Introduction: <ul><li>The Catholic Church as we all know has declared that the Reproductive Health Bill 5043 which seeks passage from the House of Congress is an Anti-life Bill. </li></ul><ul><li>The contents of the RH bill will tell us the true and real purpose , which is to limit or alienate our population. </li></ul><ul><li>In the point of view of the Church, the issue of over-population which is the primary reason why this bill was made, is nothing else but a LIE. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty in millions of Filipinos is not caused by over-population, but rather we believe it is caused by corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption in our country is found in all levels of our government. </li></ul><ul><li>Trillion of pesos have been lost because corruption has sink deep into our society. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Although we can confidently say that only a few (crooked individuals) have been affected, but millions of our poor brothers and sisters are suffering from this great sin (stealing). </li></ul><ul><li>If only we can unite and stop corruption completely in our country I am sure there will be no poverty in this country of ours. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, the concept of “free sex” is being forced into our society. Likewise , introduction of contraceptives to our young ones is part of the global marketing strategy of giant foreign corporations to unload their products in the third world countries in exchange for profit. </li></ul><ul><li>The succeeding pages of this powerpoint are the reasons and the stands of the Catholic faithful. </li></ul>Why is the Catholic Church against Reproductive Health Bill or House Bill No. 5043? (previously known as House Bill 3773) Entitled : Reproductive Health and Population Act of 2007
<ul><li>(Article by former Senator Francisco Tatad, Phil. Daily Inquirer, </li></ul><ul><li>“ No Place For The RH Bill In Our Law” dated August 17, 2008.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Reproductive Health bill in the House of Representatives is being presented as a health bill and an antipoverty bill at the same time. It is neither. It is not what its authors say it is ; it is everything they say it is not. It is an ideological attack on human life, the family, and our social and cultural values. </li></ul><ul><li>The bill rests on a flawed premise; it is necessary, unconstitutional , oppressive of religious belief and destructive of public morals and family values. Its enactment into law will only deepen the already frightening ignorance about the real issues. It should be rejected. </li></ul>Definition of Term(s) 1. Reproductive Health – actual definition which the authors of the bill try to deny or hide includes the following: a. FREE SEX, b. USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES, c. ABORTION, IF CONTRACEPTION FAILS.
So, why “health”? Is health synonymous with sickness; Is health synonymous with death? – This will result to reduction of population. <ul><li>DECEPTION (concealing the truth about terms and programs) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing the title - if reproductive health includes full range of contraception. </li></ul><ul><li>Contraceptives: </li></ul><ul><li> * poison the womb </li></ul><ul><li> * render men and women infertile and/or sterile </li></ul><ul><li> * increase the frequency of sexual activity due to false sense of security, would result to– increase the possibility of AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases. </li></ul><ul><li> * Kill babies inside the womb. </li></ul><ul><li>Why Population Development? </li></ul><ul><li>Is scalping the population synonymous with population development? </li></ul><ul><li>How can Population be developed if: </li></ul><ul><li> * we drastically reduce it </li></ul><ul><li> * we render people sick </li></ul><ul><li> * we render people infertile and/or sterile </li></ul><ul><li> * we kill the future generation </li></ul><ul><li>ISN’T THIS A SUBTLE WAY OF DOING A SELF-INFLICTED GENOCIDE? </li></ul>
2. Declaration of Policy <ul><li>Sec. 2 - A). The State upholds and promotes responsible parenthood, informed choice, birth spacing and respect for life in conformity with universally recognized international human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Still in Section 2, paragraph 4 : The State likewise guarantees universal access to medically-safe , legal, affordable and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies and relevant information thereon even as it prioritizes the needs of women and children, among other underprivileged sectors. </li></ul>Then, why should we allow a bill which stands in exact opposition to the provision of the Philippine Constitution? <ul><li>So, why not invoke also the Philippine Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it because the Philippine constitution is glaringly Pro-Life and Pro-Family and it is an extreme contrast to the anti-life and anti-family stance of the Proposed Reproductive Health Bill? </li></ul>
How can you say “ Medically Safe”, when you know that : <ul><li>Pills – causes Hypertension, stroke, diabetes mellitus, goiter, cancer of the breast, etc. Contraceptives with cyproterone increase risk of deep venous blood clots. </li></ul><ul><li>Depo-Provera – causes diabetes mellitus, bleeding, cancer of the uterus, increases risk of chlamydia and gonorrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>IUD – causes infection, perforation of the uterus, bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>* Mayo Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>The above-mentioned drugs/gadget creates chronic inflammation of the lining of the uterus, thus, prevents implantation of the newly fertilized egg, resulting to ABORTION. </li></ul>Pills Depo-Provera® IUD
<ul><li>Condom creates a false sense of security , increases frequency of sexual activity, increases incidence of AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases because condom DOES NOT offer a 100% protection and even has NO protection on certain diseases like Hepatitis B, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The condom has a failure rate that is estimated to be between 10 to 30 percent (if use properly) according to the US- Center for Disease Control. </li></ul><ul><li>Are Condoms safe? Absolutely not! </li></ul>The male & Female condom is a latex or polyurethane sheath placed on the human sexual organs to prevent sperm from entering. Using condoms to prevent pregnancies & other diseases (STDs) is like playing Russian Roulette – your life is at stake! Male condom Female Condom <ul><li>Condom </li></ul>
Let’s look at HIV/AID’s Vital Statistics Worldwide So, why does AIDs continue to infect people, in spite of the fact that they claim that by using condom you are protected?
