More than 30_mb


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Traditionally browsing alone has been the dominant paradigm
  • Osmond 117 152 Osmond 119 341
  • HUB Aud 385 Heritage Hall 475 Alumni Hall for posters
  • This color coded map shows the main venues that we will utilize for ASV
  • Approx. walking times from the main meeting venues to and from Eisenhower Aud., our morning symposium site.
  • This color coded map shows the main venues that we will utilize for ASV
  • Beaver Stadium will be where our Tuesday night party will be. Transportation will be avialable for inclement weather, or for those who choose not to walk. Hintz Alumni Center will be where our evening mixers will be
  • Mixers
  • Walking time to and from a couple of satellite venues. NLI where your speakers and council members can stay, and where you can have meetings and banquets Hetzel Union building is where we plan to have poster presentations Eateries and coffee bars are on the upper and lower levels, along with seating, art galleries and lounges Wireless internet access throughout this building Bookstore Copy center
  • This color coded map shows the main venues that we will utilize for ASV
  • Nittany Lion Inn is a gracious, colonial style hotel right on-campus. A 15 minute walk to ASV sessions
  • Nittany Lion Inn is a gracious, colonial style hotel right on-campus. A 15 minute walk to ASV sessions
  • Penn State has a conference center and hotel two miles from campus. We will not be using this facility except for hotel rooms.
  • This color coded map shows the main venues that we will utilize for ASV
  • Downtown skirts the south side of campus, a 7 minute walk from Eisenhower Aud. A 3 minute walk from Eastview Terrace
  • Real time collaboration and updating provides a very different feel to the web than static or even dynamic web pages. You feel the social presence of people something we are used to in real life. For example, I am standing here, and I can see, feel, hear all of you. For example, take a look at DiggSpy, where you can watch what people have been digging. This allows a whole new level of socability. It lets you feel the presence of groups of people.
  • So what is social sharing. Lets start with what its not. Its not the social networks of 2001. How many of you are on Frienster and LinkedIN. How many of you have sent that awkward sounding email to your friends. Hi I found you while
  • Lets go back, back to 2001. Back to the beginning of social networks. Remember the excitement. How many of you have seen such a diagram? How many of you are a member of such a network?
  • But how do we really connect?
  • Overview of Web 2.0 and introduction to Virtual Worlds
  • So what is Web 2.0? A quick overview…
  • – O’Reilly’s Web 2.0 conference first ran in October 2004 Theme: “The Web as Platform” "While the first wave of the Web was closely tied to the browser, the second wave extends applications across the web and enables a new generation of services and business opportunities." “ You have to remember that every revolution occurs in stages, and often isn't recognized till long after the new world is in place.” “ There might be a better name (I tried internet operating system on for size starting back in 2000), but the fact that Web 2.0 has caught on says that it's as good a term as any.” (Tim O’Reilly - See for the original
  • See the original Here is a depiction of Web 2.0 as a growing cultural organism with the tools, standards and techniques enabling it in blue on the top and some of the key characteristics of the organism on the bottom - simplicity (light-weight programming models)  Only easy things will continue to propagate (PHP) - community-development is represented here in “software that gets better with the more people use it” and “harnessing the collective intelligence” - move to web services that are published on the web, not hardened and shrink wrapped - assembly of consumable pieces which enable architectural participation from end-users and the community - again bandwidth, graphics, and graphic app models are driving users to demand rich user experiences - drag and drop, location based visualizations,  the end of command line text windows! ==================== Google, by contrast, began its life as a web application, never sold or packaged, but delivered as a service. Customer paid for the service, directly or indirectly No scheduled software releases, just continuous improvement. No licensing or sale, just usage. No porting to different platforms so that customers can run the software on their own equipment, just a massively scalable collection of commodity PCs running open source operating systems plus homegrown applications and utilities that no one outside the company ever gets to see. At bottom, Google requires a competency: database management, not a collection of software tools, it's a specialized database. Without the data, the tools are useless; without the software, the data is unmanageable. Software