A PUBLICATION OF GR E E N WO O D W I L D L I F E R E H A B I L I TAT I O N S A N CT U A R Y SPRING, 2006
BABY SQUIRRELS — WHAT TO DO
Perhaps you’ve noticed that your neighborhood squirrels are acting a bit friskier
lately. Maybe their cute, comical, and, yes, sometimes annoying antics have recently
Thoughts from Greenwood’s
Board President caught your eye and left you wondering, “What has gotten into those crazy squirrels?”
3 Well, something is definitely up—babies! Nesting high up in the trees, in hollowed-
out limbs or attached to limbs in large “squirrel-made” jumbles of leaves and twigs,
fox squirrels (our common urban-dwelling squirrels) have two breeding seasons each
year. The first round falls in mid-February, with babies born throughout March and
Thank You, Victoria
April. These kids are the “spring babies.” The second round comes a bit later in the
year, beginning in early August and continuing through October, bringing the “fall
Would You Like Greenwood
babies.” As you read this newsletter, we are in the midst of spring baby season for
to Visit Your School?
our squirrelly neighbors. It is a busy time and everyone can help make sure things
go more smoothly for them and their new little ones.
Give Your House a “Spring Break”
Schnort, The Explorer
As tempting as it is
Printer Cartridge Recycling
to put out food for
6 these furry critters,
Wish List the first way to help
Environmental Enrichment them is to resist this
What’s New at the
Squirrels, as is true
Gift & Thrift Store? n
for all wild animals,
must learn to forage
Manhattan Middle School
natural food sources.
New and Improved Website
This helps them
Release Sites Needed
raise strong, healthy
babies who learn
Greenwood Wildlife Rehabilitation
Sanctuary is a not-for-profit corporation
what nutritious natural food really is. In turn, as the babies mature, they pass on
that is devoted to the rehabilitation
these life skills to future generations.
and release of injured and orphaned
wildlife. We have been in existence
Many commercial mixes contain foods, such as sunflower seeds and peanuts that can be
for over a decade and were incorporated n
in March 1993.
extremely damaging to squirrel development and their long-term health. These inappropriate
We are named after “Greenwood,” who
foods can cause bones to grow improperly (a condition called “metabolic bone disease”).
was the first raccoon rehabilitated and
In babies, the bones do not develop well, leaving them brittle and fragile for life; in
released by our organization in 1982.
Since then, we have successfully treated
adults, the bones degenerate over time. By encouraging squirrels to forage for nuts,
and released thousands of animals.
branches, and seeds that are found naturally within their habitat (possibly your
Greenwood now maintains one of the
largest wildlife rehabilitation facilities
backyard!), we can help to make sure that their babies grow up strong, healthy, and
along Colorado’s Front Range.
savvy about the ways of successful urban wildlife.
In October of 1993, Greenwood
obtained 501(c)(3) status from the IRS
An interesting fact... squirrels that are not hand-fed by humans are much less likely
as a non-profit charitable organization.
to be attacked by dogs or cats or to be hit by cars.
Our efforts are funded solely by the
generosity of hundreds of concerned
citizens, businesses, and organizations.
(CONTINUED ON PAGE 3)
THOUGHT S F R O M G R E E N WO O D ’ S B OA R D P R E S I D E N T
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Meghan Allen, President
Soon, Greenwood’s 2006 spring baby season will begin. As the baby season descends
Paul Lavell, Treasurer
upon Greenwood, staff and volunteers will pick up the pace and start to rush through
Brenda Kasper, Secretary
the facility from one feeding to another, from an emergency admission to the flock of
baby ducks swimming in the bath tub. Despite the frenzy, excitement will grow. The
sense of cooperation and teamwork that is alive all year will take on new dimensions.
Claire Campbell During the busy spring baby season and throughout the year, Greenwood admits and
Heather Johnson treats nearly 3,100 wild animals. Our patients range from avian to mammalian to
Gary Steele reptilian, from feathered to furred, and from tiny neonates to full-grown adults. These
Jim Williams animals are the reason for our existence and the driving force behind our success.