Looking into reality- Condom and STDs <ul><li>Remember, what US –Center for Disease Control said, “ condom has a failure rate that is estimated to be between 10 to 30 percent (if use properly) .” </li></ul><ul><li>If the sperm can escape, it is much easier for the other STDs and HIV Virus to also escape. Take a careful look at the comparative scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The AIDS virus is 450 times smaller than a sperm and can go through semi-permeable substances such as condoms. </li></ul><ul><li>CM Roland, editor of Rubber Chemistry and Technology notes, “The AIDS virus is only 0.1 micron in size… 50 times smaller than the voids (holes) in condom… virus can readily pass through the condom. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The sperm measures about 3 microns at the head and the HIV virus about 0.1 microns or about 1 ten thousandth part of 1 millimeter. </li></ul>Sperm Human Immuno- deficiency Virus Herpes simplex Treponema Palladium (Syphilis) Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
<ul><li>Ligation and Vasectomy = render couple permanently sterile; what if in the future the couple would want additional children because the present children died? </li></ul><ul><li>How come that drugs/procedures that cause sickness/death be labeled as medically safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Does medically harmful mean medically safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Why include children among those who need reproductive health services? Are they implying that we expect children to be sexually active? </li></ul>Ligation = bleeding, Pelvic infection Vasectomy = bleeding, linked with increased incidence of prostate cancer. ISN’T THIS A FULL-BLOWN SABOTAGE OF THE FAITH AND VALUE-FORMATION THAT WE LABOR FOR AND DESIRE FOR OUR CHILDREN?
3. Guiding Principles (Sec.3) <ul><li>D). Since manpower is the principal asset of every country, effective reproductive health care services must be given primacy to ensure the birth and care of healthy children and to promote responsible parenting. </li></ul><ul><li>If people are our greatest asset, our prime wealth, why will we clamp on our wealth? Why will we reduce birth? Why will we encourage people to use contraceptives, or have them be sterilized? </li></ul><ul><li>F). Freedom of informed choice, which is central to the exercise of any right, must be fully guaranteed by the State like the right itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of informed choice means educating the people regarding the benefit and the side effects of a drug/procedure , so that by proper discernment, the right decision can be made. </li></ul>HOW CAN A NEW HUMAN BEING BE BORN IF WE RENDER PARENTS INCAPABLE OF PROCREATION? Why? Do our government workers expose the side effects of all forms of contraceptives/sterilization procedures before they allow one to make a choice? In some centers, mothers who have just delivered are coerced (force) into signing the consent for ligation.
<ul><li>Sec.5 , letter F </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications; </li></ul><ul><li>Why will it be declared that their Reproductive Health program aims to prevent abortion? </li></ul><ul><li>When in fact: </li></ul><ul><li>IUD, Depo-Provera, Pills – ALL CAUSE ABORTION ! </li></ul><ul><li>How can one declare to prevent abortion when the armamentaria in one’s program are ABORTIFACIENTS? </li></ul>… Does promotion of abortion mean prevention of ABORTION?