licensing and control over APIs--the lever of power in the previous era--is irrelevant because the software never need be distributed but only performed, and also because without the ability to collect and manage the data, the software is of little use. In fact, the value of the software is proportional to the scale and dynamism of the data it helps to manage. Much like a phone call, which happens not just on the phones at either end of the call, but on the network in between, Google happens in the space between browser and search engine and destination content server, as an enabler or middleman between the user and his or her online experience. Other important Web 2.0 themes: Rich user experience Emergence Play Archicture of participation Harnessing collective intelligence Perpetual beta
  • One opinion of Web 2.0
  • What will come post-web 2.0? Web 3.0 Web3 3D Internet Virtual Worlds ? A lot of attention of Virtual Worlds
  • Gamers are increasing in number, and buying power IBM by no means dominant here, but starting to show a real interest……
  • Virtual Worlds are an emerging opportunity for a wide range of activities, including marketing, online commerce and services. Popular non-game Virtual World platforms (such as Second Life) are expanding fast with thriving economies. We are seeing the beginnings of the exploitation of the market, with the BBC, sporting events, high-street names and web brands announcing their involvement. This continues the shift from a passive audience to an engaged, interactive population Virtual Worlds are the web, rendered in interactive 3D. They could mark the start of the next phase of web technology.
  • Virtual Worlds are an emerging opportunity for a wide range of activities, including marketing, online commerce and services. Popular non-game Virtual World platforms (such as Second Life) are expanding fast with thriving economies. We are seeing the beginnings of the exploitation of the market, with the BBC, sporting events, high-street names and web brands announcing their involvement. This continues the shift from a passive audience to an engaged, interactive population Virtual Worlds are the web, rendered in interactive 3D. They could mark the start of the next phase of web technology. More than 50% users are in Europe 10% of users have remained for 40 hours or more These stats are usually out of date. Try to check the latest figures.
  • The BBC, who are frequently early adopters, announced an event in Second Life in May 2006. The streaming video from the One Big Weekend event (being held in Dundee) was shown in-world to provide people with another means of following the action. The key thing here is the party happening in the foreground. People are dancing, showing off and chatting. The BBC also did a Second Life session for their Newsnight programme around January 2006. ( In 2007, Newsnight caught up with some IBMers for a segment in their show
  • Major League Baseball ( ) paid the Electric Sheep Company for a virtual baseball stadium to host the Home Run Derby event. I’m not a baseball fan, but even I was hooked enough by the lively atmosphere that staying up until 2am UK time was well worth it.
  • Warner Bros, who promote Regina Spektor, are marketing her latest album within Second Life. They have a New York loft apartment with a tape recorder playing clips of her music, with the mood of the room changing with the music.
  • American Apparel (A large US clothing store) opened a store in Second Life Possibly the first example of a real brand creating a SL store More: read the story at
  • Reuters have an embedded journalist (Adam Pasick) who writes articles in and about Second Life And more brands… Toyota, Adidas, Reebok, Sun, Sony, Vodafone…
  • IBM is already interested in virtual worlds for several reasons 1.) internal collaboration and communications 2.) external reach to our clients and their customers 3.) research. 3D Internet as a future web-like model. Driving adoption of (and creation of, if necessary) standards
  • IBM already runs various meetings inside SL. We can’t share confidential material using SL (since the servers are not run by IBM), but it’s a useful place to socialise and confidential matters can always be discussed over the telephone while being augmented by avatar interactions Difficulties with conference calls Uncomfortable video conferences Using an avatar gives freedom of expression, and seems to break down barriers.
  • GreaterIBM is an initiative to connect past and present IBMers. We’ve already been using virtual world to augment real world activities — since we can’t always travel to meet with each other, the virtual world allows us to meet in a setting that is more like real life, and collaborating and networking in these immersive environments The IBM Alumni block party (for The Greater IBM Connection, was a great success, and Greater IBM continues to actively explore how to use virtual worlds to bring past and present employees together.
