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2015 sa- landmark agron conf- rye & brome r- boutsalis

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2015 sa- landmark agron conf- rye & brome r- boutsalis

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2015 sa- landmark agron conf- rye & brome r- boutsalis

  1. 1. Herbicide resistance in SA Dr Peter Boutsalis, Christopher Preston & Gurjeet Gill. School of Agriculture, Food and Wine University of Adelaide Plant Science Consulting
  2. 2. Outline  Ryegrass  Brome  Glyphosate resistance  Herbicide resistance testing  Integrated weed management
  3. 3. Incidence of Herbicide resistance
  4. 4. Uni of Adelaide random weed surveys between 2004-2015 (paddock surveyed)
  5. 5. Testing of survey samples
  6. 6. Ryegrass
  7. 7. Ryegrass resistance in Mid-North SA Northern SA Results of random weed surveys conducted by the University of Adelaide. Paddocks were scored as resistant if the seeds collected exhibited >20% survival in a pot test conducted the following winter. Thus samples that exhibited 1% to less than 20% survival were scored as non-resistant.
  8. 8. Ryegrass resistance in SA Mallee & SE Resistance defined where ≥ 20% survival in a pot test
  9. 9. Ryegrass resistance in Eyre Peninsula- 2009 Resistance defined where ≥ 20% survival in a pot test
  10. 10. Relationship within Group A’s and B’s in resistant ryegrass
  11. 11. Ryegrass resistance- Group A’s FOPS DEN DIM If resistant to below: Hoegrass Verdict Targa Axial Achieve Select Factor Hoegrass - R R ? ? ? ? Verdict R - R ? ? ? ? Targa R R - ? ? ? ? Axial R R R - R ? ? Achieve R R R R - ? ? Select R R R R R - ? Factor R R R R R R - Rate response: Select, Factor, Select + Factor
  12. 12. Ryegrass resistance- Group B’s Sulfonylureas IMI’s TP’s If resistant to below: Logran Glean Hussar (ryegrass) Atlantis (wild oats) Intervix/ OnDuty Crusader Logran - R ? ? ? ? Glean R - ? ? ? ? Hussar R R - R ? R Atlantis R R R - ? R Intervix R R R ? R ? - R ? Crusader R R R R ? -
  13. 13. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Two main species of Brome • B. diandrus (Great Brome) – medium rainfall regions – generally earlier germination • B. rigidus (Rigid Brome) – lower rainfall regions – late and staggered germination Herbicide resistance in Brome
  14. 14. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Brome Herbicide resistance- random surveys Survey Year Verdict (%) Select (%) Atlantis (%) Crusader (%) Intervix (%) South Australia Mallee 2012 0 0 51 59 0 Mallee 2007 0 0 33 - - South East 2012 14 0 16 14 0 Mid North 2013 0 0 40 - - Mid North 2008 2 0 3 - 0 Eyre Peninsula 2009 0 0 5 - - Victoria Western 2010 6 7 37 - - Northern 2011 0 0 0 - 0 Atlantis resistant brome also resistant to Crusader and Monza
  15. 15. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Why Brome is a problem? • Widely distributed • Distribution increasing in no-till cropping • Wide germination window • Limited herbicide choice in-crop – Wheat: Group B herbicides – Broadleaf crops: Group A herbicides • Herbicide resistance is developing
  16. 16. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Multiple germinations • Knockdown, pre-emergent, post-emergent (dead plants), second post-m required.
  17. 17. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Group A Resistance- Verdict
  18. 18. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Group B IMI Resistance (1800ml/ha Intervix)
  19. 19. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Glyphosate resistance- Maitland SA & Ouyen Vic. Increasing rate improves control Target site overexpression- eg. GLY resistance in brome
  20. 20. Brome resistance- Group A’s FOPS DIM If resistant to below: Verdict Targa Select Factor Verdict - R R ? R ? Targa R - R ? R ? Select R ? R ? - R ? Factor R ? R ? R -
  21. 21. Brome resistance- Group B’s Sulfonylureas IMI’s TP’s If resistant to below: Monza Atlantis Intervix/ OnDuty Crusader Monza - R? ? R? Atlantis R - ? R? Intervix R R - R Crusader R R ? -