<ul><li>Sec. 3, F. Freedom of informed choice . . . </li></ul><ul><li>G. While the number and spacing of children are left to the sound judgment of parents and couples based on their personal conviction and religious beliefs, such concerned parents and couples, including unmarried individuals, should be </li></ul><ul><li>afforded free and full access to relevant, adequate and correct information on reproductive health and human sexuality and should be guided by qualified State workers and professional private practitioners; </li></ul><ul><li>I. Protection and promotion of gender quality, women empowerment and human rights, including reproductive health rights, is imperative; </li></ul><ul><li>B). ENCOURAGE AND SYSTEMATIZE SEXUAL PROMISCUITY BY CREATING A CLIMATE OF “FREE SEX, NO RESPONSIBILITY” THROUGH WIDESPREAD AND WELL-COORDINATED AVAILABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVES. </li></ul>
<ul><li>K. Active participation by and thorough consultation with concerned non-government organization (NGOs) , people’s organizations (POs), and communities are imperative to ensure that basic policies, plans, programs and projects address the priority needs of stakeholders; </li></ul><ul><li>L. Respect for, protection and fulfillment of reproductive health rights seek to promote not only the rights and welfare of adults individuals and couples but those of adolescents’ and children’s as well as in Sec. 4, D, E, G and Sec. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it wrong? It’s wrong because it interferes with the natural generative process. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Intercourse is for married couples only, and must always be open to life. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sec. 2 (last Line), . . . Prioritizes the needs of women and children, among other underprivileged sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 3 Letter L . . . those of adolescents’ and children’s as well; and </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 12 Mandatory Age-Appropriate Reproductive Health Education. </li></ul><ul><li>a). These sections will sabotage the role of parents as primary educators of their children in a delicate subject like sex; parents should be the one to introduce to their children this topic since they know the maturity level of each of their own child; and should be chastity based. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides will you expose your child at an early age in the full range of information on family planning methods (use of condoms, oral contraceptives, IUD), services and facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>The bill mocks parents with fine and imprisonment for refusing to expose their children. </li></ul><ul><li>C). IT WILL DESTROY THE PURITY AND INNOCENCE OF CHILDREN BY INTRODUCING MANDATORY SEX EDUCATION FROM GRADE 5 TO 4 TH YEAR HIGH SCHOOL. (Various contraceptives and their usage will be tackled, and “Safe Sex“ will be encouraged) </li></ul>
<ul><li>b). It will promote early curiosity and subsequently early sexual activity among children. </li></ul><ul><li>Which will have a similar result on what US society experienced in just three short decades (1960-1991). </li></ul><ul><li>HOW CAN THE YOUTH BE THE “HOPE OF THE FATHERLAND” AND THE “HOPE OF THE MOTHERLAND” WHEN THEY ARE ALREADY FATHERS AND MOTHERS AT A VERY TENDER AND UNPREPARED AGE? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW CAN THE YOUTH BE THE HOPE OF THE FUTURE WHEN THEIR FUTURE IS PAINTED BLEAK BY AIDS AND OTHER STDs? </li></ul>d). Increase incidence of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers. c). Increase incidence of teenage pregnancy.
<ul><li>Look at Thailand years ago, Thailand has less AIDS victims than Philippines, but when they employed a 100% condom use ( If you go to Thailand there is no need to buy condoms and it is available else where ) their AIDS victims increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, 2008 if you look at the present situation, Philippines has 2,000 to 3,000 AIDs victims, while Thailand has 670,000! </li></ul>670,000
<ul><li>-- This would mean huge amount from peoples’ taxes will be spent to purchase it. </li></ul><ul><li>Why should contraceptives which are definitely harmful to the body (BFAD in the US had declared pills to be carcinogenic or cancer causing) of the mother and causes abortion be placed in the same level as drugs which truly alleviate sickness? </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for WHAT? </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 10 - Contraceptives as Essential Medicines- Hormonal contraceptives, intrauterine devices, injectibles and other allied reproductive health products and supplies shall be considered under the category of essential medicines and supplies which shall form part of the National Drug Formulary and the same shall be included in the regular purchase of essential medicines and supplies of all national and local hospitals and other government health units. </li></ul><ul><li>These harmful contraceptives will now be included in the regular purchase of medicines and supplies to all national and local hospitals and other government health units. </li></ul><ul><li>E) DECLARING CONTRACEPTIVES AS ESSENTIAL MEDICINE. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The government could not even provide our very poor patients with free antibiotics which is very essential for their survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Why spend money on drugs which will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make people sick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infertile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or, may even kill them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IS THIS WHAT THE GOVERNMENT WANT - TO POISON OR EVEN KILL ITS VERY OWN PEOPLE? </li></ul></ul>
Sec. 23-Appropriations – The amounts appropriated in the current annual General Appropriations act for reproductive health and family planning under DOH and POPCOM together with ten percent (10%) of the gender and Development (GAD) budgets of all government departments, agencies, bureaus, offices and instrumentalities funded in the annual General Appropriations Act in accordance with Republic Act No. 7192 (Women in Development and Nation-building Act) and Executive Order No. 273 (Philippine Plan for the Gender Responsive Development 1995-2025) shall be allocated and utilized for the implementation of this act. Such additional sums as may be necessary for the effective implementation of this act shall be included in the subsequent years’ General Appropriations Act. <ul><li>The General Appropriations Act of 2008 earmarks an enormous amount for “family planning and reproductive health services,” including contraceptives. </li></ul><ul><li>For the Department of health it is 3.19 billion, for Popcom – 386.5 million, quite apart from funds for other agencies of government and local government units for the same programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Add $2.4 million from the United Nations Population and development Fund and reproductive health for 2008, plus $2.2 million for 2009. </li></ul>F). APPROPRIATING HUGE AMOUNT OF MONEY FOR FAMILY PLANNING.