  • Sam Palmisano appeared in avatar form to address IBMers regarding the results of the Innovation Jam. One outcome was funding for a ‘3D Internet’ project (
  • The 12 island complex ( 194 acres of land ) is IBM’s big public presence in Second Life. It has various projects within it, including… three huge meeting spaces (each capable of seating over 200 people) The House of Horizons project: This collaborative project is a Danish initiative from a number of international organisations that seek to experiment with virtual world benefits to real world activities and vice versa. Through a series of Second Life based facilities and a variety of tenants, House of Horizons explores the new opportunities that arise when normal physical factors and geography are suspended and replaced by a digital reality. House of Horizons founding partners are: Danish based Innovation Lab, IBM, and Computerworld Denmark, in association with the Danish architectural firm Arkitema. A meeting place for the IBM ‘Virtual Universe Community’, already over 1000 IBMers. ‘ SOA hub’ is the early stages of a build we plan to fully unveil in January. It is an example of how you can use the 3D, immersive worlds to simplify the complex by “showing” people these concepts and allowing them to experience them through 3D interactions that explain business concepts in a more easy to understand way. The lessons we learn in running this sort of event can be passed on to our clients too; we will apply what we are developing here from an education and training standpoint to all sorts of other areas and for our clients.
  • We’ve partnered with Circuit City to explore and experiment with how we can apply virtual worlds to their business — from doing business inside of virtual worlds to connecting the virtual world with the real world to create a richer, more immersive Web environment. This early build of a virtual Circuit City store is an area where we are experimenting with how to enrich a user experience by using virtual worlds to augment both the Web experience and the real world experience. Other immersive features that IBM and Circuit City are experimenting with include an interactive home theater, where customers can easily recreate their own home environment to do things like setting up a home theater — users can easily move a couch at the proper distance from where they want to put a new TV, and it automatically tells them the optimal size TV to purchase for their room dimensions, and eventually will add other features like where to place speakers for a surround sound system. As with everything in the IBM complex, we’re keen to get client and public feedback so it can improve over time.
  • Build for Sears (see
  • From July 2006, a quick prototype build by Emerging Technology Services for the Wimbledon tennis championships. It involved displaying the path of the ball (thanks to the ‘Hawkeye’ data captured on-court) as well as clothing and even flying towels.
  • The Australian Open project brings the Hawkeye data feed idea explored for the Wimbledon demo into a full one island (16 acre) build, with all aspects of the Oz Open from the shop to the scoreboard to the tennis court with players which move with the real data feed.
  • Encourages independence Takes advantage of tacit knowledge People have specialized knowledge Need some type of loose coordination
  • More than 30_mb

    1. 1. Designing for Social Sharing Rashmi Sinha
    2. 2. browsing alone
    3. 3. Osmond Lab 2 Auditoriums: • 341 • 152
    4. 4. Hetzel Union Building 2 Auditoriums: • 475 • 385 • Posters in Alumni Hall
    5. 5. Penn State Campus Main Presentation Sites: < 4 Thomas Aud’s (726, 242, 171, 94) Wartik (70) > Osmond (341, 152) > HUB > 2 Aud’s (475, 385), Hall for Posters Life Sciences (182) v < White Gym (Exhibits ) < Chemistry (70) < Eisenhower Auditorium (2,500)
    6. 6. Auditoriums & Meeting Rooms* <ul><li>Walk Time from </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Seats Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower Auditorium 2,595 /1,755 Home Base </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Auditoriums 726, 242, 171 2 minutes HUB Auditoriums 475, 385 5 minutes Osmond Classrooms 341, 152 5 minutes Life Sciences 186 2 minutes Wartik Auditoriums 171, 153 4 minutes </li></ul>* > 15 smaller classrooms within 6 minutes’ walk, (50-150 seats)
    7. 7. Penn State Campus <ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Council Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Banquets </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni Center </li></ul><ul><li>Evening Mixers </li></ul><ul><li>Beaver Stadium </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuesday Banquet Tailgate Party and Old-Fashioned Ice Cream Social and Sock-Hop </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Banquet & Social Venues
