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2015 vic- agritech rural-resistance-april

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2015 vic- agritech rural-resistance-april

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2015 vic- agritech rural-resistance-april

  1. 1. Herbicide resistance in western Victoria Dr Peter Boutsalis, University of Adelaide & Plant Science Consulting Plant Science Consulting
  2. 2. Why does herbicide resistance occur?  Herbicides don’t cause resistance!!  Resistance is naturally present.  Herbicides select and enrich resistance  poor spray conditions= low rate= weak resistance mechanisms stack  Ryegrass/ wild radish- obligate outcrossing so combine weak resistance  strong resistance
  3. 3. Incidence of Herbicide resistance
  4. 4. Herbicide Resistance Surveys  Sampling – End of season – Collect seed from paddocks randomly over a wide geographic area – Frequency 5-10 km  Evaluation- Pot testing – Pot testing in winter  Resistance levels change so need to revisit (eg 5 yr interval)
  5. 5. Uni of Adelaide random weed surveys between 2004-2014 (paddock surveyed)
  6. 6. Testing of survey samples
  7. 7. Ryegrass
  8. 8. Ryegrass resistance in West-Victoria Western Victoria Results of weed survey of 125 paddocks chosen at random in 2005 & 2010 conducted by the University of Adelaide. Paddocks were scored as resistant if the seeds collected exhibited >20% survival in a pot test conducted the following winter. Thus samples that exhibited 1% to less than 20% survival were scored as non- resistant. Region Year Trifluralin Hoegrass Glean Intervix Achieve Axial Select VICTORIA Western 2005 5 35 57 - 28 29 13 Wimmera 2 60 60 - 55 55 26 Mallee 7 12 54 - 3 7 0 Western 2010 25 40 73 18 35 33 5 Wimmera 35 60 74 18 57 54 9 Mallee 13 13 72 19 11 10 0
  9. 9. Vic glyphosate resistance 2014 Plant Science Consulting Sample ID Species Town State Type Glyphosate 1500 Glyphosate 2000 Glyphosate 3000 687.1-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC seed 0 687.2-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC seed 0 665-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC seed 0 656.1-14 ryegrass Kaniva VIC seed 0 656.2-14 ryegrass Kaniva VIC seed 0 631-14 ryegrass Shepparton VIC seed 30 629-14 ryegrass Shepparton VIC seed 10 626-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC seed 0 624.1-14 ryegrass Woomelang VIC seed 0 624.2-14 ryegrass Woomelang VIC seed 15 623.1-14 ryegrass Beaufort VIC seed 25 623.2-14 ryegrass Beaufort VIC seed 30 519-14 ryegrass Nhill VIC quick 60 510-14 ryegrass Swan Hill VIC quick 0 496.1-14 ryegrass Donald VIC quick 0 496.2-14 ryegrass Donald VIC quick 75 479-14 ryegrass Derrinallum VIC quick 45 15 477-14 ryegrass Inverleigh VIC quick 0 469.1-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC quick 30 469.2-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC quick 20 468-14 ryegrass Hamilton VIC quick 0 461-14 ryegrass Maryborough VIC quick 100 100 453.1-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC quick 0 453.2-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC quick 100 452-14 ryegrass Ballarat VIC quick 0 450-14 ryegrass Donald VIC quick 100 443-14 ryegrass Maryborough VIC quick 0 0 436-14 ryegrass Derrinallum VIC quick 0 408-14 ryegrass Berriwillock VIC quick 0 391-14 ryegrass Donald VIC quick 0 370-14 ryegrass Derrinallum VIC quick 80 35 363-14 ryegrass Ballarat VIC quick 40 35 337-14 ryegrass Glenthompson VIC quick 30 10 331-14 ryegrass Donald VIC quick 0 329-14 ryegrass Swan Hill VIC quick 80 0 325-14 ryegrass Inverleigh VIC quick 0 319-14 ryegrass Melton VIC quick 0 318-14 ryegrass Donald VIC quick 0 313-14 ryegrass Horsham VIC quick 0 309-14 ryegrass Hamilton VIC quick 0 303.1-14 ryegrass Lake Bolac VIC quick 0 0 0 303.2-14 ryegrass Lake Bolac VIC quick 0 0 0 303.3-14 ryegrass Lake Bolac VIC quick 0 0 0
  10. 10. Relationship within Group A’s and B’s in resistant ryegrass
  11. 11. Ryegrass resistance- Group A’s FOPS DEN DIM If resistant to below: Hoegrass Verdict Targa Axial Achieve Select Factor Hoegrass - R R ? ? ? ? Verdict R - R ? ? ? ? Targa R R - ? ? ? ? Axial R R R - R ? ? Achieve R R R R - ? ? Select R R R R R - ? Factor R R R R R R - Rate response: Select, Factor, Select + Factor
  12. 12. Ryegrass resistance- Group B’s Sulfonylureas IMI’s TP’s If resistant to below: Logran Glean Hussar (ryegrass) Atlantis (wild oats) Intervix/ OnDuty Crusader Logran - R ? ? ? ? Glean R - ? ? ? ? Hussar R R - R ? R Atlantis R R R - ? R Intervix R R R ? R ? - R ? Crusader R R R R ? -
  13. 13. Why isn’t ryegrass controlled with Select?