<ul><li>When in fact this money can go to our public schools in building more toilets, and more classrooms. Free education in College, free books, create more jobs for the poor, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Why misplaced priority? </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s average family has three children compared to seven in the 70’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Government have spent billions of pesos to reduced poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>But, isn’t it that poverty now is even worse than in the 70’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens have a right to resist misplaced and irresponsible exercise of authority because the good of the people is the supreme law. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution states, “ The State should uphold respect for one’s religious belief.” </li></ul><ul><li>Why then should we use taxes of people to buy something or spend for a procedure which we know violates the sacredness of his religious belief? </li></ul>. . is desecration a kind of respect ? <ul><li>Have they forgotten that a lot of Filipino tax payers are Catholics. </li></ul>
<ul><li>(Sec. 5, letter m) To take active steps to expand the coverage of the National Health Insurance Program (NHIP), especially among poor and marginalized women, to include the full range of reproductive health services and supplies as health insurance benefits; </li></ul><ul><li>G) ULTILIZING NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES. benefits; </li></ul>Inquiry done into this subject revealed that even as of the present time, PhilHealth is already allocating or spending for the following coverage of each ligation procedure:
<ul><li>As of 1999 there were 73 provinces in the Philippines. Let us just calculate that suppose there are at least 6 government hospitals per province so it will result to a total of 438 government hospitals in the country. Let us suppose that each government hospital performs only 25 ligations per week, that will be 1,200 ligations per hospital annually x P6,745 (total cost per ligation) multiplied by 438 government hospitals. The total cost of Philhealth expenses will reach a staggering amount of P3,545,172,000 per year for ligation alone . </li></ul><ul><li>What if we still add future expenses for vasectomy? </li></ul><ul><li>This will deplete Phil. Health of funds for more urgent and life threatening sickness like diabetes, cancer, heart attack, anemia, tuberculosis, etc. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sec. 17 - Employer’ Responsibilities. Employers shall respect the reproductive health rights of all their workers . Women shall not be discriminated against in the matter of hiring, regularization of employment status or selection of retrenchment. </li></ul><ul><li>All collective Bargaining Agreements (CBAs) shall provide for the free delivery by the employer of reasonable quantity of reproductive health care services, supplies and devices to all workers, more particularly women workers. </li></ul><ul><li>In establishments or enterprises where there are no CBAs or where the employees are unorganized, the employer shall have the same obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>Why mandate employers to allocate resources to spend for free “poison” to their employees? </li></ul><ul><li>What if they develop cancer, hypertension, diabetes, heart attack. </li></ul><ul><li>All your good employees will be gone . </li></ul>Why not mandate employers to provide scholarship programs to employees’ family members who are deserving? Or why not spend it to increase salary to better employees’ economic status? <ul><li>H) EMPLOYERS ARE MANDATED TO GIVE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CARE TO EMPLOYEES. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sec. 16 Ideal Family Size – The State shall assist couples, parents and individuals to achieve their desired family size within the context of responsible parenthood for sustainable development and encourage them to have two children as the ideal family size. Attaining the ideal family size is neither mandatory nor compulsory. No punitive action shall be imposed on parents having more than two children. </li></ul><ul><li>I) ENCOURAGING TWO CHILD POLICY </li></ul>According to the economist Bernardo Villegas of University of Asia and the Pacific, the two child policy will not solve our poverty problem. Population density has nothing to do with poverty. For example, Singapore had 7,223 population for every sq./km. but Singapore’s per capita gross national income was $21,230 , while Philippines had only 255 sq./km. and with GNP of $1,081. And if we compare data on regions within the country, the NCR had 15,617 per sq./km., with NGP of P32,219 as compared to Eastern Visayas with 173 sq./km. and NGP of only P6,708. (Source : Phil. Inquirer , Oct.3, 2008,”Population Bill a big waste, says think tank.”) I am sure those who were born after the second child will NOT AGREE!