    8. 8. <ul><li> Walk Time to </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Beaver Stadium Tuesday Night Banquet* 15 minutes Mt. Nittany Club All Sports Museum </li></ul><ul><li>* Tailgate Party w/ Old-Fashioned Ice Cream Social & Sock Hop </li></ul><ul><li>Hintz Alumni Building For Evening Mixers 12 minutes </li></ul>Social Events
    9. 9. Hintz Alumni Center Evening Mixers: • 400 Indoors • 400 Patio Seating
    10. 10. Beaver Stadium Tuesday Night Banquet - Tailgate Party and Old Fashioned Ice Cream Party and Sock-Hop Nittany Club Sports Museum
    11. 11. Posters, Exhibits & Socials <ul><li> Walk Time to </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Capacities Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Hetzel Union Building (HUB) 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni Hall Posters up to 550 </li></ul><ul><li>HUB Eateries Seating for 900 </li></ul><ul><li>White Gym Exhibits 7 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn 15 minutes Ballroom Banquets up to 500 3 Banquet Rooms Banquets up to 160 </li></ul><ul><li>4 Meeting Rooms Banquets up to 100 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Penn State has a full-service catering company on campus for breaks and meals. We also have our own bakery which supplies Java Co. Catering
    13. 13. Hotels <ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Council Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Banquets </li></ul>Banquet & Social Venues
    14. 14. Nittany Lion Inn The Nittany Lion Inn is a gracious, colonial style hotel right on-campus. A 15 minute walk to ASV sessions A National Trust historic hotel
    15. 15. A National Trust historic hotel • For Banquets & Council Meetings • 220 Sleeping Rooms Nittany Lion Inn
    16. 17. Courtyard Inn Nittany Lion Inn Days Inn Hampton Inn Hilton Garden Inn Ramada Inn Atherton Penn Stater 2 mi from campus >
    17. 18. Conference Center • 2 miles From Campus • 300 Luxury Rooms
    18. 19. Exhibits
    19. 20. Penn State Campus Main Presentation Sites: < Eisenhower Auditorium (2,500)
    20. 21. Downtown State College flanks the south side of campus, a five-minute walk from campus housing, and a 12 minute walk from Eisenhower Auditorium.
    21. 22. MEALS ON-CAMPUS Breakfast $ 5.75 Lunch $ 8.25 Dinner $10.00 Banquet $45.00 HOUSING ON-CAMPUS * Single Room in Eastview Terrace $57.00/night Double Room Nittany Suites $40.00/night * Includes Breakfast
    22. 23. Budget
    23. 27. WOW is millions of people with diverse backgrounds collaborating, socializing, and learning while having fun. It represents the future of real-time collaborative teams in an always-on, diversity-intensive, real-time environment. WOW is a glimpse into our future. Joi Ito in Wired Magazine
    24. 28. 240,000 users
    25. 29. Wells Fargo StageCoach Island
    26. 30. American Apparel
    27. 31. Four draws of such games <ul><li>the ability to socialize </li></ul><ul><li>an achievement system that gives players an incentive to improve </li></ul><ul><li>complex and satisfying strategy that makes combat fun </li></ul><ul><li>underlying narrative that players want to learn more about </li></ul><ul><li>Many games also update continuously, adding features and addressing user requests </li></ul>
    28. 32. Alone together <ul><li>Social interaction in online gaming (Ducheneaut et al. 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by others. Feel their presence, not interacting all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: Reading book in a cafe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectacle: Performing for an audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: Playing pinball with others watching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social facilitation (Zajonc, 1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved performance in presence of others (even if presence is passive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed even in cockroaches! </li></ul></ul>
    29. 33. The web has become a social sphere Massively multiplayer online games Rich interfaces enable richer interactions
    30. 34. Part II
    31. 35. Part II: What is social sharing?
    32. 37. Hi I found you while I was searching my network at LinkedIn. Let's connect directly, so we can help each other with referrals. If we connect, both of our networks will grow. To add me as your connection, just follow the link below.