Our 2005 intake statistics provide insight into the work
that’s undertaken at Greenwood each year — we admitted
3,099 animals of 141 species! Between April and August,
we received 77% of our birds and mammals and 100% of
SANCTUARY MAILING ADDRESS
our total reptile admissions.
Greenwood has grown in many ways over the years. Of
P.O. Box 18987
course, our intake numbers rise and fall each year depending
Boulder, CO 80308-1987
on natural and human circumstances. West Nile Virus
SANCTUARY HOURS had a significant impact on our number of intakes several
Spring & Summer years ago; while habitat encroachment and human interaction continue to be the cause
9am-7pm Monday-Friday of many Greenwood admissions. In 2005, 10% of total intakes were cat-related; 6%
9am-4pm Saturday & Sunday
were dog-related; and 8% were either hit by a car or found in the road. In many of these
instances, the necessity for medical treatment was greatly increased.
303.545.5849 Likewise, 67% of the small mammals we admitted required ‘round-the-clock foster care
attention. 54% of our baby bird admissions were so young that they required extensive
care in our baby bird room. Their vulnerability, because of their young age, necessitated
countless hours of treatment and care.
What do all these statistics mean? Why are they important? To further expand on the
condition of rehabilitation at Greenwood and in the state of Colorado, we can—and
should—look to studies and data that have been compiled. However, an organization
such as Greenwood, with a release rate of 60%, must remember that its successes are
due in large part to the human aspects of our operations.
Without dedicated staff and volunteers, these statistics would surely be different. The
quality of care and personal attention provided at Greenwood would certainly be com-
promised. With staff and volunteers who are always searching for better ways to provide
care and administer treatments, Greenwood realizes many successes. We are grateful for
their enthusiasm and devotion to Colorado’s wildlife. As fellow wildlife lovers, we offer
Each year brings many opportunities and challenges. As the baby season approaches
GIFT AND THRIFT STORE
each spring, our greatest motivator is the realization that our staff and volunteers and
3013 Walnut Street
many other dedicated wildlife rehabilitators in Colorado are providing an invaluable
Boulder, CO 80301
service to Colorado’s wildlife and our communities.
Hours: Monday through Saturday
Animals of all kinds will soon occupy our cages and will silently—well, not so silently
—ask for our attention and our help. As they have for the past 20 years, Greenwood
volunteers and staff will dedicate countless hours to treating the baby animals that will
THRIFT STORE MANAGERS
soon converge on our Sanctuary needing care. With love in their hearts, they will continue
our quest to serve Colorado’s wild animals.
(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1)
So, how else can you help our twitchy-
tailed friends? Another way to help
requires knowing what to do if you find
a baby squirrel in need. Baby squirrels
get into trouble in any number of ways
this time of year. For example, taking
an unexpected tumble down a tree trunk
in a wind storm, or getting dragged out
of the nest by a cat, or tree trimmers’
cutting down a tree where babies are
bundled up snug in their nest. Whatever
the scenario, here are steps to take before
bringing a baby to Greenwood for spe-
cial care. Keep in mind that, as discussed
above, the first way to help always applies
Even if you have cared for other baby
If, after four hours, mom still hasn’t returned
to babies, too— never feed a baby squirrel! n
mammals in the past—kittens, puppies,
and you have not observed any squirrel activity
Improper feeding technique and diet can
or even other species of wildlife—every
close by, you can be fairly certain that she is
be fatal. It also makes it less likely that
species has very specific needs as well as
not coming back— or, at least, not soon enough.
mom will take her baby back. (This is our
handling and health considerations. It
At this point, please call Greenwood for
primary objective, as you will see later.)
is very important to handle the baby as
instructions on what to do next. Keeping
The first step with a seemingly orphaned
little as possible, not only for its health,
the baby warm and in a quiet place will,
baby squirrel is to check for injuries. If you but for your health as well.
again, be two of the very best things
see any wounds or bleeding, please call you can do while you’re waiting. Baby
Once the baby is at Greenwood, our
Greenwood immediately for advice. Put squirrels will be fine without food for
trained animal care staff and volunteers
the baby into an appropriately sized box, at least 48 hours and without liquid for
will provide all the care that is needed.
