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2015 hres- ikc-ballarat- 25 june vic

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2015 hres- ikc-ballarat- 25 june vic

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2015 hres- ikc-ballarat- 25 june vic

  1. 1. Herbicide resistance in Victoria Dr Peter Boutsalis, Plant Science Consulting & University of Adelaide IKC- June 25 2015 Plant Science Consulting
  2. 2. Outline  Why does herbicide resistance occur  Frequency of resistance  Ryegrass  Wild oats  Broadleaf weeds  Glyphosate resistance  Herbicide resistance testing  Integrated weed management
  3. 3. Why does herbicide resistance occur?  Herbicides don’t cause resistance!!  Resistance is naturally present.  Herbicides select and enrich resistance  poor spray conditions= low rate= weak resistance mechanisms stack  Ryegrass/ wild radish- obligate outcrossing so combine weak resistance  strong resistance
  4. 4. Frequency of resistance
  5. 5. Frequency of resistance  Group A: 1 in 500,000 naturally resistant  Group B: 1 in 20,000 naturally resistant (25X)  Group M: very rare but its here!
  6. 6. Frequency of Group A Resistant Individuals in a 100 ha Paddock Plant Density 1 m-2 10 m-2 100 m-2 1000 m-2 Plants 1 million 10 million 100 million 1 billion Resistant Individuals 2 20 200 2000 (assume a frequency of 1 R/ 500,000 plants)  So a paddock with a low density of survivors may not look threatening but if they are resistant  resistant seedbank!!
  7. 7. How Soon Does Resistance Happen? - Rules of Thumb Herbicide Group Years to resistance B- Glean 4 A- Hoegrass 6-8 C- Simazine 10-15 D- Trifluralin 10-15 F- Brodal ~10 L- Sprayseed >12 M- Glyphosate ~15
  8. 8. Incidence of Herbicide resistance across south-eastern Australia
  9. 9. Herbicide Resistance Surveys  Sampling – End of season – Collect seed from paddocks randomly over a wide geographic area – Frequency 5-10 km  Evaluation- Pot testing – Pot testing in winter  Resistance levels change so need to revisit (eg 5 yr interval)
  10. 10. Uni of Adelaide random weed surveys between 2004-2012 (paddock surveyed)
  11. 11. Testing of survey samples
  12. 12. Ryegrass
  13. 13. Ryegrass resistance in West-Victoria Western Victoria Results of weed survey of 125 paddocks chosen at random in 2005 & 2010 conducted by the University of Adelaide. Paddocks were scored as resistant if the seeds collected exhibited >20% survival in a pot test conducted the following winter. Thus samples that exhibited 1% to less than 20% survival were scored as non- resistant. Region Year Trifluralin Hoegrass Glean Intervix Achieve Axial Select VICTORIA Western 2005 5 35 57 - 28 29 13 Wimmera 2 60 60 - 55 55 26 Mallee 7 12 54 - 3 7 0 Western 2010 25 40 73 18 35 33 5 Wimmera 35 60 74 18 57 54 9 Mallee 13 13 72 19 11 10 0
  14. 14. Ryegrass resistance in N-Victoria Northern Victoria Results of weed survey of 120 paddocks chosen at random in 2006 & 2011 conducted by the University of Adelaide. Paddocks were scored as resistant if the seeds collected exhibited >20% survival in a pot test conducted the following winter. Thus samples that exhibited 1% to less than 20% survival were scored as non- resistant.