  14. 14. Different resistance occurs in a single paddock: Group A target site resistance 2078 25 2041 3 2078, 2041 11 2078, 2088 5 2041, 1781 1 1781, 2041, 2078 1 2041, 2078, 2088 1 Paddock 1 • GROUP B target site resistance same senario Paddock 2 Paddock 3 ACCase Target site mutations
  15. 15. Mutation 1998 2003 2008 1781 6 8 13 2027 10 7 6 2041 40 32 43 2078 13 13 21 2088 11 6 19 2096 1 1 1781, 1999 1 1781, 2027 1 1781, 2041 3 2 14 1781, 2078 3 3 1781, 2096 2 1999, 2041 1 1999, 2078 3 2027, 2041 2 2 2027, 2078 3 2041, 2078 3 5 4 2041, 2088 1 3 2078, 2088 6 3 2078, 2096 2 2088, 2096 1 Distribution of ACCase mutations in SA
  16. 16. Herbicide tactics at different stages to control weeds  Knockdowns (don’t overuse Gly) vs RR-canola  Rotate between different modes of action  Trifluralin, Avadex, Boxer Gold, Sakura, Rustler (IBS)  In-crop (Group A & B’s) resistance. Opportunities exist- use Herbicide Resistance Testing vs overuse of Sakura/ Boxer Gold!  Seed-set: Crop topping- canola, pulses, wheat
  17. 17. Successful weed control = integrated weed management 1. Effective herbicides (resistance testing) • Knockdown • Pre-emergence • Post-emergence • Seed-set stage 2. Non-herbicide strategies “when on a good thing don’t stick to it!!
  18. 18. IWM Crop Competition tactics • Crop competition- barley-oats-trit-wheat-durum • Crop choice- cereals vs broadleaf crops • Seeding rate/ Crop density • Row Spacing • Cultivar choice • Optimum planting time • Seeding depth • Seed vigor (Quality testing) • Fertilizer timing • Pest and disease management
  19. 19. Seedbanks- the seed in your paddock • Surviving weeds set seed – Ryegrass: 80,000 seeds/m2 [3-4 years)] – Wild radish- 30,000 seeds/m2 [3-4 years] – Brome- 3,000 seeds/m2 [2-3 years] – Sowthistle- 68,000 seeds/m2 [< 1 year] • Low numbers of resistant weeds can set lots of seeds • Seed longevity – Differs between species – Left on surface [see above] vs burial (tillage systems)
  20. 20. Managing the Weed Seed Bank- conventional tillage 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Beans Wheat Pasture Pasture Pasture Canola 2 Cultivations Trifluralin Diclofop-methyl Cultivation Glyphosate Trifluralin Clethodim Haloxyfop-ethyl Windrow Mechanical top Mechanical top Mechanical top Spraytop Year Annualryegrass(seedm -2 )
  21. 21. Successful farmers stop weed seed-set Non-herbicide – Green manure – Hay, Silage – Competitive crops – Chaff cart – Harrington Seed Destructor – Burning stubbles/ wind rows Herbicide – Brown manure – Crop topping – Pasture topping – Wick-wiping (lentils)
  22. 22. Burning Header Rows
  23. 23. NEW HERBICIDES  Adelaide University is investigating:  New MoA herbicides selective in wheat & canola  New non-selective knockdown herbicide
  24. 24. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Product F applied IBS
  25. 25. What are your herbicide options? Resistance testing www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au PLANT SCIENCE CONSULTING
  26. 26. Results using Seed Testing Herbicide Product Rate Herbicide Group Farmer paddock (g or ml/ha) Surviva l (%) Rating Verdict + 1% Hasten 85 A-FOP 70 RR Select + 1% Hasten 250 A-DIM 20 R Select + 1% Hasten 500 A-DIM 0 S Hussar + 1% Hasten 200 B-SU 90 RRR Atrazine + 0.2% BS1000 2000 C 0 S Triflur X 1000 D 0 S What’s the outcome if farmer had chosen Verdict?
