06 Ps300 Making Measurements & Using The Metric System Notes Ke


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06 Ps300 Making Measurements & Using The Metric System Notes Ke

  1. 1. Making Measurements & Using the METRIC SYSTEM Physical Science 200 p.204-205
  2. 2. Types of OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>Quantitative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us how many. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes “Quantity” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes observations with numbers . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells us about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes “Quality” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes observations with words. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Qualitative Vs. Quantitative <ul><li>His shirt is red. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 apples left. </li></ul><ul><li>The table is 5 meters long. </li></ul><ul><li>A blue crystal formed on the bottom of our 100mL beaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Her shirt is 100% cotton. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are units? <ul><li>Steve has 10. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 43.6 of salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers do not make sense if there is no unit. </li></ul><ul><li>A unit tells us what the number measures. </li></ul><ul><li>In science class there are NO NAKED NUMBERS- make them appropriate with a unit! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Precision Vs. Accuracy <ul><li>Precision is how closely repeated measurements match each other . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you can measure something 1000 times and every time you get the same measurement, you are precise. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy is how closely a measurement matches the correct or expected value . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you measure something very closely to the measurement that it is supposed to be, you are accurate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A ball player's height can be measured precisely, but still not be accurate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How tall is that horse? <ul><li>In the past it was common to measure the height of a horse in hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the height of your desk in hands and write it below: </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a good system for measuring? </li></ul>
  7. 7. The International System of Units <ul><li>ALL SCIENTISTS us the International System of Units. </li></ul><ul><li>We abbreviate it as SI. </li></ul><ul><li>Some good things about measuring in SI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is based on multiples of 10 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no fractions- we use decimals in the metric system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All scientists use the International System of Units. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Who uses the SI system? <ul><li>In everyday life, just about everyone except for US! </li></ul><ul><li>These countries do not use the metric system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The United States of America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myanmar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALL SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD USE THE SI SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT! </li></ul>
  9. 9. What are prefixes? <ul><li>Pre means “before” </li></ul><ul><li>A prefix is a small part of a word that comes before the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Metric prefixes equal a number. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Common Metric Prefixes 0.000 000 001 or 10 -9 n nano- 1 000 000 000 or 10 9 G Giga- 1 000 000 or 10 6 M Mega- 0.001 (one thousandth) m milli- 0.01 (one hundredth) c centi- 0.1 (one tenth) d deci- 10 da deka- 100 h hecto- 1000 k kilo- Meaning Symbol Prefix
  11. 12. How can you put those numbers in your calculator? <ul><li>Try these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 3 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Adding prefixes <ul><li>When we measure, we can add a prefix to change the value. </li></ul><ul><li>1 nanosecond = how many seconds? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find nano- on your chart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 nanosecond = 10 -9 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>1 kilometer = 1000 meters </li></ul><ul><li>1 milligram = 0.001 grams </li></ul>
  13. 14. Rules for writing metric symbols <ul><li>Do not use a period. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7 s [not 7sec.] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Leave a space. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 kg [not 6kg] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not add an s to the symbol. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 Kilometers = 10 km [not 10 kms] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not capitalize, unless it is supposed to be capital. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milliliter = ml [not Ml] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not use p for per. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>miles per hour = mi/hr [not mph] </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Write the correct units <ul><li>mm = millimeter </li></ul><ul><li>mg = milligrams </li></ul><ul><li>L = liter </li></ul><ul><li>Mg = Megagram </li></ul><ul><li>m = meter </li></ul><ul><li>dam = decameter </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>g = gram cm = centimeters ns = nanosecond </li></ul>
  15. 16. Which number is bigger? <ul><li>4 cm or 4 hm </li></ul><ul><li>10 km or 10 mm </li></ul><ul><li>12g or 12 kg </li></ul>