  15. 15. NSW & Tasmanian results courtesy of John Broster (Charles Sturt University) WA results courtesy of AHRI, University of Western Australia Resistance defined where ≥ 20% survival in a pot test Region Year Trifluralin Hoegrass Glean Intervix Achieve Axial Glyphosate Select SOUTH AUSTRALIA Northern Mallee 2012 20 9 70 36 7 0 0 Southern Mallee 2012 69 30 52 36 16 0 2 South East 2012 78 90 70 60 80 16 43 Central 2008 40 76 73 44 64 59 nt 40 Eyre Peninsula 2009 5 30 78 47 29 30 nt 11 Kangaroo Island 2009 0 46 67 45 55 50 nt 9 VICTORIA Western 2010 25 40 73 18 35 33 nt 5 Northern 2011 0 55 87 29 31 31 0 8 Southern 2009/14 0/3 79/82 88/93 39 84 68 nt 23 SE- NEW SOUTH WALES 2008 6 81 70 nt nt nt nt 21 TASMANIA 2009 0 11 23 nt nt nt nt 0 WA 2003 0.2 37 68 nt 13 nt nt 0.5
  16. 16. Relationship within Group A’s and B’s in resistant ryegrass
  17. 17. Ryegrass resistance- Group A’s FOPS DEN DIM If resistant to below: Hoegrass Verdict Targa Axial Achieve Select Factor Hoegrass - R R ? ? ? ? Verdict R - R ? ? ? ? Targa R R - ? ? ? ? Axial R R R - R ? ? Achieve R R R R - ? ? Select R R R R R - ? Factor R R R R R R - Rate response: Select, Factor, Select + Factor
  18. 18. Ryegrass resistance- Group B’s Sulfonylureas IMI’s TP’s If resistant to below: Logran Glean Hussar (ryegrass) Atlantis (wild oats) Intervix/ OnDuty Crusader Logran - R ? ? ? ? Glean R - ? ? ? ? Hussar R R - R ? R Atlantis R R R - ? R Intervix R R R ? R ? - R ? Crusader R R R R ? -
  19. 19. Why isn’t ryegrass controlled with Select?
  20. 20. Distribution of Group A resistance using molecular studies 2078 25 2041 3 2078, 2041 11 2078, 2088 5 2041, 1781 1 1781, 2041, 2078 1 2041, 2078, 2088 1 Paddock 1 • “Resistance occurs from a single plant in a paddock” is unlikely for Group A and B’s Paddock 2 Paddock 3 ACCase Target site mutations
  21. 21. Mutation 1998 2003 2008 1781 6 8 13 2027 10 7 6 2041 40 32 43 2078 13 13 21 2088 11 6 19 2096 1 1 1781, 1999 1 1781, 2027 1 1781, 2041 3 2 14 1781, 2078 3 3 1781, 2096 2 1999, 2041 1 1999, 2078 3 2027, 2041 2 2 2027, 2078 3 2041, 2078 3 5 4 2041, 2088 1 3 2078, 2088 6 3 2078, 2096 2 2088, 2096 1 Distribution of ACCase mutations in SA
  22. 22. Herbicide tactics at different stages to control weeds  Knockdowns (don’t overuse Gly) vs RR-canola  Rotate between different modes of action  Trifluralin, Avadex, Boxer Gold, Sakura, Kerb (IBS)  In-crop (Group A & B’s) resistance. Opportunities exist- use Herbicide Resistance Testing  Seed-set: Crop topping- “canola”, pulses, wheat
  23. 23. NEW HERBICIDES  Adelaide University is investigating:  New MoA herbicides selective in wheat & canola  New non-selective knockdown herbicide
  24. 24. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Product X applied IBS
  25. 25. Life Impact The University of Adelaide New pre-em herbicide research
  26. 26. Herbicide Resistance in Wild oats
  27. 27. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Resistance in wild oats • Group A resistant- big problem in northern NSW/ southern QLD. • Group B’s- increasing • What is the info from random surveys?