    33. 38. First generation Social Networks (Friendster, LinkedIn…) 1) I am linked to -> -> to you ---> --->You are linked to her -> ---> so on… <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships can be marked, hubs identified </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of six degrees of separation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Are you my friend” type of awkwardness </li></ul>
    34. 39. Object mediated social networks “… call for the rethinking of sociality along lines that include objects in the concept of social relations.” Katrin-Knorr Cetina
    35. 40. Coffee Dance performance Tomatoes
    36. 41. Second generation social networks <ul><li>Put objects at the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social News Creation </li></ul></ul>
    37. 42. Social sharing of our stuff (social networks with objects in between) e.g., Flickr, Yahoo answers 1) I share my pics -> -> with you ---> -->You share your pics -> ---> with him <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>People share objects and watch others </li></ul><ul><li>Social connections are through objects </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of social streams of information with emergence of popular, interesting items </li></ul>
    38. 43. Viral sharing (passing on interesting stuff) e.g., YouTube videos 1) I send video I like -> -> to you. You pass on --> --> to her, who sends on to her, who passes on… <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Individual to individual to individual </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity based navigation helps track “viral” items </li></ul>
    39. 44. Tag-based social sharing (linked by concepts…) e.g., Flickr, 1) I tag my bookmarks -> you see my tags -->You share your tags -> <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Saving & tagging your stuff (creating bookmarks). </li></ul><ul><li>Tags mediate social connections </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of social/conceptual information streams. Emergence of popular, interesting items </li></ul>politics lebanon Global voices politics technology Global voices web JAVA CNN networks blogs science science science brain
    40. 45. Social news creation (rating news stories) e.g., digg, Newsvine 1) I find interesting story -> you rate story -->Others rate stories <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Finding and rating stories </li></ul><ul><li>Popular stories rise to top </li></ul>5 4
    41. 46. Objects invite us to <ul><li>Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>React </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out </li></ul>
    42. 47. Part III: So you want to design for social sharing?
    43. 48. Forget the ipod!
    44. 49. Web 2.0 and Virtual Worlds Roo Reynolds Metaverse Evangelist [email_address]
    45. 50. Your innocent laughter was so pure
    46. 51. To my pain it was the cure
    47. 52. My heart fills with pain so much
    48. 53. To see all the lives of people that you have touched..
    49. 54. memories of you are so sweet …
    50. 55. But sometimes <ul><li>they make me weep … </li></ul>
    51. 56. A story of an African Safari An adventure experienced by three little boys. PART ONE
    52. 57. It was November 2006…. <ul><li>The three boys were together in the back of the car. It was hot and sticky. They had been driving a long time. They were getting kind of cranky but Taz kept reminding the other two that they were about to see LOTS OF AFRICAN ANIMALS. </li></ul><ul><li>He knew, because Ouma had told him so. </li></ul>
    53. 58. <ul><li>Oupa suggested a contest: the first one to see an animal would be the winner. He explained that it was an old family tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>And then, Leon saw what looked like a stick on the side of the road…. </li></ul>
    54. 59. <ul><li>“ SNAKE!!!” Leon shouted. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nonsense,” said Daniel. That’s just a silly old stick.” </li></ul>“ No,” said Taz, look, it’s moving…it IS a snake!”
    55. 60. Looking out different windows <ul><li>When Papa looked out the window on his side of the car, he could see this. </li></ul>When Mama looked out the window on HER side of the car, she could see this. There was a snake AND a stick.
    56. 61. Which snake do you think it is? Me! It is me! I’m a puff adder. The book says I’m ‘large, thick bodied, sluggish, broad head is covered in small scales. Tail very short. Body scales rough. Body yellowish to light brown with numerous dark chevrons… active at dusk, Up to 30 young born in late summer. May give deep warning hiss. Bites readily. Venom causes swelling and pain, occasionally death. Found throughout Africa.’