  16. 17. What will we measure? <ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance between two points. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of material in an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of heat a material has. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of space an object takes up. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. What are BASE UNITS? <ul><li>A base unit is the standard unit of measurement that we will use to measure . </li></ul><ul><li>We will add prefixes to the base units . </li></ul>
  18. 19. Measuring LENGTH <ul><li>The SI base unit of measurement for length is the METER . </li></ul><ul><li>1 meter = 1m </li></ul><ul><li>Your desk is about one meter tall. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a METRIC RULER or a METERSTICK to measure length. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Other units of length <ul><li>If you wanted to measure between cities, you would use KILOMETERS. </li></ul><ul><li>A kilometer is equal to 1,000 meters. </li></ul><ul><li>If you wanted to measure small lengths, you would use a centimeter or a millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 100 cent imeters in a meter. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like there are 100 cent s in a dollar. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 1000 millimeters in a meter. </li></ul>
  20. 22. SURFACE AREA <ul><li>Surface area is the space that a surface covers. </li></ul><ul><li>If you wanted to buy carpet or floor tile, you will have to know the SURFACE AREA of the floor. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Calculating SURFACE AREA <ul><li>To find the area of a rectangle, multiply length X width. </li></ul><ul><li>AREA = Length X Width </li></ul><ul><li>What is the area of this rectangle? </li></ul><ul><li> 10cm </li></ul><ul><li>5cm </li></ul><ul><li>A = L X W </li></ul><ul><li>= 10 cm X 5 cm </li></ul><ul><li>= 50 cm 2 </li></ul>
  22. 24. Practice! <ul><li>How much carpet do you need to cover the floor in a room that measures 7 meters long and 5 meters wide? </li></ul><ul><li>L = 7 m </li></ul><ul><li>W = 5 m </li></ul><ul><li>A = L X W </li></ul><ul><li>A = 7 m X 5 m </li></ul><ul><li>A = 35m 2 </li></ul>
  23. 26. Measuring VOLUME of a liquid <ul><li>The SI base unit of measurement for volume is the LITER . </li></ul><ul><li>1 Liter = 1L </li></ul><ul><li>You will use different units and tools to measure volume of a liquid or a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a GRADUATED CYLINDER to measure the volume of a liquid. </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>Graduated cylinders measure in mL or milliliters. </li></ul><ul><li>The plastic ring around a graduated cylinder prevents breaking. </li></ul><ul><li>To read a graduated cylinder: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to eye level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the bottom of the meniscus . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. How much water is in this graduated cylinder? Image from ChemPages Laboratory Resources http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCESoft/Programs/CPL/Sample/modules/gradcyl/grad100mL.htm
  26. 30. VOLUME of a solid <ul><li>If you are trying to find the volume of a solid, you cannot pour it into a graduated cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculating volume </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Water Displacement
  28. 32. What steps will you take to measure with water displacement? <ul><li>Put water in the graduated cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Record the measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt the graduated cylinder to the side. </li></ul><ul><li>Gently lower the object into the graduated cylinder. (Make sure that the whole object is under water.) </li></ul><ul><li>Record the measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Water & Object – Water = Object’s volume </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER 1 ml = 1 cm 3 = 1 cc </li></ul>
  29. 33. Calculating Volume of a Block <ul><li>To find the volume of a regular (block or box shaped) solid, you need to measure the length, width and height IN THE SAME UNIT and multiply these three numbers together. V= L X W X H </li></ul><ul><li>What is the volume of the black cube? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the volume of the bigger cube? </li></ul><ul><li>Volume = length X width X height </li></ul><ul><li>V = 3 cm X 2 cm X 2 cm </li></ul><ul><li>V = 12 cm 3 </li></ul>
  30. 34. Units of VOLUME <ul><li>1 liter = 1 L </li></ul><ul><li>1 milliliter = 1 mL </li></ul><ul><li>1 centimeter cubed = 1 cubic centimeter = 1 cm 3 = 1 cc </li></ul><ul><li>1 L = 1000 mL </li></ul><ul><li>1 mL = 1 cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>1 L = ___________cm 3 </li></ul>
  31. 36. Measuring MASS <ul><li>The SI base unit of measurement for mass is the GRAM . </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram = 1g </li></ul><ul><li>A paperclip is about 1 gram. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE or an ELECTRONIC SCALE to measure mass. </li></ul>
  32. 38. Using an electronic balance <ul><li>They are very sensitive. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT place heavy objects or press down with your hand. </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT put liquid, powder or crystals directly on the tray. </li></ul>
  33. 39. Other units of mass <ul><li>If you wanted to measure large masses you would use KILOGRAMS. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Liter of pop has a mass of about 1 kilogram. </li></ul><ul><li>If you wanted to measure the mass of smaller objects, you would use milligrams or centigrams. </li></ul><ul><li>When have you heard someone say milligrams? </li></ul>
  34. 41. Measuring TEMPERATURE <ul><li>The SI base unit of measurement for temperature is Kelvin (K) . </li></ul><ul><li>A more common unit is DEGREES CELSIUS. </li></ul><ul><li>1 degrees Celsius = 1ºC </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a THERMOMETER to measure temperature. </li></ul>
  35. 43. Look at the picture to compare ºF and ºC.
