Plc Robotics

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Plc Robotics

  1. 1. Programmable Logic Controller and Robotics
  2. 2. An Industrial Automation System <ul><li>PLC coordinates all the motion </li></ul><ul><li>Robot is a key component </li></ul>
  3. 3. A small PLC (Allen Bradley MicroLogix 1000) (Courtesy of Allen-Bradley).
  4. 4. Definition of PLC <ul><li>PLC is a digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions by implementing specific functions such as logic sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control, through digital or analog input/output modules, various types of machines or processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern PLC can be viewed as specialized computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized in logic control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle harsh and noisy environment </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Structures
  6. 6. Input/output module <ul><li>Analog inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentiometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analog outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analog valves and actuators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC and AC motor drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital input/output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar code, encoder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special purpose I/O </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PID controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network module </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Memory <ul><li>ROM </li></ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><li>PROM </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>
  8. 8. Peripherals <ul><li>Operator console </li></ul><ul><li>Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Simulator </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM loader </li></ul><ul><li>Network communication </li></ul><ul><li>PC based programming software </li></ul>
  9. 9. Functions of PLC <ul><li>Relay </li></ul><ul><li>Timer and counter </li></ul><ul><li>Program control </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Data manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Data transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Others, such as sequencers </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Relay
  11. 11. A counter
  12. 12. Counter timing diagram (the count value is 5)
  13. 13. A timer
  14. 14. Timer timing diagram (the timing value is 5)
  15. 15. Logic control <ul><li>Control actions are taken by making decisions depending on the values associated with various inputs or variables and the control logic in the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions by attributes (go-nogo decision) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the machine turned on? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the gate to the work cell open? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the AGV arrived at the docking station? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision by variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How deep is the hole? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the cutting speed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the required surface finish? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many parts are to be made? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Logic control <ul><li>Attribute decision can be represented by a logic variable (true or false) and its value can be determined by a logic expression </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean algebra is used for logic expression </li></ul>
  17. 17. Logic network diagram and ladder diagram
  18. 18. Example 1 <ul><li>A robot is to be used to unload finished parts from a machine onto an AGV and to load raw parts from the AGV to the machine. Assume that there are sensors at the AGV's docking station to indicate the arrival of a vehicle and onboard sensors indicating whether the vehicle has brought a raw part to be processed as well as whether the AGV has space to carry away a finished part. Also assume there are sensors on the machine to indicate whether the machine is loaded with a part and also to signal completion of part processing. The robot is required to unload a processed part from the machine onto the AGV, pick up a new part for processing from the AGV, and load it onto the machine. The AGV is to be dispatched after completion of the cycle. Construct a ladder logic diagram for this task. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Identify I/Os <ul><li>01 AGV has arrived </li></ul><ul><li>02 AGV is carrying a new part to be processed </li></ul><ul><li>03 AGV has space to store a processed part </li></ul><ul><li>04 Machine has a finished part to be unloaded </li></ul><ul><li>20 Unload old part from machine onto the AGV </li></ul><ul><li>21 Pick new part from the AGV and load onto the machine </li></ul><ul><li>22 Dispatch the AGV </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Ladder Diagram
  21. 21. Features of Ladder Diagram <ul><li>A ladder logic diagram is made up of inputs and outputs connected according to the appropriate logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Each rung in the ladder represents a set of logical relationships between the inputs that leads to a particular output. </li></ul><ul><li>The output from one rung of the ladder could be used as an input in another rung of the same ladder. </li></ul><ul><li>Except when special provisions are made, it is considered that all rungs in a given ladder logic diagram are executed simultaneously, so the order of the rungs on the ladder in general does not matter. </li></ul>