    57. 62. <ul><li>The snake in the picture was the first puffadder that Ouma had ever seen. She had to ask her brother, Guillaume, what kind of snake it was. Guillaume is a hiker and a mountaineer so he knows more about snakes than she does. He immediately knew the answer. </li></ul>
    58. 63. Does Leon win? Is a snake an animal? No! I’m a banana, not a snake. (How can I get them to come closer so I can SHOW THEM my FANGS?) A snake is a reptile. Reptiles are members of the animal kingdom. So yes, Leon won – the snake IS an animal.
    59. 64. <ul><li>The way to avoid puff adders is to look in the path in front of you when you walk and to make a small amount of noise – like tapping a stick against the rocks in the path. The puff adder then gets a fright and gets out of your way. </li></ul><ul><li>(Shouting is a BAD IDEA because then it frightens all the other animals away too.) </li></ul>
    60. 65. But what about the stick on the other side of the car? No, a stick is not an animal. A stick comes from a tree, so it is part of a plant. HOWEVER, a stick can be an insect. During their exploration of the camp the boys saw several stick insects. BUT THIS STICK? It is a very special thing. It is a message – a signal. There’s one animal in the African bush that likes breaking such leafy sticks off trees to carry around until they get bored, then they drop them. The boys soon found out what that animal is….
    61. 66. Compare two of the little boys to the elephant in SIZE Why is Taz holding his nose???
    62. 67. … .because he’s never ever smelled anything like an elephant before Elephant poo!
    63. 68. <ul><li>Elephants are MUCH bigger in real life than the ones one sees on TV. </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants in Kruger Park are very used to cars and buses and sometimes will allow us to get quite close to them – THEN you can see exactly how big they are. </li></ul>
    64. 69. You can tell how recently an elephant passed by, based on the elephant dung. <ul><li>Can you guess how? </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe you already know? </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t and would like to, ask your father. </li></ul>
    65. 70. They carried on driving….. <ul><li>Although it was very hot, Uncle Eric </li></ul><ul><li>(Dad, to you, Daniel!) insisted that they kept the windows open and the air conditioner off. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Only with the windows open will you hear the birds and the insects and smell the bushveld smells,” he said. </li></ul>
    66. 71. The boys decided to have a counting competition – each had to pick a species, and the one who counted the most members of that species on a day would be the winner. Guess who picked the impala to count?
    67. 72. Once there were so many buffaloes crossing the road that we just had to sit and wait. You don't argue with a herd of buffaloes!
    68. 73. Did we see lions? Not everyone sees lions. But Eric is usually lucky. So make sure you're close to Eric!
    69. 74. They searched between the trees in the distance …. <ul><li>They looked right beside the road; </li></ul><ul><li>Then Daniel looked UP….. </li></ul>
    70. 75. He had spotted an eagle: An African fish eagle
    71. 76. Then we approached a bridge. There was something sitting on the railing
    72. 77. One of the fishermen of the region. A heron.
    73. 78. The heron didn't like the noise from the car and left
    74. 79. Oupa stopped the car. He ALWAYS stops the car on a bridge. WHY?
    75. 80. Because there are almost always things to see... IN the river OR next to the river This time it was a saddle-bill stork
    76. 81. And ME – Baz saw me too, and pointed me out to the boys. He asked them what was the difference between a turtle and a tortoise and THEY DIDN’T KNOW! Imagine that!
    77. 82. And sausages growing on a sausage tree!