  28. 28. Herbicide Resistance in Wild Oats from Random Surveys HERBICIDE West Victoria NE Victoria Data is % of random samples (Resistance = survival ≥20%) 2005 2010 2006 2011 Paddocks 35/ 112 (31%) 38/ 121 (31%) 85/ 118 (72%) 40/115 (35%) Topik 10 10 8 8 Verdict - 5 - 0 Axial - - 2 - Atlantis - 0 0 0 Mataven - 2 12 5 Select 0 - 0 -
  29. 29. Wild Oats resistance- Group A’s FOPS DEN DIM If resistant to below: Topik Verdict Targa Axial Achieve Select Factor Topik - ? ? ? ? ? ? Verdict R - R ? ? ? ? Targa R ? - ? ? ? ? Axial R ? ? - R ? ? Achieve R ? ? R ? - ? ? Select R ? ? ? ? - ? Factor R ? ? ? ? R? - Rate response: 150ml/ha Axial vs 300ml/ha Axial Crop-topping with Topik/ Axial
  30. 30. Photos Axial regrowth 300 vs 150ml Axial Avadex
  31. 31. Wild oats resistance- Group B’s Sulfonylureas IMI’s TP’s If resistant to below: Hussar (ryegrass) Atlantis (wild oats) Intervix/ OnDuty Crusader Hussar - R? ? R? Atlantis R - ? R? Intervix (Clearfield) R R - R Crusader R R ? -
  32. 32. Differences between ryegrass and wild oats  Ploidy- 2 vs 6 copies of each gene  Pollination- cross vs self  Seeds/ plant  Is frequency of resistance different between species?
  33. 33. Managing broadleaf weed resistance wild radish, Indian hedge mustard, sowthistle
  34. 34. BLW issues in Victoria  Wild radish- resistance to Group B/I/F  Milk thistle- resistance to Group B (I/M)  Mustards- Group B (C/F/I) Glyphosate resistance confirmed in NSW
  35. 35. Wild Radish  Genetically diverse like ryegrass.  Cross pollinates so resistance genes are transferred (= ryegrass)  Seedbank life: (6-8+ yr) exposure to same MoA. Not all seeds germinate in following year.  Stacking of resistance (multiple resistance) = ryegrass  Resistance starting in eastern Australia  Rotate MoA groups B, C, F, H, I, even if cheaper herbicides working  Use full rates!!  Spray early- younger resistant weeds can be killed
  36. 36. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Glyphosate Resistance Christopher Preston, Jenna Malone and Peter Boutsalis School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, University of Adelaide
  37. 37. Life Impact The University of Adelaide What we have so far Annual ryegrass Barnyard grass Liverseed grass Fleabane Windmill grass Great brome
  38. 38. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Glyphosate resistant ryegrass Situation Number of sites States Broadacre cropping Chemical fallow 29 NSW Winter grains Irrigated crops 82 1 Vic, SA, WA, NSW SA Horticulture Tree crops 5 NSW, SA Vine crops Vegetables 21 2 SA, WA Vic Other Driveway 4 NSW, Vic, SA, WA Fence line /Crop margin Around buildings 63 2 NSW, SA, Vic, WA NSW Irrigation channel /Drain 12 NSW, SA, Vic Airstrip 1 SA Railway 2 WA, NSW Roadside 85 SA, NSW, WA One population = 10L/ha (roadside in southern Vic).