  36. 45. Measuring TIME <ul><li>The SI base unit of measurement for time is the SECOND . </li></ul><ul><li>1 second = 1s </li></ul><ul><li>We will use a STOPWATCH to measure time in science class. </li></ul>
  37. 46. Time (s)
  38. 47. How do you change from one unit to another? <ul><li>From another system to metrics or changing metrics FACTOR LABEL METHOD . </li></ul><ul><li>From metrics to metrics, MOVE THE DECIMAL. </li></ul>
  39. 48. from Industry Week , 1981 November 30
  40. 49. FACTOR LABEL METHOD <ul><li>Write down what you know. </li></ul><ul><li>Write down what you know about those two units. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by a fraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancel out like units. </li></ul><ul><li>Do the math. </li></ul>
  41. 50. Let’s Practice! <ul><li>600 mm = ? m </li></ul><ul><li>1 m = 1000 mm or 1 mm = 0.001 m </li></ul><ul><li>600 mm X 1 m = 0.6 m </li></ul><ul><li>1000 mm </li></ul>
  42. 51. 0.35 liters = ? milliliters
  43. 52. 1050 grams = ? kilograms
  44. 53. 4 years = ? days
  45. 54. 20 kilograms = ? milligrams
  46. 55. 3500 seconds = ? hours
  47. 56. Moving the decimal Metric unit conversion is simply a matter of moving the decimal in the correct direction and the correct number of places.                           
  48. 57. <ul><li>Write this chart: </li></ul><ul><li>Find the unit you are starting with. </li></ul><ul><li>Find the unit you want to change to. </li></ul><ul><li>Count the number of spaces you have to move. </li></ul><ul><li>Which way did you move? </li></ul><ul><li>Move the decimal in that direction that number of spaces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 3 </li></ul></ul>0.001 0.01 0.1 gram (g) meter ( m) liter (L) second (s) 10 100 1000 m c d da h k milli centi deci BASE UNIT deca hecto kilo
  49. 58. <ul><li>Convert these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 ml = ? dl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 mm = ? km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.752 hg = ? cg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 -1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 3 </li></ul></ul>0.001 0.01 0.1 gram (g) meter ( m) liter (L) second (s) 10 100 1000 m c d da h k milli centi deci BASE UNIT deca hecto kilo
  50. 59. How can we remember the order of the chart? <ul><li>K ids H ave D ropped OVER D ead C onverting M etrics </li></ul><ul><li>K ilo H ecto D eca OVER D eci C enti M illi </li></ul><ul><li>meter </li></ul><ul><li>liter </li></ul><ul><li>gram </li></ul><ul><li>What is your mnemonic device? </li></ul>
  51. 60. DENSITY <ul><li>Pages 94- 95 </li></ul>
  52. 61. ORGANIZING DATA <ul><li>Pages 210-211 </li></ul>
  53. 62. ANALYZING DATA <ul><li>Pages 212-213 </li></ul>
  54. 63. Images copied from: <ul><li>http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/brownridge.html#changing-prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>http://invsee.asu.edu/Modules/size&scale/unit2/unit2.htm </li></ul>