    78. 83. <ul><li>Check emails regularly for the next exciting instalment of A STORY OF AN AFRICAN SAFARI </li></ul>
    79. 84. I’m sorry … for the bad times we had to share
    80. 85. I’m thankful … <ul><li>for the sad times you’ve helped me bare. </li></ul>
    81. 86. that have known you. <ul><li>i am proud to be one amongst tons of </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>
    82. 87. So many people you have helped with just a smile
    83. 88. you were the type that was worth waiting for a while … <ul><li>so many memories </li></ul><ul><li>filled with laughter </li></ul>
    84. 89. if only they keep going forever after
    85. 90. years went by it seems so long ago but at the same time i can’t let you go i can’t seem to get over the fact that you’re gone <ul><li>i keep expecting you to show up for more laughs and fun </li></ul>
    86. 91. you were such a young person and you opened my eyes <ul><li>Always a legend you will be in my eyes </li></ul>
    87. 92. Web 2.0
    88. 93. Web 2.0 examples (then and now) <ul><li>Personal websites -> blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Britannica Online -> Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>DoubleClick -> Google AdSense </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name speculation -> search engine optimisation </li></ul><ul><li>Screen scraping -> web services </li></ul><ul><li>Content management systems -> wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Directories (taxonomy) -> tagging (&quot;folksonomy&quot;) </li></ul>
    89. 94. Web 2.0 components / characteristics The Web as “ The Platform” Tools: RSS, AJAX, PHP, Ruby Services, not packaged software Architecture of participation Small pieces loosely joined, or “re-mixed” Harnessing collective intelligence Software that gets better as more people use it Standards: REST, XHTML Techniques: Mash-up, wiki, tagging, blogging Rich user experience Light-weight programming models
    90. 95. Key themes to remember <ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated content </li></ul>
    91. 96. Web 2.0 attitude <ul><li>“ Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It’s about enabling and encouraging participation through open applications and services . By open I mean technically open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open , with rights granted to use the content in new and exciting contexts.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Davis </li></ul>
    92. 97. Web 2.0 is understood – so what’s next?
    93. 98. Games?! A few numbers… <ul><li>69% of American heads of households play computer or video games </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, 25% of gamers were over the age of 50 </li></ul><ul><li>The average game player age is 33 </li></ul><ul><li>44% of most frequent game players say they play games online </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, video and computer games sales came in at $7billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly down on 2004 – due to new consoles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Entertainment Software Association., “Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry, 2006” </li></ul>
    94. 99. Virtual Worlds - background <ul><li>Online Games </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Quake, Half-Life, … </li></ul><ul><li>MMORPGs (Massively multiplayer online role-playing games) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Everquest, Project Entropia, World of Warcraft, … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent online world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Worlds - Massively multiplayer (but not role-playing games) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Second Life, Big World, … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The users generate the content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not really a game; no objectives – ‘just’ a platform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A place for meeting, building, selling, collaborating and exploring. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    95. 100. Virtual Worlds <ul><li>Second Life ( ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,600,000+ user accounts and growing fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,100,000+ logged on in past 2 months. Usually 15,000+ concurrently online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of US$ changes hands between players every month. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC, Wired, Economist, Business Week, Observer, Sunday Times, Guardian, Channel 4, CBS, USA Today, The Register, Forbes, … everyone </li></ul></ul>
    96. 101. BBC – One Big Weekend concert with streaming audio and video
    97. 102. Major League Baseball event hosted in virtual stadium
    98. 103. Regina Spektor – marketed in-world by Warner Bros.
    99. 104. American Apparel virtual store
    100. 105. Reuters have a Second Life office, complete with embedded journalist
    101. 106. Why does IBM care?
    102. 107. Meetings
    103. 108. IBM Alumni event (
    104. 109. IBM Innovation Jam results: Funding for ‘3D Internet’
    105. 110. IBM 12 island innovation complex
    106. 111. Circuit City
    107. 112. Sears
    108. 113. Wimbledon demo… Integrating real-world ‘Hawkeye’ ball tracking data with Second Life for Wimbledon demo July 2006
    109. 114. Australian Open Jan 2007
    110. 115. More possibilities <ul><ul><li>Marketing, brand promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware / Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media and entertainment (TV?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modelling (visualisation, simulation, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research, including monitoring (and data-mining) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education (e-learning, blended learning, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
    111. 116. What’s next? <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    112. 117. Give up control This is messy!