with a hot water bottle wrapped in a at least 24 hours. Even if you know for
We strive to reunite babies with their
t-shirt (for it to cuddle up with!). The certain that more time than this has
mothers whenever possible. If we can’t
heat and a nice, quiet environment are passed, still do not attempt to give food
reunite baby and mom, our main objec-
perfect first steps on the road to recovery. or water to the baby. Instead, bring the
tive is to release the squirrel back into
baby to Greenwood immediately. A strict
If you see no obvious injuries, look around
the wild as a healthy young adult who
medical procedure must be followed
the immediate vicinity for the nearest tree. is completely wild and is able to success-
when re-hydrating and re-introducing
Place the baby in a shallow box at the fully forage for food on its own.
foods to babies. (The most important
base of the tree (making sure no predators,
thing to know is that if its body
such as the neighborhood tomcat, are
temperature is too low, the baby will be
lurking about) and move some distance
physiologically unable to absorb fluids
away. If the nearest tree has been removed,
and digest foods. That is why providing
place the box at the base of the stump.
heat is such a critical, yet simple, way
If possible, watch from a window rather
to help if mom does not return.)
than from somewhere in the area. A
number of hours may pass before mom
works up the courage to come back for
ANIMAL STATISTICS 2005
her baby. It is very likely though, that
she will return. Fox squirrels are devoted Total Number of Animals Admitted 3,099
parents and, generally, have more than
Total Number of Species Admitted 141
one nest—a back-up nest ready and
waiting in a nearby tree, in case some- (108 bird species)
thing happens to the one that she’s using.
But mom won’t come back until she BREAKDOWN of 2005 ANIMALS ADMITTED
feels the coast is clear. So waiting and
Total Number of Mammals 1,245
watching, hidden and from a distance,
are important. (If you’re worried about Total Number of Birds 1,847
the baby getting cold, place a hot water
Total Number of Reptiles 7
bottle wrapped in a t-shirt in the box
with the baby before you move away.) Release Rate of Animals Treated 60%
THA N K YO U , V I CTO R I A ! VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES
Written by Laura Priess While on-site volunteers are essential for Greenwood, animal
care is not for everyone. Here are other ways you can help.
When I think of Victoria Nykamp and Greenwood together,
the word “exceptional” comes to mind. Victoria has been with Education Team —We need people to visit classrooms,
Greenwood, in many different capacities, since 1991. She has community events, and adult groups as representatives of
been a tireless volunteer, a superlative teacher, a friend and Greenwood. You will give presentations or staff a booth
support for all, and, most recently, she has been our Foster Care about Colorado wildlife management and prevention of
Coordinator. In this role Victoria shone even brighter than any human-wildlife conflicts. Help us make a difference in the
of us thought someone could! lives of children, adults, and wildlife!
Victoria has been an example and an excellent teacher from the Foster Care—Experienced volunteers may have the
first day that I started volunteering with Greenwood. She was one opportunity to get licensed by the Colorado Division of
of the people who made volunteering at Greenwood a positive Wildlife (CDOW) and provide care for wildlife in their homes.
experience for me: She was always willing to answer questions Without foster care providers, Greenwood could not properly
and take the time to show me how to do any task correctly. rehabilitate animals such as orphaned baby squirrels, rabbits,
Maintenance and Construction—Volunteers are needed
to assist with construction and maintenance of our cages,
buildings, and grounds. It is vital that our caging and
buildings receive regular maintenance and care because
of the number of patients that come to Greenwood.
Transport and Rescue Team—Occasionally people find
injured and/or orphaned wildlife and are unable to bring them
to Greenwood. In these cases, volunteers are needed for trans-
port (and, occasionally, for capture in order to transport) to our
facility. Training will be provided.
Release—Greenwood has a great need for volunteers to help
release successfully rehabilitated patients. More importantly,
we need volunteers to search for potential release sites, espe-
cially for mammals. Anyone who is interested will be trained
Victoria has a tireless love for Colorado’s wildlife and she has
to designate appropriate sites.
shown this year after year. Her forte, although she has many
strong abilities, is her foster care skills. She has been available If you are interested in any of these volunteer opportunities
for questions from other homecare rehabilitators day and night. or want to get more information, please call 303.545.5849 or
In addition, she lovingly nursed thousands of squirrels, raccoons, send an e-mail to email@example.com.
doves and other wild animals back to health and/or to maturity.