  39. 39. Plant Science Consulting 1000ml/ha 1500ml/ha Increasing rates of Glyphosate 1000ml/ha 1500ml/ha
  40. 40. Life Impact The University of Adelaide Control of Gly-R ryegrass on fence lines with herbicide mixtures 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Seedheads/m2 Herbicide treatment Untreated Glyphosate Glyphosate mixtures Paraquat mixtures Experimental Doubleknock 2L/ha glyphosate 2 applications of Spray.Seed
  41. 41. Life Impact The University of Adelaide  Glyphosate resistance along fenceline  in crop Response of in-crop ryegrass to glyphosate 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 405 810 1620 %Survival Glyphosate rates (g a.e ha-1) fence line 15m in crop 30m in crop 50m in crop
  42. 42. Glyphosate resistance
  43. 43. What are your herbicide options? Resistance testing www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au PLANT SCIENCE CONSULTING
  44. 44. What tests are there? 1. During the growing season • Syngenta Herbicide Resistance Quick-Test • Test for resistance on surviving weeds • Grasses mainly • 4-5 weeks 2. At end of season (pre-harvest) • Seed testing • 8-10 weeks • Dormancy breaking easy (wild radish, wild oats, ryegrass etc.) • Seedlings transplanted 3. Crop Seed Quality Testing • Germination, Vigor, TSW, • Clearfield testing- wheat/ barley/ canola PLANT SCIENCE CONSULTING www.plantscienceconsulting.com
  45. 45. Testing: www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au Testing Plants Testing Seed
  46. 46. Results using Seed Testing Herbicide Product Rate Herbicide Group Farmer paddock (g or ml/ha) Surviva l (%) Rating Verdict + 1% Hasten 85 A-FOP 70 RR Select + 1% Hasten 250 A-DIM 20 R Select + 1% Hasten 500 A-DIM 0 S Hussar + 1% Hasten 200 B-SU 90 RRR Atrazine + 0.2% BS1000 2000 C 0 S Triflur X 1000 D 0 S What’s the outcome if farmer had chosen Verdict? Q. Will Axial/ Achieve work??
  47. 47. Results Ratings RRR RR R
  48. 48. Quick-Test: Monitoring: identify survivors Why has this individual survived and the others haven't? Is it resistant?
  49. 49. Post Plants
  50. 50. Growth stage = 1-2 leaf to advanced tillering Best stage is early tillering Rinse soil off roots Plants can be trimmed Leaves dry Add NO water Quick-Test: collect plants
  51. 51. Make cuttings
  52. 52. Cuttings and re-growth 1. Cuttings 2. Regrowth 5-10 days later 3. Spray Compared to Standard Resistant and Susceptible biotypes in every test
  53. 53. Assess 2-3 weeks after spray Test for any post emergence herbicide
  54. 54. CROP SEED QALITY TESTING Crop Seed Quality Testing
  55. 55. Why test crop seed? Maximise crop establishment & competition with weeds Germination- establishment under good conditions Vigor- establishment under sub-optimal conditions/ heavy weed burdens Seed weight  accurate seeding rates/ good vigour Crop Seed Quality Testing
  56. 56. For more information www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au
  57. 57. Successful weed control = integrated weed management 1. Effective herbicides • Knockdown • Pre-emergence • Post-emergence • Seed-set stage 2. Non-herbicide strategies 3. Resistance testing “when on a good thing don’t stick to it!!
  58. 58. IWM Crop Competition tactics • Crop competition- barley-oats-trit-wheat-durum • Crop choice- cereals vs broadleaf crops • Seeding rate/ Crop density • Row Spacing • Cultivar choice • Optimum planting time • Seeding depth • Seed vigor (Quality testing) • Fertilizer timing • Pest and disease management
  59. 59. Seedbanks- the seed in your paddock • Surviving weeds set seed • Low numbers of resistant weeds can set lots of seeds • Seed longevity – Differs between species – Left on surface vs burial (tillage systems)
  60. 60. Managing the Weed Seed Bank 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Beans Wheat Pasture Pasture Pasture Canola 2 Cultivations Trifluralin Diclofop-methyl Cultivation Glyphosate Trifluralin Clethodim Haloxyfop-ethyl Windrow Mechanical top Mechanical top Mechanical top Spraytop Year Annualryegrass(seedm -2 )
  61. 61. Successful farmers stop weed seed-set Non-herbicide – Green manure – Hay, Silage – Competitive crops – Chaff cart – Harrington Seed Destructor – Burning stubbles/ wind rows Herbicide – Brown manure – Crop topping – Pasture topping – Wick-wiping (lentils)
  62. 62. Burning Header Rows
  63. 63. The End www.plantscienceconsulting.com.au

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