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fish-borne zoonotic diseases


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fish-borne zoonotic diseases

  1. 2. FISH BORNE ZOONOTIC DISEASES Department of Veterinary Pathology Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Presented By: P.L. Lalruatfela En. No.:- V/10/167 Course No.:- VPP- 691 Course Teacher: Dr.V.P. Pathak
  2. 3. Outline of Seminar <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Brief about Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Infectious fish diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic fish diseaeses </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious fish diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Vibriosis in fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera in human </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Etiology </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Fish borne zoonotic diseases means those diseases which are transmitted directly by consuming raw and improperly cooked fish meat or Indirectly via contaminated water from the surroundings of infected fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cholera is one of the most important disease which is transmitted from fish </li></ul>
  4. 5. Brief about Fish <ul><li>Cold Blooded Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Largest number of living animal species approx. 28,200 nos. </li></ul><ul><li>India rank the second highest producing country </li></ul><ul><li>F isheries contribute 1.07 % of national GDP, and 5.30 % to agriculture sector </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1.5 m of people employed in fisheries </li></ul>
  5. 6. Importance <ul><li>Food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Good income source </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better nutritive profile of fish meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega- 3 polysaturate fatty is found only in fish meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ornamental and pet fish </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Disease of Fish
  7. 8. Causes of fish disease Non-Infectious Diseases Infectious Diseases Nutritional Diseases Viral Diseases Environmental Diseases Bacterial Diseases Chemical Diseases ParasiticDiseases Physiological Diseases Fungal Diseases
  8. 9. Non-Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Sunburn </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional gill disease </li></ul>
  9. 10. Non-Infectious <ul><li>Lordosis </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Bubble </li></ul><ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul>
  10. 11. Zoonotic Fish Diseases <ul><ul><li>Vibriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycobacteriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aeromonasis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pseudomoniasis </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobactiosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erysipelas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leptosprirosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Botulisim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwardsiella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella spp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Zoonosis </li></ul>
  11. 12. Zoonotic Fish Diseases <ul><li>Parasitic caused of zoonotic Diseases of fish </li></ul><ul><li>Nematode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaris philippinensis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnathostomiasis hispidium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trematode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clonorchis sinensis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opistorchis viverrini </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cestode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diphyllobothrium latum </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Infectious Fish Disease
  13. 14. Vibriosis in fish <ul><li>World wide distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by a typical hemorrhagic septicaemia </li></ul><ul><li>Most susceptible in Salmon and Trout </li></ul>
  14. 15. Etiology <ul><li>Vibrio aguillarum </li></ul><ul><li>Gram –ve, facultative, motile, curve-rod </li></ul><ul><li>23 -O serotypes, O- 1 and O- 2 are pathogenic and to a lesser extent O- 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission: </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal transmission: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infected fecal material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Clinical Findings and Lesions <ul><li>Reddening </li></ul><ul><li>Red/Brown gills </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis of Eyeball </li></ul>
  16. 17. Histopathological <ul><li>Vacoulation and necrosis of pancreatic acinar cell </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotic foci in liver </li></ul>
  17. 18. Diagnosis <ul><li>Slide agglutination or ELISA test have been develop for fast diagnosis (do not distinguish serotype) </li></ul><ul><li>PCR based diagnosis was developed for accurate diagnosis and the target gene is rpoN which code for sigma factor 54 </li></ul>
  18. 19. “ Cholera” Vibriosis in Human
  19. 20. History <ul><li>1 st Pandemic, 1817-1823 : ( Ganges in Calcutta) 10,000 British army and hundred thousands of natives were died, spread by trade routes – Iran, Baku, Astrakhan, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Pandemic, 1829-1852 : Spread to Bengal, Afghanistan, Asia, Moscow, England, US with death toll of billion people </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Pandemic, 1852-1859 : Began in Bengal, Britain and Europe are affected </li></ul>