  27. 27. Results Ratings RRR RR R
  28. 28. Testing: www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au Testing Plants Testing Seed
  29. 29. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Two main species of Brome • B. diandrus (Great Brome) – medium rainfall regions – generally earlier germination • B. rigidus (Rigid Brome) – lower rainfall regions – late and staggered germination Herbicide resistance in Brome
  30. 30. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Herbicide resistance- random surveys Survey Year Verdict (%) Select (%) Atlantis (%) South Australia Mallee 2007 0 0 33 Mid North 2008 2 0 3 Eyre Peninsula 2009 0 0 5 Victoria Western 2010 6 7 37 Northern 2011 0 0 0
  31. 31. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Why Brome is a problem? • Widely distributed • Distribution increasing in no-till cropping • Wide germination window • Limited herbicide choice in-crop – Wheat: Group B herbicides – Broadleaf crops: Group A herbicides • Herbicide resistance is developing • IWM crucial eg. hay etc to stop seed-set. (herbicides alone not the solution)
  32. 32. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Multiple germinations • Knockdown, pre-emergent, post-emergent (dead plants), second post-m required.
  33. 33. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Group A Resistance- Verdict
  34. 34. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Group B IMI Resistance (1800ml/ha Intervix)
  35. 35. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Glyphosate resistance- Maitland SA & Ouyen Vic. Increasing rate improves control
  36. 36. Brome resistance- Group A’s FOPS DIM If resistant to below: Verdict Targa Select Factor Verdict - R R ? R ? Targa R - R ? R ? Select R ? R ? - R ? Factor R ? R ? R - Can get rate response improving control
  37. 37. Brome resistance- Group B’s Sulfonylureas IMI’s TP’s If resistant to below: Monza Atlantis Intervix/ OnDuty Crusader Monza - R? ? R? Atlantis R - ? R? Intervix R R - R Crusader R R ? -
  38. 38. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Weed Control- in crop • Knock-down (non-selective)- delayed emergence! • Pre-emergent herbicide mixes – Trifluralin, Metribuzin, Sakura etc. • Post-emergent herbicides – Group A: Targa, Verdict, Select- dicot crops – Group B: Atlantis, Crusader, Monza- wheat – Group B: Intervix, Midas- Clearfield w/b/c • Limited choice of different MoA herbicides • Increased reliance on herbicides -> resistance
  39. 39. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Brome grass control at Pira, Vic 2013 Untreated control Sakura + Avadex Xtra Source: M Witney (DM)
  40. 40. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Efficacy of pre-em herbicides and brome seed germination Slide 40 Trif750 Trif1500 Trif3000 Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 a 60g/ha Sakura 120g/ha Sakura 240g/ha Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 n 75g/ha M etribuzin 150g/ha M etribuzin 300g/ha Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 Trif750 Trif1500 Trif3000 0 20 40 60 80 100 Herbicidedamage(%) Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 Sakura 60g/ha Sakura 120g/ha Sakura 240g/ha 0 20 40 60 80 100 Herbicidedamage(%) Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 M etribuzin 75g/ha M etribuzin 150g/ha M etribuzin 300g/ha 0 20 40 60 80 100 Herbicidedamage(%) Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 b d f Trifluralin Sakura Metribuzin
  41. 41. Managing broadleaf weed resistance wild radish, Indian hedge mustard, sowthistle
  42. 42. Wild Radish- Wild Radish Year Region Glean 2,4-D 2009 S-Vic 0/15 0/15 2011 Vic Northern 0/2 1/2 Directed resistance testing: Group B/F/I resistant wild radish detected in SA and Vic
