in the treatment of childhood obesity: Long-term results. Obesity Research, 12(2), 357-361. Golan, M., Fainaru, M., & Weizman, A. (1998). Role of behaviour modification in the treatment of childhood obesity with the parents as the exclusive agents of change. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 1217-1224. Golan, M., Kaufman, V., & Shahar. (2006). Childhood obesity treatment: Targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children. British Journal of Nutrition, 1008-1015.
  25. 25. Lindsay, A. C., Sussner, K. M., Kim, J., & Gortmaker, S. (2006). The role of parents in preventing childhood obesity. The Future of Children, 16, 169-186. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012). Childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/childhood-obesity/DS00698 Nies. M., & McEwen, M., (2011). Community/Public Health Nursing: Promoting the health of populations (5Th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier. United States Department of Agriculture. (2013). Healthy eating tips. Retrieved from Choose My Plate website: http://www.choosemyplate.gov World Health Organization. (2013). The challenge of obesity: Quick statistics. Obesity.

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