Development and application of Engrestrom's Activity System Model/Tool

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Presentation showing the further development and application of Yryo Engestrom's activity system model to understanding and/or analysing 'primitive' socio-technical systems.

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Development and application of Engrestrom's Activity System Model/Tool

  1. 1. AN APROACH TO SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS EVOLUTION BASED ON CULTURAL HISTORICAL ACTIVITY THEORY (CHAT) Peter Bond
  2. 2. Activity System is a goal directed system Activity theory is a theoretical framework for studying different forms of human praxis. Activity is not merely an external behavior; it is also inextricably linked with internal mental activity and consciousness of abstractions from a concrete situation that allow an individual to anticipate the sequences of other situations and provides insight into mental processes that guide conscious and volitional behavior (Rubinshtein, 1957). Cultural Historical Activity Theory Life process is a material and practical process
  3. 3. The CHAT Development Trajectory Lev Vygotsky Russian Psychologist (1896-1934) Alexei Leont’ev Russian Psychologist (1903-1979) instruments subject object outcome division of labourcommunityrules Collective Activity System Yryo Engestrom Finnish Psychologist Russia 1970s West Humans use tools, including symbols and language, that develop from a culture, to mediate their material and social environments. Individual Activity System mediating artefact subject objectactivity
  4. 4. instruments (tools cultural artefacts) object/problem situation outcome division of labourcommunityrules Engestrom’s Collective Activity System Model or Framework of Analysis Arrowed lines represent tension. Intervention is based on reducing it. subject/agent All instruments are social in nature activity Instruments mediate the relation between subject and object Rules (and division of labour) mediate the relation between subject and community Community also mediates between subject and object
  5. 5. Engestrom’s Collective Activity System Model or Framework of Analysis Activity: Examining a Patient (social) instruments stethoscope, questions object/problem situation patient outcome diagnosis, strategy division of labour hierarchy, nurse assists community other doctors, nurses rules hippocratic oath, professional etiquette, ethics, communication guidelines subject/agent physician/doctor activity Question: Can this system be improved?
  6. 6. Adapting Engestrom’s system model to describe and analyse the evolution of a material culture Priority was to understand the process of material engagement—crafting, toolusing. Needed to introduce something that drew attention to materials—the STUFF of technical systems (stone, metal, wood, composites). activity tools medium human medium Werner Rammert A relational mediational view of technology Andrew Feenberg Metatheory of technology deworlded captured property of adeworlded captured property of a (natural) object(natural) object MIND or SELF Object-of-action result-of-action Process whereby tools became symbolic, took on additional (social) meaning (jadeite axes). role emerged fromrole emerged from activity/practiceactivity/practice tools becoming symbolictools becoming symbolic (secondary instrumentalisation)(secondary instrumentalisation) (secondary instrumentalisation in relation(secondary instrumentalisation in relation to the tool user)to the tool user) OTHERSOTHERS (human and nonhuman)(human and nonhuman) Andrew Pickering mangle of practice creative tension in the sociotechnical system
  7. 7. Language???Language??? human medium MIND or SELF Object-of-action........ result-of-action activity or process habitushabitus (Pierre Bourdieu)(Pierre Bourdieu) Reference Framework emerging fromReference Framework emerging from conversations about practices and the result ofconversations about practices and the result of practicespractices (`Maturana and Varela)(`Maturana and Varela) result-of-action tools medium human medium deworlded captured functionaldeworlded captured functional property of a (natural) objectproperty of a (natural) object MIND or SELF Object-of-action role/identityrole/identity of the selfof the self OTHERSOTHERS (human and nonhuman)(human and nonhuman) activity or process
  8. 8. tools mediumhuman medium deworlded property of a (natural)deworlded property of a (natural) objectobject MIND or SELF CUTTING SHARPNESS OPPOSABLE THUMB result-of-action is a motivation forresult-of-action is a motivation for the activitythe activity ultimate objective is eating fleshultimate objective is eating flesh FLINT, OBSIDIAN, COPPER CUT FLESH A Cutting ToolA Cutting Tool
  9. 9. A Cutting Tool andA Cutting Tool and Emerging SymbolEmerging Symbol tools mediumhuman medium deworlded property of a (natural)deworlded property of a (natural) objectobject MIND or SELF Object-of-action role/identityrole/identity of the selfof the self humanhuman OTHERSOTHERS activity or process weight, sharpness, lengthweight, sharpness, length expert, competent, knowing, axeexpert, competent, knowing, axe wielderwielder stone, root, woodstone, root, wood habitushabitus strong,strong, coordinatedcoordinated LEADER, an ELDERLEADER, an ELDER
  10. 10. tools mediumhuman medium deworlded property of a (natural)deworlded property of a (natural) objectobject MIND or SELF Object-of-action role/identityrole/identity of the selfof the self nonhumannonhuman OTHERSOTHERS activity or process CONTAINMENT,CONTAINMENT, BUOYANCYBUOYANCY BENEFICIARY, VICTIM?BENEFICIARY, VICTIM? RITUALRITUAL SKIN, GUT, BONESKIN, GUT, BONE An Inuit Hunting BoatAn Inuit Hunting Boat

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