  43. 43. Wild Radish  Genetically diverse like ryegrass.  Cross pollinates so resistance genes are transferred (= ryegrass)  Seedbank life: (3-4yr surface 6-8+ yr buried) exposure to same MoA. Not all seeds germinate in following year.  Stacking of resistance (multiple resistance) = ryegrass  Rotate MoA groups B, C, F, H, I, even if cheaper herbicides working  Use full rates!!  Spray early- younger resistant weeds can be killed – Especially contact herbicides- bromoxynil, diflufenican, velocity  Multiple herbicide timings- control new flushes
  44. 44. Sowthistle (% resistant samples) Sowthistle Year Region Glean 2,4-D 2009 S-Vic 0 0 2010 Vic Western 90 2011 Vic Northern 92 2012 SA Mallee/SE 80 The next big weed resistance problem!! Directed resistance testing: Group I resistance se SA Group M resistance in s-NSW
  45. 45. Indian Hedge Mustard (% resistant samples) Indian Hedge Mustard Year Region Glean Eclipse 24D 2008 SA Mid north 54 - 45 2013 SA Mid north 25 13 0 2009 SA Eyre Peninsula 52 57 0 2010 Vic Western 35 28 0
  46. 46. Indian Hedge Mustard  Western Victoria- IHM = incidence in 15% of paddocks  Reliance on Group B/I I resistance  B/I resistance  SA - Group B and I resistance (stacked resistance)  Western Vic: – 3 cases: resistance to Brodal (3 L/ha) – 1 case Atrazine (3 kg/ha) – Mostly self-pollinated (pollen transfer very rare)
  47. 47. Optimising the impact of glyphosate- ryegrass - Glyphosate resistance - Factors affecting glyphosate performance - Improving glyphosate performance Plant Science Consulting
  48. 48. Where & why has glyphosate resistant ryegrass evolved? Situation Number of sites States Broadacre cropping Chemical fallow 32 NSW Winter grains Summer grains Irrigated crops 295 1 1 Vic, SA, WA, NSW NSW SA Horticulture Tree crops 10 NSW, SA Vine crops Vegetables 25 2 SA, WA Vic Other Driveway 5 NSW, Vic, SA, WA Fence line /Crop margin Around buildings 89 2 NSW, SA, Vic, WA NSW Irrigation channel /Drain 14 NSW, SA, Vic Airstrip 1 SA Railway 2 WA, NSW Roadside 95 SA, NSW, WA Intensive use of glyphosate >15yr with little alternative weed control practices
  49. 49. Facts about glyphosate resistant weeds • All growth stages are resistant- seedlings, pollen etc. • Younger growth stages can be more sensitive. • Resistance transferred by pollen & seed • Progeny from survivors can be more resistant (accumulation of mechanisms)
  50. 50. Increasing the level of glyphosate resistance: mechanisms are additiveSurvival(%) TS S Translocation Cross: Translocation + TS
  51. 51. Variation in Glyphosate resistance in ryegrass- resistance testing of individual farmer samples
  52. 52.  Different resistance profiles! Data courtesy of P. Boutsalis, Plant Science Consulting
  53. 53. Improving glyphosate efficacy – Avoid treating plants with the below conditions: • stressed plants • high temperatures • Poor coverage • Dust covering leaves • Confirmed resistance- resistance test • Treating older plants (if one of the above conditions exists) – Higher rates may not be effective on resistant plants unless a resistance test confirms this. – Prevent glyphosate resistant individuals set seed to avoid accumulation of resistance mechanisms. – Rotate from glyphosate even if no resistance (paraquat products/ residuals eg. bromacil along fencelines/ non-cropped areas). – Resistance testing: for glyphosate resistance (several rates) important.
  54. 54. Quick-Test: Survivors resistant ??
  55. 55. Plant Science Consulting 1000ml/ha 1500ml/ha Glyphosate 540g ai/L 1000ml/ha 1500ml/ha Survivors to 1000ml/ha indicates low-level glyphosate resistance which is becoming common
  56. 56. Fencelines- high risk for Glyphosate resistance Paraquat mixtures, bromacil 2L/ha Glyphosate
  57. 57. Control of Glyphosate -R ryegrass on a fence line in Kapunda SA with herbicide mixtures- 2013 Fenceline was sprayed in late winter, 2013
  58. 58. Kapunda SA, 2013 At spraying Untreated Uragan 3kg/ha + Basta 5 L/haUragan 3kg/ha + Paraquat 2 L/ha
  59. 59. The End Plant Science Consulting

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