    113. 118. Some principles…
    114. 119. 1: Make system personally useful <ul><li>For end-user system should have strong personal use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorable Personal Snippets (e.g., & Flickr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-expression (e.g., Newsvine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status: Digg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t count on altruism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System should thrive on people’s selfishness </li></ul></ul>
    115. 120. Bite-sized self-expression <ul><li>Creative self-expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic expression (Flickr, YouTube) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor (YouTube) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual piece should be small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create sets & lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Mashups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, guessable URLs for everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leave room for games & social play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalking (some!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gossip </li></ul></ul>
    116. 121. 2: Identify symbiotic relationship between personal & social <ul><li>Personal snippets > Social stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures > Organized by Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music > Organized by Playlists </li></ul></ul>
    117. 122. 3: Create porous boundary between public & private <ul><li>Earlier systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (Personal Desktop Software, e.g., Picasa, EndNote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR Social websites (Shutterfly) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rethink public & private </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People share for the right returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set defaults to public, allow easy change to private </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give user control </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over individual pieces & sets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete items from history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reset /remove profile </li></ul></ul></ul>Privacy settings on Flickr
    118. 123. 4. Allow for levels of participation <ul><li>Everyone does not need to create! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit creation (creating by consuming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remixing—adding value to others’ content </li></ul></ul>Source: Bradley Horowitz’s weblog, Elatable, Feb. 17, 2006, “Creators, Synthesizers, and Consumers”
    119. 124. Why do people digg? “ commenting, digging, burying comments, typing descriptions, reading hundreds of articles and… … for a lot of nerds, using digg is just a casual free-time activity. Entertaining. Fun. Engaging.”
    120. 125. how to encourage participation <ul><li>Insights from Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight unique contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for smaller local groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight benefit to self from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight benefit to group </li></ul></ul>Source: Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities, Ling et al. 2005
    121. 126. 5. Let people feel the presence of others <ul><li>What paths are well worn </li></ul><ul><li>User profiles / photos </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time updating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like a conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense that others are out there </li></ul></ul>What people are digging right now!
    122. 127. 6. And yet, moments of Independence… <ul><li>Choreography: when alone, when part of group </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent mobs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make it too easy to mimic others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives for originality & uniqueness </li></ul></ul>
    123. 128. Allow for alternative viewpoints & perspectives <ul><li>Social sharing can lead to tyranny of dominant view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People of a group agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viewpoint rises to top (popularity lists, tag clouds) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    124. 129. Create conditions for wise crowds <ul><li>Cognitive Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Aggregation </li></ul>
    125. 130. Wise Crowds: Cognitive Diversity <ul><li>Need many perspectives for good answers </li></ul><ul><li>Groups become homogenous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members bring lesser new information in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity reduces groupthink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupthink works by shielding members from outside opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity reduces conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance that you will change opinion to match group </li></ul></ul>
    126. 131. Wise Crowds: Independence <ul><li>Keeps people’s mistakes from getting correlated (uncorrelated mistakes averaged out) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages people to bring in new viewpoints (diversity) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Social Proof </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milgram experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People assume that groups know what they are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming crowd is wise, leads to herd like behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can sometimes lead to good decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Cascades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of uninformed choices, building upon each other </li></ul></ul>
    127. 132. Wise Crowds: Decentralization “ A crowd of decentralized people working to solve a problem on their own without any central effort to guide them, come up with better solutions, rather than a top-down driven solution.” Suroweicki
    128. 133. Wise Crowds: Easy Aggregation <ul><li>A decentralized system can pick right solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With easy way for information to be aggregated across system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: votes on Digg </li></ul></ul>
    129. 134. 7. Enable Serendipity <ul><li>Don’t make navigation all about popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to some popular stuff (keep this fast moving) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make the “long tail” accessible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity as a jump off point to other ways of exploring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide personalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations using collaborative filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar tags, content, others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc groups? </li></ul>
    130. 135. 8. Most of all, allow for play
    131. 136. Things to try at home! <ul><li>Create an account on </li></ul><ul><li>Read Emergence, Wisdom of Crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Play a Multiplayer Online Game (WOW, Second Life) </li></ul><ul><li>Play with an API (try GoogleMaps API) </li></ul><ul><li>Try a mobile social application (DodgeBall) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your friends what they find “fun” on the web </li></ul>
    132. 137. Questions?