Bloom to Marzano in Practical Legal Training

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Bloom to Marzano in Practical Legal Training

  1. 1. Bloom to Marzano Kristoffer Greaves
  2. 2. From Bloom to Marzano <ul><li>Taxonomies of Educational Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance to Practical Legal Training </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom et al </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano and Kendall </li></ul><ul><li>What’s changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for Practical Legal Training </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Anderson, LW, et al (eds) (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom, BS (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Krathwohl, DR, Bloom, BS & Masia, BB (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Mager, RF (1962) (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Marzano, RJ & Kendall, JS (eds) (2007) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ‘ Taxonomy’ of Educational Objectives <ul><li>Classification / Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom et al: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains of educational activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories of educational activities within those domains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marzano and Kendall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of Processing </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bloom et al Domains and Categories <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving, Responding, Valuation, Organisation, Internalisation, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception, Mindsets, Guided Response, Mechanism, Complex Overt Response, Adaptation, Origination </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Bloom’s Cognitive Categories
  7. 7. Marzano and Kendall Domains and Levels of Processing
  8. 8. What’s the Difference? Bloom cf Marzano Framework of information processing (not predictive) Theory of human thought (predictive) Psychomotor skills, unpublished Psychomotor procedures included Knowledge: remembering phenomena accurately Knowledge: info retrieved & procedures executed Comprehension – objectives, behaviours, responses Comprehension – translation, interpretation, extrapolation Synthesis Knowledge utilisation Knowledge category explored at first cognitive level only Knowledge domains interact with all levels of processing
  9. 9. Relevance to PLT <ul><li>Designing / Reviewing / Improving: </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Design </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Formative and Summative Assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Waypoints for Reflective Practice </li></ul>
  10. 10. Marzano and Kendall Domains and Levels of Processing
  11. 11. Information Domain
  12. 12. Mental Procedures Domain
  13. 13. Psychomotor Procedures Domain
  14. 14. Marzano and Kendall Domains and Levels of Processing
  15. 15. Levels of Processing
  16. 16. Cognitive Educational Objectives Level 1 Retrieval Recognise Validate correct statements about features of information Recall Produce features of information Execute Perform a procedure without significant error
  17. 17. Levels of Processing
  18. 18. Cognitive Educational Objectives Level 2 Comprehension Integrate Identify basic structure of information, mental procedure or psychomotor procedure Symbolise Construct an accurate symbolic representation of information, mental procedure or psychomotor procedure
  19. 19. Levels of Processing
  20. 20. Cognitive Educational Objectives Level 3 Analysis Match Identify important similarities & differences Classify Identify superordinate and subordinate categories Analyse Errors Identify errors Generalise Construct new generalisations Specify Identify logical consequences
  21. 21. Levels of Processing
  22. 22. Cognitive Educational Objectives Level 4 Knowledge Utilisation Decision Making Use information and procedures to make decisions Problem Solving Use information or procedures to solve problems Experimenting Use information or procedures to generate and test hypotheses Investigating Use information or procedures to conduct investigations
  23. 23. Levels of Processing
  24. 24. Meta-Cognitive Educational Objectives Level 5 Meta-cognition Specifying Goals Establish a goal relative to information and procedures Process Monitoring Monitor own progress toward accomplishment of a specific goal Monitoring Clarity Determine extent of own clarity about information and procedures Monitoring Accuracy Determine extent of own accuracy about information and procedures
  25. 25. Levels of Processing
  26. 26. Self-System Thinking Educational Objectives Level 6 Self-System Thinking Examine Importance Identify importance of information & procedures to self & underlying reasons Examine Efficacy Identify own beliefs about ability to improve competence/understanding & underlying reasons Examine Emotional Response Identify own emotional responses to information & procedures & underlying reasons Examine Motivation Identify own overall motivation to improve competence / understanding & underlying reasons
  27. 27. Potential Implications <ul><li>Improved Framework for: </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Standards for Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Design </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Formative and Summative Assessments </li></ul>
