fish-borne zoonotic diseases


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  • Omega-3 polysaturate fatty is found only in fish meat which is protective against cardiovascular and coraonary heart disease When illness does occur, about 80-90% of episodes are of mild or moderate severity and are difficult to distinguish clinically from other types of acute diarrhea. Less than 20% of ill persons develop typical cholera with signs of moderate or severe dehydration.
  • A healthy person may become hypotensive within an hour of the onset of symptoms and may die within 2-3 hours if no treatment is provided. More commonly, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4-12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days.
  • Vibrio anguillarum infection in the spleen of rainbow trout (toluidine blue, HP) Vibrio anguillarum infection with necrotic focus within the liver of a rainbow trout (toluidine blue, MP)
  • Vaccines:- 1. AquaVac Vibrioa. Tradename: AquaVac Vibrio b. Manufacturer: Schering-Plough Animal Health c. Vaccine Ontology ID: VO_0001071 d. Type: Inactivated or "killed" vaccine e. Status: Licensed f. Host Species for Licensed Use: Fish g. Immunization Route Oral
  • I have to know A & B subunit and their mechanism of action along with their toxins
  • Cholera Vaccine (Injection Route) Cholera vaccine given by injection may help prevent cholera, but provides only 25 to 50% protection. Therefore, it is very important to avoid infected persons and food and water that may be infected, even if you have received the vaccine. Cholera vaccine is to be administered only by or under the supervision of a doctor. Drug Information provided by: Micromedex
  • fish-borne zoonotic diseases

    1. 2. FISH BORNE ZOONOTIC DISEASES Department of Veterinary Pathology Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Presented By: P.L. Lalruatfela En. No.:- V/10/167 Course No.:- VPP- 691 Course Teacher: Dr.V.P. Pathak
    2. 3. Outline of Seminar <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Brief about Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Infectious fish diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic fish diseaeses </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious fish diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Vibriosis in fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera in human </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
    3. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Fish borne zoonotic diseases means those diseases which are transmitted directly by consuming raw and improperly cooked fish meat or Indirectly via contaminated water from the surroundings of infected fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera is one of the most important disease which is transmitted from fish </li></ul>
    4. 5. Brief about Fish <ul><li>Cold Blooded Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of living animal species approx. 28,200 nos. </li></ul><ul><li>India rank the second highest producing country </li></ul><ul><li>F isheries contribute 1.07 % of national GDP, and 5.30 % to agriculture sector </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1.5 m of people employed in fisheries </li></ul>
    5. 6. Importance <ul><li>Food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Good income source </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better nutritive profile of fish meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega- 3 polysaturate fatty is found only in fish meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ornamental and pet fish </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Disease of Fish
    7. 8. Causes of fish disease Non-Infectious Diseases Infectious Diseases Nutritional Diseases Viral Diseases Environmental Diseases Bacterial Diseases Chemical Diseases ParasiticDiseases Physiological Diseases Fungal Diseases
    8. 9. Non-Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Sunburn </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional gill disease </li></ul>
    9. 10. Non-Infectious <ul><li>Lordosis </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Bubble </li></ul><ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul>
    10. 11. Zoonotic Fish Diseases <ul><ul><li>Vibriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycobacteriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aeromonasis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudomoniasis </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobactiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erysipelas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leptosprirosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Botulisim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwardsiella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella spp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Zoonosis </li></ul>
    11. 12. Zoonotic Fish Diseases <ul><li>Parasitic caused of zoonotic Diseases of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Nematode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaris philippinensis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnathostomiasis hispidium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trematode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clonorchis sinensis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opistorchis viverrini </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cestode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diphyllobothrium latum </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Infectious Fish Disease
    13. 14. Vibriosis in fish <ul><li>World wide distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a typical hemorrhagic septicaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Most susceptible in Salmon and Trout </li></ul>
    14. 15. Etiology <ul><li>Vibrio aguillarum </li></ul><ul><li>Gram –ve, facultative, motile, curve-rod </li></ul><ul><li>23 -O serotypes, O- 1 and O- 2 are pathogenic and to a lesser extent O- 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission: </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal transmission: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infected fecal material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Clinical Findings and Lesions <ul><li>Reddening </li></ul><ul><li>Red/Brown gills </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of Eyeball </li></ul>
