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How many variables are there?

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How many variables are there?

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How many variables are there?

  1. 1. How many variables are there?
  2. 2. This presentation is designed to help you identify the number of variables in your relationship-oriented question.
  3. 3. Here are your options:
  4. 4. Here are your options: 2 variables or 3 or more varaiables
  5. 5. What is a variable?
  6. 6. A variable is something that can vary or change.
  7. 7. First a variable is something that can vary or change. For example, temperature varies from day to day.
  8. 8. First a variable is something that can vary or changes. For example, temperature varies from day to day. Ice cream sales can vary from day to day.
  9. 9. First a variable is something that can vary or changes. For example, temperature varies from day to day. Ice cream sales can vary from day to day. Religious affiliation (eg., Catholic, Protestant, Jew, Mormon, Muslim) can vary from person to person.
  10. 10. First a variable is something that can vary or changes. For example, temperature varies from day to day. Ice cream sales can vary from day to day. Religious affiliation (eg., Catholic, Protestant, Jew, Mormon, Muslim) can vary from person to person. While gender can only vary two ways (e.g. male, female), it sill varies from person to person and therefore is a variable.
  11. 11. First a variable is something that can vary or changes. For example, temperature varies from day to day. Ice cream sales can vary from day to day. Religious affiliation (eg., Catholic, Protestant, Jew, Mormon, Muslim) can vary from person to person. While gender can only vary two ways (e.g. male, female), it sill varies from person to person and therefore is a variable.
  12. 12. In a relationship question there are generally two variables whose relationship is under investigation.
  13. 13. For example:
  14. 14. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping.
  15. 15. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. One variable
  16. 16. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. This variable could take on a whole range of values
  17. 17. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as
  18. 18. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as 1-10 grams
  19. 19. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as 1-10 grams Soccer Player Vitamin B Grams A 9 B 1 C 3 D 2 E 10
  20. 20. Or the variable can take on another set of values.
  21. 21. 1 = No vitamin B 2 = Some vitamin B 3 = A lot of vitamin B
  22. 22. 1 = No vitamin B 2 = Some vitamin B 3 = A lot of vitamin B Soccer Player Amount of Vit B A B C D E
  23. 23. 1 = No vitamin B 2 = Some vitamin B 3 = A lot of vitamin B Soccer Player Amount of Vit B A 3 B 1 C 2 D 3 E 2
  24. 24. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. This 2nd variable could take on a whole range of values as well.
  25. 25. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as
  26. 26. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as 0 cramps per game 1 cramps per game 2 cramps per game 3 cramps per game, etc.
  27. 27. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as 0 cramps per game 1 cramps per game 2 cramps per game 3 cramps per game, etc. Soccer Player Amount of Vit B A 3 B 1 C 2 D 3 E 2
  28. 28. Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. such as 0 cramps per game 1 cramps per game 2 cramps per game 3 cramps per game, etc. Soccer Player Amount of Vit B Cramps Per Game A 3 0 B 1 4 C 2 2 D 3 1 E 2 2
  29. 29. Therefore:
  30. 30. This was an example of a word problem with two variables:
  31. 31. This was an example of a word problem with two variables: Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping.
  32. 32. This was an example of a word problem with two variables: Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. Soccer Player Amount of Vit B Cramps Per Game A 3 0 B 1 4 C 2 2 D 3 1 E 2 2
  33. 33. This was an example of a word problem with two variables: Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. 1st variable Soccer Player Amount of Vit B Cramps Per Game A 3 0 B 1 4 C 2 2 D 3 1 E 2 2
  34. 34. This was an example of a word problem with two variables: Researchers wish to determine the relationship between vitamin B intake and soccer player cramping. Soccer Player Amount of Vit B 2nd variable Cramps Per Game A 3 0 B 1 4 C 2 2 D 3 1 E 2 2
  35. 35. Here is another example:
  36. 36. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools.
  37. 37. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools.
  38. 38. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. 1st variable – Grade Level 1 = 3rd graders 2 = 4th graders
  39. 39. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. 1st variable – Grade Level 1 = 3rd graders 2 = 4th graders
  40. 40. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools.
  41. 41. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. 2nd variable – bullying Incidents of Bullying per week (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)
