Precision (Indoor) Real Time Location Systems

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Precision (Indoor) Real Time Location Systems

  1. 1. Precision (indoor) Real Time Location Systems<br />Peter Batty<br />
  2. 2. Precision Location Tracking<br />Sensors<br />Tags<br />Real time 3D location model<br />
  3. 3. Location Tracking Indoors<br />A surprisingly hard problem<br />Direct signal<br />Multipath signal<br />
  4. 4. Technology Approaches<br />Active<br />RFID<br />Passive<br />UWB<br />RFID<br />WiFi<br />Accuracy<br />Presence<br />~ 3-4m<br />~ 15-30cm<br />UWB = ultrawideband<br />
  5. 5. Positioning technologies compared<br />ELECTRO-MAGNETIC<br />LASER<br />IDEAL<br />ULTRASOUND<br />PASSIVE<br />RFID<br />UWB<br />0.3<br />1<br />ACCURACY (m)<br />CONVENTIONAL<br />RF TIMING<br />3<br />IR PROXIMITY<br />WLAN RSSI<br />10<br />GPS<br />Point<br />Room<br />Building<br />Factory<br />City<br />SCALE<br />
  6. 6. Why is UWB best?<br />Normal signals<br /> Reflections & direct signal interfere<br />Signal strength<br />Receiver<br />Time<br />reflected<br />signal<br />10-15ns = 3~5m error<br />UWB<br />Can distinguish direct signal & reflections<br />direct<br />signal path<br />reflected<br />signal<br />Signal strength<br />Time<br />Transmitter<br />500ps = 0.15m error<br />
  7. 7. Ubisense UWB RTLS key facts<br />SENSOR<br />SENSOR<br />Tag<br />TAG<br />Sensor<br />Sensing Method Time-difference-of-arrival + Angle-of-Arrival<br />AccuracyUp to 15cm in 3D<br />Range Up to 160m<br />Coverage area Unlimited<br />Tag count Unlimited<br />Update rate Variable, 10 updates/sec to 1 update/hour<br />Tag battery lifetime Several years, depending on usage profile<br />
  8. 8. Ubisense UWB RTLS tags<br />Different tags for different applications<br />Asset tagwith small form factor<br />Omnidirectionalantenna<br />5 year battery life (typical)<br />Personnel tagwith additional I/O features<br />Buzzer<br />LEDs<br />Buttons<br />Intrinsically safe version<br />For use in oil/gas installations<br />Industrial tag<br />For manufacturing, transportation<br />Larger battery, more robust<br />Modular tag for direct integration<br />Receives power from host<br />Can transfer data from host to/from system<br />
  9. 9. INTEGRATION WITH GPS<br />GPS is appropriate for tracking persons, vehicles and assets in large outdoor areas<br />GPS signals break down as the receiver enters an urban area<br />Ubisense will automatically sense the location of the person or vehicle as it enters and area of coverage and the location can then utilize the Ubisense UWB system<br />Ubisense has developed a tri-mode tag which includes UWB/2.4GHz/GPS<br />© Ubisense, 2011. Company Confidential © www.ubisense.net<br />9<br />
  10. 10. SiRFstar GPS module<br />The Tri-Mode tag in detail…<br />2.4 GHz module<br />Ultra Wideband module<br />© by Ubisense 2010<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Ubisense Module integrated with power tool<br />
  12. 12. Ubisense UWB RTLS sensors<br />Angle-and-time-sensing receivers<br />Planar array of four UWB receivers per sensor<br />Angular resolution ~ 1°<br />Time resolution ~ 200ps (≡6cm distance)<br />Sensors connect via Ethernet network<br />Use existing structured cabling<br />Powered over Ethernet<br />Optional networking via WiFi<br />Cellular architecture<br />Similar to mobile phone systems<br />Scale to large sites by adding more cells<br />
  13. 13. RTLS installation procedure<br />Step 1: Site survey to assess characteristics of the facility<br />Step 2: Design the layout of the sensors to give the optimum performance<br />Step 3: Install cabling for sensor network and connection to computer network<br />Step 4: Calibrate the system using survey equipment <br />Step 5: Operate the system to provide location, tracking, recording<br />
  14. 14. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE<br />Ubisense<br />Sensor<br />3D visualization software<br />Sensor network is installed inside and outside of the buildings within the facility<br />A small tag is placed on the shoulder of the soldier or attached to an asset and associated with their ID<br />Data is displayed and recorded and stored in standard database format or can be exported in real-time to other display and AAR platforms<br />Ubisense<br />Tag<br />Ubisense<br />3D Environment<br />© Ubisense, 2011. Company Confidential © www.ubisense.net<br />14<br />
  15. 15. RTLS Applications and Case Studies<br />Logistics<br />Manufacturing<br />Process & Energy<br />Public Transport<br />Events & Entertainment<br />Agriculture<br />Military<br />Research & Other<br />
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  17. 17. Bus tracking<br />