Victoria has been at the forefront, answering phones and helping
us educate the public about humane wildlife solutions. She
WOULD YOU LIKE GREENWOOD
has acted as an advisor, an administrator, and an advocate for
Greenwood over the years.
TO VISIT YOUR SCHOOL?
Recently, much to our sadness, Victoria has decided to step back
Greenwood is in the process of updating our education program
from her role as our Foster Care Coordinator. She is returning
and we are looking for a few schools to work with in 2006. A
to a full-time restaurant position with Brasserie TenTen,
Greenwood educator will visit your classroom with plenty of
although she plans to continue volunteering as a foster care
props and pictures and will teach a one hour class on wildlife
provider during baby season (April-October).
rehabilitation and human-wildlife interactions. We also offer
Thank you, Victoria, for years of dedicated service to the a class focusing on baby birds. Please visit our website for more
wildlife that makes Colorado so special. We are truly grateful information as we develop this program. Also, email inquiries
for your experience, insight, and love. may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org or leave a message at
SCHNORT, THE EXPLORER
GIVE YO U R H O U S E A N D YA R D
A “S P R I N G B R E A K ” F R O M At the end of August 2005, an explorative 4-week-old squirrel
UNWA N T E D V I S I TO R S seemed to have explored her way out of the nest and out of a
tree, plummeting at least 1 story (maybe 2) to smack her face
Viewing backyard wildlife can be thrilling, but sometimes
on a cement sidewalk! A family from Arvada rushed to get
those wild neighbors can get a little too close to home—
her to Greenwood. The young squirrel had a horrible bloody
literally. Here are some quick tips to prepare your house and
nose and was terribly off-balance. Her sneeze-filled night gave
yard for potential springtime wildlife conflicts.
her the name “Schnort.” We weren’t sure she would make it
through the night. Her foster care provider stayed up with her,
blotting her nose and trying to get her to take fluids. Finally,
n Remove over-hanging limbs—over-hanging tree limbs are
pathways for squirrels and raccoons to reach attics and chimneys, at around 4 a.m., she took a little oral LRS (lactated Ringer’s
solution). Soon after, there was no more blood and she slept
which can be nesting sites for both species. If any tree limbs
peacefully. It would still be 18 days until she was old enough
hang over the house, trim them back.
to open her eyes. After a period of quarantine, she was placed
n Check your chimney, attic vents, and the structure itself for any
in a carrier with another young squirrel—“Leonard,” the
openings more than 1/2 inch. All holes and openings should victim of a dog attack. Leonard and Schnort quickly became
be blocked or screened with building materials resistant to good friends. Schnort continued to be “the explorer” and many
gnawing or prying. times almost “explored” her way right off the feeding table!
Leonard opened his eyes 5 days before Schnort, but he knew
n Tighten eaves and replace any loose or decayed boards.
she was the boss and always let her be fed first. The 2 squirrels
n Keep doors and windows in good repair. grew up together and were released in Arvada in mid-October.
Although they had been combined with 4 other squirrels,
n Close off crawl spaces under porches, decks, and sheds. Some
it was always obvious which squirrel was Schnort. Even after
species of wildlife use such areas for dens and raising young.
almost 2 months of rehabilitation, she still carried both the
scar on her nose and her brave little attitude!
n Install a chimney cap (the best kind has a stainless steel top)
to prevent nesting raccoons and accidental falls by birds
Cover window wells. Birds and small mammals can fall in and
not be able to climb or fly out on their own.
Install a dryer vent cover to prevent birds from entering the
dryer vent and making a nest.
YARD/ GA R D E N :
Secure garbage cans by fastening the lids with rope, bungee
cords, or chains. Store garbage cans in a garage or shed. Put
garbage at curbside the morning of the scheduled pick-up,
rather than the night before.
Do not leave pet food outside. It attracts many wildlife species;
PRINTER CARTRIDGE RECYCLING
they won’t pass up a free buffet!