  22. 22. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Weed Control- in crop • Knock-down (non-selective)- delayed emergence! • Pre-emergent herbicide mixes – Trifluralin, Metribuzin, Sakura etc. • Post-emergent herbicides – Group A: Targa, Verdict, Select- dicot crops – Group B: Atlantis, Crusader, Monza- wheat – Group B: Intervix, Midas- Clearfield w/b/c • Limited choice of different MoA herbicides • Increased reliance on herbicides -> resistance
  23. 23. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Brome grass control at Pira, Vic 2013 Untreated control Sakura + Avadex Xtra Source: M Witney (DM)
  24. 24. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Efficacy of pre-em herbicides and brome seed germination Slide 24 Trif750 Trif1500 Trif3000 Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 a 60g/ha Sakura 120g/ha Sakura 240g/ha Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 n 75g/ha M etribuzin 150g/ha M etribuzin 300g/ha Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 Trif750 Trif1500 Trif3000 0 20 40 60 80 100 Herbicidedamage(%) Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 Sakura 60g/ha Sakura 120g/ha Sakura 240g/ha 0 20 40 60 80 100 Herbicidedamage(%) Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 M etribuzin 75g/ha M etribuzin 150g/ha M etribuzin 300g/ha 0 20 40 60 80 100 Herbicidedamage(%) Bromus diandrus T-0 T-3 T-5 T-7 T-10 T-12 T-14 b d f Trifluralin Sakura Metribuzin
  25. 25. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Glyphosate Resistance Christopher Preston, Jenna Malone and Peter Boutsalis School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, University of Adelaide
  26. 26. Plant Science Consulting 1000ml/ha 1500ml/ha Increasing rates of Glyphosate 1000ml/ha 1500ml/ha
  27. 27. Glyphosate resistance
  28. 28. What tests are there? 1. During the growing season • Syngenta Herbicide Resistance Quick-Test • Test for resistance on surviving weeds • Grasses mainly • 4-5 weeks 2. At end of season (pre-harvest) • Seed testing • 8-10 weeks • Dormancy breaking easy (wild radish, wild oats, ryegrass etc.) • Seedlings transplanted 3. Crop Seed Quality Testing • Germination, Vigor, TSW, • Clearfield testing- wheat/ barley/ canola Resistance testing www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au PLANT SCIENCE CONSULTING
  29. 29. Testing: www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au Testing Plants Testing Seed
  30. 30. Results using Seed Testing Herbicide Product Rate Herbicide Group Farmer paddock (g or ml/ha) Surviva l (%) Rating Verdict + 1% Hasten 85 A-FOP 70 RR Select + 1% Hasten 250 A-DIM 20 R Select + 1% Hasten 500 A-DIM 0 S Hussar + 1% Hasten 200 B-SU 90 RRR Atrazine + 0.2% BS1000 2000 C 0 S Triflur X 1000 D 0 S What’s the outcome if farmer had chosen Verdict?
  31. 31. Results Ratings RRR RR R
  32. 32. Herbicide tactics at different stages to control weeds  Rotate between different modes of action  Trifluralin, Avadex, Boxer Gold, Sakura, Propyzamide  In-crop (Group A & B’s) resistance. Opportunities exist- use Herbicide Resistance Testing  Seed-set: Crop topping- canola, pulses, wheat
  33. 33. NEW HERBICIDES  Adelaide University is investigating:  New MoA herbicides selective in wheat & canola  New non-selective knockdown herbicide
  34. 34. IWM Crop Competition tactics that help herbicides work better! • Crop competition- barley-oats-trit-wheat-durum • Crop choice- cereals vs broadleaf crops • Seeding rate/ Crop density • Row Spacing • Cultivar choice • Optimum planting time • Seeding depth • Seed vigor (Quality testing) • Fertilizer timing • Pest and disease management
  35. 35. Seedbanks- the seed in your paddock • Surviving weeds set seed • Low numbers of resistant weeds can set lots of seeds • Seed longevity – Differs between species – Left on surface vs burial (tillage systems)
  36. 36. The End Plant Science Consulting

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