  18. 18. Metro Transit Bus Depots, Minneapolis, USA(Transit Yard Management)<br />System locates buses inside parking garages<br />RTLS updates scheduling tool automatically<br />System records time spent in maintenance <br />Departures scheduled according to location<br />Replaces manual system, saving money<br />Quick facts<br />Installed area: 62500m2<br /> (across five garages)<br />Sensors: 450<br />Accuracy: <100cm in 2D<br />Reliability: 99.9%<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Aerospace manufacturing<br />http://flic.kr/p/4ZSNNS<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Multiple Airbus sites in Europe(Process Tracking)<br />Process monitoring across multiple factory sites in UK, France, Germany<br />Provides central overview of process state<br />Automatically updates ERP system<br />Ensures correct pacing of component work items for final assembly<br />Quick facts<br />Installed area: 18000m2 (per hangar)<br />Sensors: 38 (per hangar)<br />Accuracy: <100cm in 3D<br />
  21. 21. BMW<br />Track cars and tools, 1000 cars per day<br />1.7km of track, 320 sensors<br />
  22. 22. BMW Car Plant Regensburg, Germany (Final Assembly Tool Assistance)<br />Video 3:50, 5:00<br />Manufacturing<br />Installed area: 1.7 km assembly line | Sensors: 350 | Accuracy: 30 cm in 3D | Events/day: 150000 | Reliability: 99.99%<br />Problem<br />Different models of car are produced on the same line necessitating loading a different tool program into the power tools based on the specific vehicle to be worked upon. Previously the identification of the vehicle occurred using a barcode scanner resulting in unproductive work (~6 seconds per tool op. at 150 tool stations on 1,000 cars per day).<br />The Ubisense solution<br />The Ubisense system tracks both vehicles and tools detecting when a tool is brought close to the vehicle. The required tool program is obtained from the MES using the VIN and sent directly to the IBS Tool Controller to program & enable the tool. The system solution was jointly developed by Ubisense and IBS.<br />Result<br />Cost and time reduction on the line and quality improvement by excluding human error and re-work. Unproductive time saved reduces costs by many $100,000‘s.<br />Production Management System<br />Ubisense Tool Assistance<br />IBS Tool Controller<br />Vehicle - Tool association<br />DC Tooling<br />Case Study © by Ubisense 2011<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Aston Martin Car Plant Gaydon, UK (Finishing Process Tracking)<br />Manufacturing<br />Installed area: 11700 m² | Sensors: 58 | Accuracy: 50 cm in 2D | Reliability: 99.9%<br />Problem<br />As cars come off-line into the finishing area, they can miss process steps leading to rework or become ‘stuck’ in a step creating inventory build up.<br />The Ubisense solution<br />The Ubisense system tracks the vehicles as they come ‘off-line’ and move through specific process stages (rolling road, wheel alignment, paint inspection, etc.). Defined rules specify the process order and dwell time thresholds (time spent in a step). Exceptions trigger alerts visible to shop-floor operators and reported on intranet.<br />Result<br />Time reduction and Work In Progress (WIP) throughput improvement as cars are always visible through the finish and rework process. Reduced rework and improved quality.<br />Enterprise Intranet<br />Ubisense Process Tracker<br />Vehicle - Bay /Area association &<br />process rules<br />Case Study © by Ubisense 2011<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Cow tracking<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Dairy Cow Stables, Denmark (Agriculture)<br />Ubisense partnered with Smarter Farming<br />Animal Welfare System built on RTLS<br />Cows tracked around barns<br />Movement analyzed for health information<br />Improves animal health & farm productivity<br />Quick facts<br />Installed area: 1500m2 (per stable)<br />Sensors: 8<br />Accuracy: <30cm in 2D<br />
  26. 26. US Army training<br />3 buildings inside and out<br />Up to 100 soldiers, 2 updates per second<br />65 sensors<br />http://flic.kr/p/7i3Fen<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Multiple Army training sites, U.S.(Military Training)<br />System tracks participants in exercises<br />Works inside and around buildings, taking over from GPS in ‘urban canyon’<br />Trainers have real-time visibility of exercise<br />After-Action Review enhances training<br />Can model weapons like IEDs, grenades<br />Quick facts<br />Installed area: 17 buildings (at one site)<br />Sensors: 320 (at one site)<br />Accuracy: <30cm in 3D<br />
  28. 28. Plant safety<br />flickr.com/photos/libelul60/2409079398/<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />PoscoFinexPlant, Pohang, Korea(Personnel Safety)<br />Tracking workers at a blast furnace<br />Must cover multiple floors<br />Metallic, highly-obstructed environment<br />Automatic check-in and check-out<br />Last known position assists rescue teams<br />Quick facts<br />Installed area: 12000m2<br /> (on 12 floors)<br />Sensors: 80<br />Accuracy: <100cm in 2D<br />
  30. 30. University of Florida dementia<br />Location based art<br />Santander visitor center (38s)<br />Links to videos are at http://www.ubisense.net/en/resources/videos.html<br />© Ubisense, 2011. Company Confidential © www.ubisense.net<br />30<br />Other applications<br />

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