Motion-activated outdoor lighting and sprinkler systems can You can help Greenwood by giving us your old printer
help keep unwanted wildlife out of gardens and yards. cartridges. When they run out or dry up, don’t throw them
away—give them to Greenwood instead! We have an arrange-
If you need guidance with a wildlife conflict, call Greenwood
ment with a recycling company who will give us cash for used
at 303.823.8455. We will help you find a humane solution.
cartridges, both inkjet and laser.
Ask your neighbors, friends, family, and work colleagues to
donate their empty inkjet and laser cartridges to our sanctuary.
We will accept all brands (except Epson and remanufactured
cartridges) as long as they are not damaged. Simply drop off
the empties at the Sanctuary or at the Gift & Thrift Store. We
can arrange for pickup of large orders (30 or more cartridges)
from companies. Please call 303.545.5849 and leave a message
if you would like to arrange pick-up.
WIS H L I S T E N V I RONMENTAL ENRICHMENT
CLEAN I N G S U P P L I E S In addition to providing top-quality
Bleach medical care and nutrition for our
Unscented laundry detergent
patients, the staff and volunteers at
Greenwood reduce stress for the animals
by trying to mimic each animal’s natural
(used to make baby bird nests)
environment and presenting the animals
with opportunities to entertain them-
(39 gallon or larger)
selves during their short time in captivity.
Liquid dishwashing detergent
This injured ring-necked pheasant feels much
Heavy duty scrub sponges
more at home in a large cage with dried grass-
Latex gloves es than he would on a cement floor.
Garden hoses and nozzle
BUILD I N G S U P P L I E S
SPECI A LT Y I T E M S
Microscope slides and cover slips
Digital gram scales
(at least 3 megapixels)
FOOD A N D B E D D I N G
Fruits and Vegetables
In addition to manufactured rodent chow,
(No citrus or onion)
Greenwood’s squirrels munch on fresh buds
Freeze Dried Insects and branches for nutrients.
(Tubifex Worms, Bloodworms,
High-quality dog food (dry)
Wild bird, sunflower, thistle
and safflower seeds
Young mammals love to cuddle in soft
Cracked corn fleece. This can be especially good for
Peanuts (in shell, no salt) orphans, substituting for the warmth
Peek-a-boo! In the wild, baby fox squirrels and softness of their mothers’ bodies.
Banana baby food
are raised in tree nests high above the ground.
Ceramic food/water bowls (large)
Greenwood provides young squirrels with soft
Ferret hammocks squirrel hammocks to sleep in. The hammocks
are attached to the roofs of wire cages. A startled
MISCE L L A N E O U S squirrel instinctively climbs up for safety, and
Butterfly/bird nets at Greenwood we provide this safety with ham-
mocks. Once these orphans are old enough to
Ziploc bags (quart & gallon size)
move outside to the squirrel condos, they will
Fresh branches free sleep in wooden nest boxes. In the fall, healthy
of chemicals/pesticides squirrels will be released with their nest boxes
nailed to a tree, just in case they don’t have time
Plain and colored copy paper
Crows are very intelligent birds. Greenwood
to build a nest before all of the leaves blow away.
3-ring hole punch mimics their environment with plenty of natural
Toner cartridge logs and branches. We also offer a variety of
foods. Crows are known to be avid problem-
for Sharp AL-1530CS copier
solvers and enjoy cracking open peanuts and
Neosporin + pain ointment/cream eggs. They will even sort their food! One
Natural history books Greenwood patient was known to separate the
x’s and o’s from the dry kitty chow we gave him
to play with!
WHAT'S NEW AT THE
GIFT & THRIFT STORE?
Did you know that Greenwood runs a
thrift shop in Boulder? Greenwood
Wildlife Gift and Thrift has been in
operation since 2003 and is located at
the northeast corner of 30th and Walnut
Street, next to Wild Birds Unlimited. Our
growing business has become a regular
destination for many of our patrons
because of our competitive pricing
and constantly changing inventory.