    16. 17. Histopathological <ul><li>Vacoulation and necrosis of pancreatic acinar cell </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotic foci in liver </li></ul>
    17. 18. Diagnosis <ul><li>Slide agglutination or ELISA test have been develop for fast diagnosis (do not distinguish serotype) </li></ul><ul><li>PCR based diagnosis was developed for accurate diagnosis and the target gene is rpoN which code for sigma factor 54 </li></ul>
    18. 19. “ Cholera” Vibriosis in Human
    19. 20. History <ul><li>1 st Pandemic, 1817-1823 : ( Ganges in Calcutta) 10,000 British army and hundred thousands of natives were died, spread by trade routes – Iran, Baku, Astrakhan, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Pandemic, 1829-1852 : Spread to Bengal, Afghanistan, Asia, Moscow, England, US with death toll of billion people </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Pandemic, 1852-1859 : Began in Bengal, Britain and Europe are affected </li></ul>
    20. 21. History <ul><ul><li>Dr. John Snow mapped out to find the caused as water borne infection from Broad Street Pump on 3 rd Pandemic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 th Pandemic, 1863-1879 : From Egypt to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>5 th Pandemic, 1881-1896 : Began in India, spread east and west countries </li></ul>
    21. 22. Thread & Discovery <ul><li>Biological weapons: during 2 nd World war, UK & US used cholera as a biological weapons to disrupt the operation on the Chinese people, approximately 60,000 are believed to die on these attacks. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery: In 1883 - Robert Koch cultured and found out V. cholerae (Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1905 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. History <ul><li>6 th Pandemic, 1961 -present : From Pacific Islands to Asia, Bangladesh, India, USSR, Iran, Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>7 th Pandemic, in 1991 : ( Latin America, Peru) 4,000 dead of 400,000 cases </li></ul><ul><li>8 th Pandemic, in 1992 ? a new serogroup cholera epidemic erupted in Madras, southern India which having a non-O1 serotype, called O139 </li></ul>
    23. 24. Distribution
    24. 25. Etiology
    25. 26. Vibrio cholera <ul><li>Gram –ve, facultative, motile, curve-rod </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment Medium- Alkanie Peptone Broth </li></ul><ul><li>Classified into 206 “O” serogroups </li></ul><ul><li>Until now infection, only 3-strains are isolated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tow serogroups of O 1 : Classical & El Tor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-O 1 serogroup O 139 (newly found in Bengal, 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free living in aquatic environment </li></ul><ul><li>More common in warm water ( 17-20 o C) </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly isolated from fish, shellfish and Oyster </li></ul>
    26. 27. Serotypes
    27. 28. Transmission
    28. 29. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Colonization of bacteria on the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent growth </li></ul><ul><li>Release of cholera toxin </li></ul>
    29. 30. Pathogenesis <ul><li>B-subunit binds to GM1 –receptor, activates A-subunit to delivered in the cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Convert ADP-ribose to GTP by using NADP shunt </li></ul><ul><li>Activate adenyl cyclase cycle, resulting intracellular accumulation of cAMP </li></ul>
    30. 31. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Increased cAMP in the intestinal epithelial cells inhibit the Na+/Cl- transport system </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation of NaCl in the intestinal lumen </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves passively to lumen to maintain osmolality Watery diarrhea </li></ul>1 2 3 4
    31. 32. Clinical Findings <ul><ul><li>Mild diarrhea suddenly change to Severe diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vomition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps/severe pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watery stools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colorless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odorless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death attributable to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypovolemic shock due low blood plasma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Diagnosis <ul><li>Laboratory identification : </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of stool for the presence of bacteria Microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Selective/Differential media- TCBS agar- Vibrio cholera grow as yellow colonies </li></ul>
    33. 34. Treatment <ul><li>Rehydration </li></ul>
    34. 35. Treatment <ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul>Antibiotic Administration Dose (children) mg/kg Dose (adults) mg 1 st choice Tetracycline Doxycycline QID x 3 days One single dose 12.5 6 500 300 2 nd choice Erythromycin Furazolidione QID x 3 days(adults) BD x 3 days QID x 3 days 10 1.25 250 100
    35. 36. Vaccine <ul><li>Oral vaccine- Dukoral </li></ul>
    36. 37. Conclusions <ul><li>Fisheries is a important tool of self employment </li></ul><ul><li>Fish meat has good nutritive profile </li></ul><ul><li>They also play an important role in transmission of zoonotic diseases. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Prevention <ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Hygienic </li></ul><ul><li>Clean drinking water </li></ul>
    38. 39. THANK YOU!...
    39. 40. References <ul><li>A.E. Toranzo ( 2000 ), Report about fish bacterial diseases, University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Aquaculture Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Campus Sur; 56: 87-101 </li></ul><ul><li>Uffe B.S,Skov Orensen and Jens Laurits Larsen ( 1986), Serotyping of Vibrio anguillarum, Applied and environmental microbiology ; 51: 593-597 </li></ul><ul><li>J. Glen Morris ( 2003 ), Cholera and other types of vibriosis, A story of human pandemics and oysters on the half shell, Food safety; 3 :272-290 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrille Goarantll, Jose Herlin R, Raphael Brizard ( 2000 ), A Toxic factors of Vibrio strains pathogenic to shrimp, Diseases of aaquatic organism ; 40 : 101-107. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Dufour ( 2003 ),Water-related zoonosis disease impacts — geographical prevalence, Water borne zoonosis ; 3: 90-150 </li></ul>