  42. 42. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. 2nd variable – bullying Incidents of bullying per week (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)
  43. 43. Here is what the data set might look like:
  44. 44. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools.
  45. 45. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools.
  46. 46. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. School Grade 1 = 3rd 2 = 4th Incidents of Bullying A B C D E
  47. 47. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. School Grade 1 = 3rd 2 = 4th Incidents of Bullying A 1 B 2 C 1 D 1 E 2
  48. 48. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. School Grade 1 = 3rd 2 = 4th Incidents of Bullying A 1 B 2 C 1 D 1 E 2
  49. 49. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. School Grade 1 = 3rd 2 = 4th Incidents of Bullying A 1 5 B 2 2 C 1 6 D 1 7 E 2 1
  50. 50. You have been asked to see if third graders tend to bully fellow class mates more than fourth graders across 5 different schools. Once again, there are two variables in this problem School Grade 1 = 3rd 2 = 4th Incidents of Bullying A 1 5 B 2 2 C 1 6 D 1 7 E 2 1
  51. 51. There are other instances when you have three or more variables:
  52. 52. For example:
  53. 53. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university.
  54. 54. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A B C D E
  55. 55. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A B C D E
  56. 56. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A B C D E
  57. 57. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 B 3.7 C 3.1 D 2.8 E 3.9
  58. 58. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. 1st Variable Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 B 3.7 C 3.1 D 2.8 E 3.9
  59. 59. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 B 3.7 C 3.1 D 2.8 E 3.9
  60. 60. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 26 B 3.7 27 C 3.1 22 D 2.8 25 E 3.9 23
  61. 61. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. 2nd Variable Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 26 B 3.7 27 C 3.1 22 D 2.8 25 E 3.9 23
  62. 62. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities A 3.2 26 5 B 3.7 27 3 C 3.1 22 0 D 2.8 25 1 E 3.9 23 3
  63. 63. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 26 5 B 3.7 27 3 C 3.1 22 0 D 2.8 25 1 E 3.9 23 3
  64. 64. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. 3rd Variable Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 26 5 B 3.7 27 3 C 3.1 22 0 D 2.8 25 1 E 3.9 23 3
  65. 65. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities A 3.2 26 5 B 3.7 27 3 C 3.1 22 0 D 2.8 25 1 E 3.9 23 3
  66. 66. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 26 5 1 B 3.7 27 3 1 C 3.1 22 0 2 D 2.8 25 1 2 E 3.9 23 3 1
  67. 67. University administrators wish to know the degree to which GPA, ACT scores, and the number of extracurricular activities applicants participated in, predict students being admitted into the university. 4th Variable Applicant GPA ACT # of Extracrclr Activities Admitted 1 = yes, 2 = no A 3.2 26 5 1 B 3.7 27 3 1 C 3.1 22 0 2 D 2.8 25 1 2 E 3.9 23 3 1
  68. 68. So, that is an example of a word problem with three or more variables.
  69. 69. Note – there is one special case that you should be aware of.
  70. 70. Some word problems will be worded as follows:
  71. 71. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age.
  72. 72. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age.
  73. 73. Here is the data set for this question
  74. 74. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  75. 75. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant 1st Variable Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  76. 76. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  77. 77. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant 2nd Variable Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  78. 78. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  79. 79. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Age is actually NOT considered a 3rd Variable Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  80. 80. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study Participant That is because the two variables of interest are peanut butter intake and gender, controlling for Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams age is an additional analysis. Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  81. 81. You have been asked to determine if a relationship exists between the amount of peanut butter consumed and gender controlling for age. Study The idea of controlling for another variable will be explained in another presentation, but it is important for you to know that a problem like this is Participant examining the relationship between TWO not Three variables. Average Daily Peanut Butter Intake in grams Gender 1 = male 2 = female Age 1 = 0-25 2 = 26-45 A 6 1 1 B 3 1 2 C 2 2 1 D 4 2 2 E 2 1 1
  82. 82. Look at the problem you are working on and determine if it contains:
  83. 83. Look at the problem you are working on and determine if it contains: 2 variables or 3 or more varaiables

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