Diane Cesmat and Thiya Steele share the
job of thrift store manager with enthusi-
asm and dedication. These two wonderful
ladies are assisted by a small core of
Natural branches in a raccoon pen provide volunteers who make the Greenwood
shade and a fun toy to play with as well! Gift and Thrift a fun place to shop, work,
In addition to a long list of loyal, private
donors, our thrift shop also accepts dona-
tions of overstock items from local retail
stores. Since their inception, Rockin’
Robin’s and Berry Patch—both Niwot
retail stores—have made regular dona-
tions of clothing and unique decorative
Geese are very social animals. After a period Raccoons are very playful and love to get
items. Thanks also to Diane Cesmat for
of quarantine they can be combined to keep their hands on anything. These juveniles are
each other company. Lonely birds are often celebrating Halloween with a pumpkin. Holes
recently soliciting some fabulous dona-
entertained by mirrors. Geese sometimes are carved in the sides of the pumpkin and
tions from Fresh Produce, a quality
honk and even dance in front of their “friend” delicious treats are inside!
in the mirror! clothing store on Pearl Street. Thanks
to Fresh Produce for also donating two
glamorous female mannequins, where we
now display our most attractive clothing
Have you ever thought of volunteering
in the thrift store? We are always in need
of people to come in and help sort the
donated goods, display the items, and
No raccoon cage is complete without a generally help out. Or do you have a pick-
wading pool! Raccoons love to wash their
up truck that could be used to collect
food and splash around.
large furniture pieces? We frequently
turn down offers of furniture donations
because we cannot pick them up.
Greenwood Wildlife Gift and Thrift is a
thriving business, but we are only as good
as the donations we receive. So clear out
Ducklings feel at home in the water. In the wild, your clutter, your closet, your garage,
parent ducks take waterproof oil from their own your basement and come on down and
This adult mallard from ICU gets to relax in a
bodies and apply it to their babies so the whole
donate to a wonderful cause.
family can stay in the water for hours. Orphaned warm bathtub for at least 20 minutes each day.
ducks don’t have that waterproofing oil for the Once he is off his medication for an infected
first few weeks after hatching, so placing a baby wound, he will be moved to an outdoor aviary
duck in water is a treat that Greenwood provides complete with a big swimming pool.
several times each day. Greens are cut up and
float in the water as a yummy snack!
O U R THANKS RELEASE SITES NEEDED!
In December 2005, Manhattan Middle Greenwood is always looking for new
School of Boulder hosted an evening cel- release sites for our recovered patients.
The cottontail tile
ebrating the arts. The night included an A variety of habitats are needed, including
that a Greenwood
artwork sale and silent auction, in part woodland, grassland, and mountain areas,
staff member had
to benefit our sanctuary. Sixth graders as well as urban and suburban neighbor-
to have! Thank you,
painted ceramic tiles featuring Colorado’s hoods. Sites are needed all over the front
wildlife and environment. In a fun bid- range, including (but not limited to)
ding frenzy, a Greenwood staff member Boulder, Longmont, and Denver. If
liked a tile so much that she outbid the you are interested in making your land
NEW AND IMPROVED
artist’s mother for the piece! Needless available for wildlife release, please visit
to say, there were no hard feelings and www.greenwoodwildlife.org and click on
Greenwood proudly displays this tile at Greenwood Wildlife is pleased to “community outreach-release program”
the sanctuary. To thank the sixth-grade announce that we have launched a new to complete our form. You can also call
class, Greenwood staff members visited website designed to better serve our Greenwood at 303.545.5849. Please
the school and gave an assembly program long-time friends and to assist in edu- help us in this important final step of
on wildlife rehabilitation. cating the public about Greenwood’s wildlife rehabilitation!
mission and Colorado’s wildlife. Please
Greenwood also wishes to thank the
visit us often at www.greenwoodwildlife.org
many other local schools that have held
drives to benefit the sanctuary and Greenwood wishes to send an appreciative
requested education programs about “Thank You!” to ClearPixelDesign, who
wildlife rehabilitation! donate their services creating and main-
taining the beautiful new website.
Feel free to visit them at
Printed on recycled paper
your gently used goods to this Boulder gem!
supporters! Come shop with us and donate
a regular destination for patrons and
Our growing Gift and Thrift Store is
GIFT AND THRIFT STORE?
WHAT'S THE GREENWOOD
303.545.5849 (voice mail)
Boulder, Colorado 80308-1987
P.O. Box 18987
Permit No. 925