  28. 28. Objectives (see Mager) <ul><li>Global objectives (goals / competency standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance: what learner is expected to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions: conditions for performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion: how well learner must perform to be acceptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational objectives – specific – “The learner will be able to [verb phrase] [object]” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Global Objective Descriptor - Property law Practice <ul><li>From Competency Standards for Entry-Level Lawyers 2002: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ An entry level lawyer should be able to convey, lease and mortgage real property. The lawyer should also be able to provide general advice on standard matters arising under legislation relating to land use in that State or Territory.’ </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Global Objective Descriptor - Property law Practice <ul><li>An entry level lawyer should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. convey, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. lease, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. mortgage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real property; [and] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. provide general advice on standard matters arising under legislation relating to land use in that State or Territory </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Instructional Objective Property Practice – Passing Title - Element 1 <ul><li>Dot point 4: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The lawyer has ... competently drafted an appropriate instrument of transfer or conveyance and had it executed and (if necessary) stamped and registered, according to law.’ </li></ul>
  32. 32. Instructional Objective Property Practice – Passing Title - Element 1 <ul><li>The lawyer [Subject] </li></ul><ul><li>has competently [Criterion] </li></ul><ul><li>drafted [Verb] </li></ul><ul><li>an appropriate instrument of transfer or conveyance [Object] </li></ul><ul><li>and had it executed and (if necessary) stamped and registered [Verb Phrase] </li></ul><ul><li>according to law [Condition] </li></ul>
  33. 33. Level 1 - Retrieval Recognise The learner: Information Validates a statement identifying the party responsible for preparing the transfer of land document in readiness for settlement. Mental Procedure Validates a statement regarding a process for checking a transfer of land at settlement. Psychomotor Procedure Validates a statement regarding the handling of documents at settlement
  34. 34. Level 1 - Retrieval Recall Information Explains concisely the purpose of the transfer of land document Mental Procedure Describes what should be verified on the transfer of land document at settlement, when acting for purchaser, and how Psychomotor Procedure Describes a technique to stay focused at settlement
  35. 35. Level 1 - Retrieval Execute The learner: Information Not applicable Mental Procedure Supplied with relevant source documents, completes a blank transfer of land document, including appropriate signing parts, in readiness for a purchaser client’s signature. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  36. 36. Level 2 – Comprehension Integrating The learner: Information Describes a relationship between the consideration stated on the transfer of land, the price stated in the sale contract, and another document at settlement. Mental Procedure Orally describes the steps undertaken concerning a transfer of land document from the point of its creation to its lodgement at land registry. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  37. 37. Level 2 – Comprehension Symbolising The learner: Information Produces a checklist to be used to validate a transfer of land document at settlement. Mental Procedure Produces a flow diagram showing the steps undertaken concerning a transfer of land document from the point of its creation to its lodgement at land registry. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  38. 38. Level 3 – Analysis Matching The learner: Information Describes the similarities and differences between a transfer of land created for transferees taking as joint proprietors and one created for those taking as tenants in common. Mental Procedure Describes how reading a Certificate of Title is different from reading a Register Search Statement Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  39. 39. Level 3 – Analysis Classifying The learner: Information Identifies and explains the category of right or restriction described on completed T2 Transfer of Land. Mental Procedure Identifies the categories of professional skills and procedures relevant to preparing and dealing with the transfer of land. Explains why those skills and procedures are relevant. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  40. 40. Level 3 – Analysis Analysing Errors The learner: Information Determines and explains the plausibility of an explanation given by the other party at settlement regarding an apparent defect in the execution of a transfer of land. Mental Procedure Identifies and describes an error made by the other party in executing the transfer of land document. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  41. 41. Level 3 – Analysis Generalising The learner: Information Can construct and defend general principles concerning the preparation and purpose of the transfer of land document. Mental Procedure Can construct and defend general principles concerning the skills and procedures relevant to preparation of and dealing with the transfer of land document. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  42. 42. Level 3 – Analysis Specifying The learner: Information Can make and defend predictions about the likely consequences if the transfer of land accepted at settlement is defective. Mental Procedure Can make and defend predictions about what the learner could do at settlement if the transfer of land document is defective. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  43. 43. Level 4 – Knowledge Utilisation Decision-Making The learner: Information Decides whether to accept the transfer of land document at settlement and explains why. Mental Procedure Decides whether to accept the transfer of land document based on own analysis of other documents and information. Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  44. 44. Level 4 – Knowledge Utilisation Problem-Solving The learner: Information Solves a problem concerning the transfer of land document using own knowledge and information. Mental Procedure Orally describes the mental processes and skills another person would be required to use to prepare a transfer of land document without previous experience Psychomotor Procedure Not applicable
  45. 45. Consider… <ul><li>Improving : </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Theory and Practice regarding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing Formative and Summative Assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waypoints for reflective practice </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Thank you! [email_address]

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