* Uneven or Unequal Distribution of Wealth Over 80% of the country’s wealth are owned and controlled by just over 500 families. The best example is the vast sugar plantations in Negros, Panay & northern Cebu but which are owned by just a handful number of families. <ul><li>* Bad Governance and Bad Economic Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crime and corruption, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heavy burden of foreign debt, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate spending on health and education, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unmitigated smuggling, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no peace and order, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent trade policies. </li></ul></ul></ul>* Bad Politics a. Massive vote-buying, cheating, terrorism b. Worsening Political dynasties Reasons why Philippines remains poor. One of the 500 families Vast Sugar Plantation
* GRAFT and CORRUPTION World Bank confirmed in their studies said, “ for every 1Peso that every taxpayer pays,50% or 50 centavos goes to corruption”. COA says approximately the combined government money lost to corruption from 1972 to 2002 is Two (2) Trillion pesos. Others like the ZTE, Fertilizer fund, etc. * Very Poor Agricultural Advancement Philippines 50 years ago Japan 50 years ago Philippines after 50 years Japan after 50 years
<ul><li>Sec. 21,22 </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 21, a (1) … knowingly withhold information .. or intentionally provide incorrect information. </li></ul><ul><li>The bill actively pushes for massive contraception and sterilization , what is their definition of correct information regarding programs and services? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it mean that providing accurate information about the side effects of drugs/procedures which they themselves try to conceal or cover-up, will be rendered punishable? </li></ul><ul><li>If we will stifle the truth what will we peddle in exchange for it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will now speak out or write for the truth? </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. 21 a, (2) … refuse to perform voluntary ligation .. On the ground of lack of spousal consent or authorization. </li></ul><ul><li>A physician will be penalized because he will not do ligation on the wife without the husband’s consent nor a vasectomy on the husband without the wife’s consent. </li></ul><ul><li>The physician will be penalized because he respects the oneness of husband and wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore this bill cuts into the very heart of the sacred relationship of husband and wife. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>J) PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES </li></ul>
<ul><li>And for a physician to decide out of fear due to outside pressure and not out of compassion and justice for his patient – loses the essence of his being and the nature of his profession … and, a government which will use force to harass the medical profession or any group of professionals for that matter, ceases to be a genuine advocate of democracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Less people to pay taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Less OFWs, the bulk of which presently sustain our economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Less food and services production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make people a sick population – less productive, more burdensome for the health care. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, fertility is not a disease. It attest to health! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siphon our financial resources by redirecting it towards reproduction health program, leaving more urgent programs like education, genuine poverty alleviation, basic services, a non-priority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exert undue pressure upon the medical profession. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most importantly, promote desecration of faith and cause further deterioration of the nation’s moral fiber. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We are already a very poor nation. What this bill wants to do is to further push us into greater poverty and bring us to the brink of extinction through the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Deplete our population, and further deplete our economy, Why? </li></ul>
Why does the Catholic Church interfere in the affairs of the Government? When in fact there is a separation of the Church and the State. <ul><li>This question usually comes from the people who does not know the nature of the Church, because if they know their question should be, why does the State interfere in the affairs of the Church? </li></ul><ul><li>That is the very reason why we are defending ourselves. The Church is not a Church without the people. The Church is the people of God. We are the Church. And before we became a member of our family, and before we became a member of our society, before we became a citizen of our country and before we became a citizen of the world, we first and foremost belong to God’s family. </li></ul><ul><li>Are we going to allow one of our children to be poison, of course not. Contraceptives poisons! </li></ul><ul><li>Are we going to allow if one of the family member is being fooled or deceive? No! </li></ul><ul><li>Do we agree to the allow one member of our family to be killed? No! </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, nobody can take away God from His Church! </li></ul><ul><li>LET US NOT ALLOW THIS BILL TO PASS ! </li></ul><ul><li>SAY NO TO THE RH BILL NO. 5043 </li></ul>
<ul><li>To end this presentation may we continuously pray to Jesus that He send forth the Holy Spirit to guide the Authors and to make them realize that the bill will not do good but only harm to all of us. We pray in Jesus Name, Amen. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you very much and GOD BLESS! </li></ul><ul><li>Commission on Family Life, Archdiocese of Jaro </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Pius XII Center, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000 </li></ul><ul><li>Email us at email@example.com </li></ul>