  20. 21. History <ul><ul><li>Dr. John Snow mapped out to find the caused as water borne infection from Broad Street Pump on 3 rd Pandemic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 th Pandemic, 1863-1879 : From Egypt to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>5 th Pandemic, 1881-1896 : Began in India, spread east and west countries </li></ul>
  21. 22. Thread & Discovery <ul><li>Biological weapons: during 2 nd World war, UK & US used cholera as a biological weapons to disrupt the operation on the Chinese people, approximately 60,000 are believed to die on these attacks. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery: In 1883 - Robert Koch cultured and found out V. cholerae (Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1905 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. History <ul><li>6 th Pandemic, 1961 -present : From Pacific Islands to Asia, Bangladesh, India, USSR, Iran, Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>7 th Pandemic, in 1991 : ( Latin America, Peru) 4,000 dead of 400,000 cases </li></ul><ul><li>8 th Pandemic, in 1992 ? a new serogroup cholera epidemic erupted in Madras, southern India which having a non-O1 serotype, called O139 </li></ul>
  23. 24. Distribution
  24. 25. Etiology
  25. 26. Vibrio cholera <ul><li>Gram –ve, facultative, motile, curve-rod </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment Medium- Alkanie Peptone Broth </li></ul><ul><li>Classified into 206 “O” serogroups </li></ul><ul><li>Until now infection, only 3-strains are isolated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tow serogroups of O 1 : Classical & El Tor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-O 1 serogroup O 139 (newly found in Bengal, 1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free living in aquatic environment </li></ul><ul><li>More common in warm water ( 17-20 o C) </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly isolated from fish, shellfish and Oyster </li></ul>
  26. 27. Serotypes
  27. 28. Transmission
  28. 29. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Colonization of bacteria on the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent growth </li></ul><ul><li>Release of cholera toxin </li></ul>
  29. 30. Pathogenesis <ul><li>B-subunit binds to GM1 –receptor, activates A-subunit to delivered in the cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Convert ADP-ribose to GTP by using NADP shunt </li></ul><ul><li>Activate adenyl cyclase cycle, resulting intracellular accumulation of cAMP </li></ul>
  30. 31. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Increased cAMP in the intestinal epithelial cells inhibit the Na+/Cl- transport system </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation of NaCl in the intestinal lumen </li></ul><ul><li>Water moves passively to lumen to maintain osmolality Watery diarrhea </li></ul>1 2 3 4
  31. 32. Clinical Findings <ul><ul><li>Mild diarrhea suddenly change to Severe diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vomition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps/severe pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watery stools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colorless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odorless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death attributable to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypovolemic shock due low blood plasma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Diagnosis <ul><li>Laboratory identification : </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of stool for the presence of bacteria Microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Selective/Differential media- TCBS agar- Vibrio cholera grow as yellow colonies </li></ul>
  33. 34. Treatment <ul><li>Rehydration </li></ul>
  34. 35. Treatment <ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul>Antibiotic Administration Dose (children) mg/kg Dose (adults) mg 1 st choice Tetracycline Doxycycline QID x 3 days One single dose 12.5 6 500 300 2 nd choice Erythromycin Furazolidione QID x 3 days(adults) BD x 3 days QID x 3 days 10 1.25 250 100
  35. 36. Vaccine <ul><li>Oral vaccine- Dukoral </li></ul>
  36. 37. Conclusions <ul><li>Fisheries is a important tool of self employment </li></ul><ul><li>Fish meat has good nutritive profile </li></ul><ul><li>They also play an important role in transmission of zoonotic diseases. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Prevention <ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Hygienic </li></ul><ul><li>Clean drinking water </li></ul>
  38. 39. THANK YOU!...
  39. 40. References <ul><li>A.E. Toranzo ( 2000 ), Report about fish bacterial diseases, University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Aquaculture Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Campus Sur; 56: 87-101 </li></ul><ul><li>Uffe B.S,Skov Orensen and Jens Laurits Larsen ( 1986), Serotyping of Vibrio anguillarum, Applied and environmental microbiology ; 51: 593-597 </li></ul><ul><li>J. Glen Morris ( 2003 ), Cholera and other types of vibriosis, A story of human pandemics and oysters on the half shell, Food safety; 3 :272-290 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrille Goarantll, Jose Herlin R, Raphael Brizard ( 2000 ), A Toxic factors of Vibrio strains pathogenic to shrimp, Diseases of aaquatic organism ; 40 : 101-107. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Dufour ( 2003 ),Water-related zoonosis disease impacts — geographical prevalence, Water borne zoonosis ; 3: 90-150 </li></ul>