  22. 22. PLC scan
  23. 23. Example 2
  24. 24. Identified I/Os
  25. 25. Program
  26. 26. Wiring diagram
  27. 27. Example 3 <ul><li>During the powder metallurgy process, a punch is used to press blended metal powder into a compact inside a die. A pushbutton is used to start the process. When the start button is pressed, the die is filled with powder. The punch is then advanced and it applies pressure to the powder for a duration of 10 s, after which it is retracted. The pressed compact is then ejected from the die and the cycle repeats. The cycle can be interrupted by pressing a stop button. If the stop button is pressed, the punch is required to retract (if it had been advanced) before the process is stopped. We are required to construct a ladder logic diagram for this task. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Identify I/Os
  29. 29. Ladder Diagram
  30. 30. Example 4 <ul><li>This example illustrates the use of both the timing and counting functions. Consider a production line in which parts requiring processing are brought to a machine by a conveyor. A robot is used to load parts from the conveyor onto the machine and, after the part has been processed, unload the part from the machine and place it on a pallet. The cycle time for processing each part is 10 min. The robot is to palletize the parts by placing 125 parts on each pallet. The parts are to be arranged on the pallet in five layers of 25 parts each. Once a pallet is complete, it is dispatched and a new pallet is started. An allowance of 30 s is to be made for pallet dispatching and presentation of a new pallet. Construct a ladder logic diagram to effect the required control. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Identified I/Os <ul><li>10 Machine has a part to be unloaded </li></ul><ul><li>30 Load machine with a new part </li></ul><ul><li>40 Unload a process part from the machine </li></ul><ul><li>45 The current pallet layer is full </li></ul><ul><li>48 Increment layer being palletized by 1 </li></ul><ul><li>50 The pallet is full-dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>60 Present a new pallet </li></ul><ul><li>C100 Up counter with limit set to 25 </li></ul><ul><li>C200 Up counter with limit set to 5 </li></ul><ul><li>T250 Timer with limit set to 600 s </li></ul><ul><li>T300 Timer with limit set to 30 s </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ladder Diagram
  33. 33. Design methods for ladder diagram
  34. 34. Truth table
  35. 35. Ladder diagram for Example 10.2
  36. 36. State diagram
  37. 37. Rules of State Diagram
  38. 38. State diagram for Example 10.4
  39. 39. Outline <ul><li>What is industrial robot? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of robot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic components in a robot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robot in Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection of Robot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brief introduction to robot kinematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basics of robot kinematics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy justification of robot </li></ul>
  40. 40. 1. What is robot? <ul><li>In a broad sense, any autonomous machine can be called a robot. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial robot is a general-purpose computer-controlled manipulator consisting of several rigid links. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Why do we use robot? <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy problem </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Types of industrial robots <ul><li>Serial manipulator </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel configuration </li></ul>
  43. 43. Further Classification of Serial Manipulator <ul><li>Cartesian Robot </li></ul><ul><li>Gantry Robot </li></ul>
  44. 44. Further Classification of Serial Manipulator <ul><li>Cylindrical Robot </li></ul>
  45. 45. Further Classification of Serial Manipulator <ul><li>Spherical Robots </li></ul><ul><li>Articulated Robots </li></ul>
  46. 46. Further Classification of Serial Manipulator <ul><li>SCARA </li></ul>
  47. 47. Robot Joints <ul><li>Prismatic joint </li></ul><ul><li>Revolving joint </li></ul>
  48. 49. Robot Working Envelope
  49. 50. Robot classification using control methods <ul><li>Point-to-Point control </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous path control </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled path robot </li></ul>
  50. 51. Forward and backward kinematics analysis
  51. 52. Forward and backward kinematics analysis
  52. 53. Forward and backward kinematics analysis
  53. 54. 2.1 Typical Applications <ul><li>Welding </li></ul>
  54. 55. Typical Applications <ul><li>Assembly </li></ul>
  55. 56. Typical applications Deburs
  56. 57. Assembly headlamp
  57. 58. Robot Selection <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity </li></ul><ul><li>Actuator type </li></ul><ul><li>Control mode </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatability </li></ul><ul><li>Lift capacity </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  58. 59. Example
  59. 60. A single machine robotic cell application
  60. 61. Cycle time calculation example
  61. 62. Another example: double grip robot
  62. 63. Example

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