Truth, Belief, Knowledge<br />
The questionroute<br />How many molecules in an atom?<br />What is the best way to tackle third world debt?<br />Which typ...
Whichcategory?<br />How many planets are there in the solar system?<br />When was the French Revolution?<br />Is it right ...
Knowledge claims …<br />“I know that all triangles have three sides”<br />“I know that if I cover a candle with a glass ja...
Some truths …<br />“It is true that 1+1=2”<br />“It is true that objects fall towards the centre of the earth”<br />“It is...
Or beliefs?<br />“I believe that 1+1=2”<br />“I believe that objects fall towards the centre of the earth”<br />“I believe...
More truths<br />“It is true that Tony Blair was prime minister of the UK from 1997 to 2007”<br />“ It is true that Tony B...
Or beliefs?<br />“I believe that Tony Blair was prime minister of the UK from 1997 to 2007”<br />“I believe that Tony Blai...
How does belief differ from knowledge?<br />How does belief differ from truth?<br />How does truth differ from knowledge?<...
Truth Theories<br />According to the correspondence theory, a statement is true if it actually corresponds to (matches up ...
Our beliefs will only count as knowledge when they are true (accord with the objective facts) and when the person who hold...
Consider the knowledgeclaims, ‘beliefs’, ‘truths’,  wehaveseen so far.<br />Whatreasonsmightyougive in support?<br />
Some possiblejustifications<br />Faith<br />Instinct<br />Memory<br />Authority<br />Testimony<br />Expert opinion<br />In...
Gettier’s objection (Edmund Gettier 1963)<br />	Smith and Jones have applied for the same job. Smith has been told by the ...
An alternative version about sheep (Chisholm 1966/1977/1989)<br />	Imagine that you are standing outside a field. You see,...
Fallibility: the justification that is present is fallible, ie not unshakeable.<br />Luck. Something abnormal or odd is pr...
Comingsoon -  first writing task<br />‘How does belief differ from knowledge?’ (400 words)<br />Due week beforehalfterm<br />
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TOK lesson on Knowledge in general

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TOK lesson on Knowledge in general

  1. 1. Truth, Belief, Knowledge<br />
  2. 2. The questionroute<br />How many molecules in an atom?<br />What is the best way to tackle third world debt?<br />Which type of chocolate tastes best?<br />
  3. 3. Whichcategory?<br />How many planets are there in the solar system?<br />When was the French Revolution?<br />Is it right to kill?<br />Is 1+1 always 2?<br />Was Hitler a good leader?<br />Who is the Chancellor of the Exchequer?<br />Will science eventually tell us the origins of the Universe?<br />Are you happy?<br />What is the best way to get to Canon’s Park Tube station?<br />
  4. 4. Knowledge claims …<br />“I know that all triangles have three sides”<br />“I know that if I cover a candle with a glass jar, its flame will be extinguished”<br />“I know that John Adams succeed George Washington as President of the USA.”<br />“I know that I am feeling sad.”<br />“I know that the Olympic Games were held in Athens in 2004.”<br />“I know that it is wrong to kill.”<br />“I know that pupils at NLCS wear brown uniforms.”<br />
  5. 5. Some truths …<br />“It is true that 1+1=2”<br />“It is true that objects fall towards the centre of the earth”<br />“It is true that London is the capital of England”<br />“It is true that stealing is wrong”<br />“It is true that the Mona Lisa is the world’s most famous painting ”<br />“It is true that the Mona Lisa is the world’s most beautiful painting”<br />
  6. 6. Or beliefs?<br />“I believe that 1+1=2”<br />“I believe that objects fall towards the centre of the earth”<br />“I believe that London is the capital of England”<br />“I believe that stealing is wrong”<br />“I believe that the Mona Lisa is the world’s most famous painting ”<br />“It I believe that the Mona Lisa is the world’s most beautiful painting”<br />
  7. 7. More truths<br />“It is true that Tony Blair was prime minister of the UK from 1997 to 2007”<br />“ It is true that Tony Blair was one of the most successful British prime ministers of modern times”<br />“It is true that my favourite colour is blue”<br />“It is true that Ben & Jerry’s ice-cream tastes really good”<br />“It is true that God exists”<br />“It is true that I am sad”<br />“It is true that the manufacture of landmines should be banned”<br />
  8. 8. Or beliefs?<br />“I believe that Tony Blair was prime minister of the UK from 1997 to 2007”<br />“I believe that Tony Blair was one of the most successful British prime ministers of modern times”<br />“I believe that my favourite colour is blue”<br />“I believe that Ben & Jerry’s ice-cream tastes really good”<br />“I believe that God exists”<br />“I believe that I am sad”<br />“I believe that the manufacture of landmines should be banned”<br />
  9. 9. How does belief differ from knowledge?<br />How does belief differ from truth?<br />How does truth differ from knowledge?<br />
  10. 10. Truth Theories<br />According to the correspondence theory, a statement is true if it actually corresponds to (matches up with) the facts- finding out whether something “true” involves seeing whether it matches up to reality<br />According to the coherence theory, a statement is true if it coheres (fits in) with our overall set of beliefs. sometimes known as “non-realism” or “anti-realism”<br />
  11. 11. Our beliefs will only count as knowledge when they are true (accord with the objective facts) and when the person who holds the belief has evidence or justification for it.<br />
  12. 12. Consider the knowledgeclaims, ‘beliefs’, ‘truths’, wehaveseen so far.<br />Whatreasonsmightyougive in support?<br />
  13. 13. Some possiblejustifications<br />Faith<br />Instinct<br />Memory<br />Authority<br />Testimony<br />Expert opinion<br />Intuition<br />Feeling<br />Emotional intelligence <br />Experiment<br />Evidenceof the senses<br />Logic<br />Common knowledge<br />Common sense<br />Valuejudgement<br />Revelation<br />Are some more validthanothers? In whoseeyes? Does ‘validjustification’ alwayssatisfy?<br />
  14. 14. Gettier’s objection (Edmund Gettier 1963)<br /> Smith and Jones have applied for the same job. Smith has been told by the Company Director that Jones will get the job. Smith has also observed for himself that Jones has exactly ten coins in his jacket pocket. Smith combines these pieces of information and forms a justified belief that the person who will get the job has ten coins in their jacket pocket.<br />In fact, Smith gets the job, and since Smith by coincidence also has exactly ten coins in his jacket pocket (he hadn’t counted them beforehand), his belief was true. Yet did Smith really have knowledge about who would get the job?<br />In other words, is it sufficient for a belief to be true and justified for it to be knowledge?<br />
  15. 15. An alternative version about sheep (Chisholm 1966/1977/1989)<br /> Imagine that you are standing outside a field. You see, within it, what looks exactly like a sheep. What belief instantly occurs to you? Among the many that could have done so, it happens to be the belief that there is a sheep in the field. And in fact you are right, because there is a sheep behind the hill in the middle of the field. You cannot see that sheep, though, and you have no direct evidence of its existence. Moreover, what you are seeing is a dog, disguised as a sheep. Hence, you have a well justified true belief that there is a sheep in the field. But is that belief knowledge? <br />
  16. 16. Fallibility: the justification that is present is fallible, ie not unshakeable.<br />Luck. Something abnormal or odd is present in which makes the existence of the justified and true belief a result of coincidence or chance.<br />
  17. 17. Comingsoon - first writing task<br />‘How does belief differ from knowledge?’ (400 words)<br />Due week beforehalfterm<br />

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