Introdutory presentation on Reason for Tok


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Introdutory presentation on Reason for Tok

  1. 1. Reason<br />
  2. 2. Quotes about Reason<br />“He that will not reason is a bigot; he that cannot reason is a fool; and he that dares not reason is a slave.”<br />“The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable man persists in trying to adapt the world to himself.”<br />George Bernard Shaw<br />William Drummond<br />
  3. 3. Quotes about Reason<br />“The further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances, the more certain it seems to me that the path of genuine religiosity [lies] through striving after rational knowledge.”<br />“People generally quarrel because they cannot argue.”<br />Albert Einstein<br />G.K. Chesterton<br />
  4. 4. Two types of logic:Inductive and Deductive <br />
  5. 5. Which type of logic are you already using?<br />consider the follow set of statements:<br />A) All humans are mortal<br />B) I am human<br />Therefore: <br />(are you mortal?)<br /> C) YES –I am mortal<br />If you think that is this the logical conclusion – then you are using Deductive reasoning.<br />It would be absurd to state the truth of A) and B) whist deny the truth of C)<br />This is known as logical validity. Even if the actual truth of A) and B) is questionable – this method of processing information in the search for knowledge looks promising.<br />
  6. 6. The Distinction between truth and validity<br />TRUTH<br />Concerned with what is the case<br />VALIDITY<br />Concerned with whether conclusions follows from premises<br />The validity of an argument is independent of the truth or falsity of the premises it contains.<br />Consider the following syllogism:<br />
  7. 7. Validity<br />All panthers are pink<br />Che Guevara is a panther<br />Therefore Che Guevara is pink.<br />Both the premises and the conclusion of this argument are false.<br />But the argument itself is valid.<br />It is possible to imagine a world in which all panters are pink and where Che Guevara ia a panther.<br /> In this world it must be that Che Guevara is pink.<br />
  8. 8. Another example of Deductive reasoning:<br />A) I am either a schnoodlepopper or a birshteinwaller or both.<br />B) I am not a schnoodlepopper.<br />Therefore:<br />C) I am a birshteinwaller.<br />TASKS: <br />Invent your own valid argument<br />
  9. 9. Inductive logic <br />Imagine that you are a zoologist who is interested in different species and colours of swans.<br />You set about finding as many swans as you can in Europe, so that you might be able to make some conclusions about swans generally.<br />
  10. 10. You go out, and come across one swan.<br /> it is white. <br />You then continue your search...<br />
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  16. 16. “All swans are white”<br />At this point, what colour are swans in your experience?<br />What conclusions might you draw about swans (as an entire species)?<br />If you think that this is the logical conclusion to come to, then you have been using Inductive reasoning.<br />What type of logic are you already using? <br />
  17. 17. Inductive logic<br />Inductive logic does not involve certainty in the same way as Deductive logic.<br />Someone who goes from specific instances to a general conslusion is using inductive reasoning.<br />But is this always the best way to attain knowledge?<br />
  18. 18. Problems with inductive logic<br />The zoologist has gone around from place to place, gathering information about thousands of swans, and comes to the general conclusion that ‘all swans are white’.<br />He then decides to take a holiday to New Zealand<br />
  19. 19. Yes, a black swan.<br />
  20. 20. The problem of induction<br />However extensive or thorough a person’s research, they can never achieve absolute certainty using inductive reasoning.<br />This is because some kind of generalisation is always made from the observed to the unobserved.<br />
  21. 21. Some other examples of inductive reasoning:<br />Premise : every time I’ve seen a person with a cold, they have had a runny nose<br />Therefore :<br />all colds involve having a runny nose.<br />Premise: in my experience, day has always followed night.<br />Therefore:<br />Day will always follow night in the future.<br />Thought point: <br />When is inductive logic reasonable? When is it not?<br />
  22. 22. Lessons to be learned from reason when acquiring knowledge<br />Hasty generalisations – be aware whenever you say ‘all’.<br />Avoid making stereotypes<br />We can’t avoid generalisations altogether – but these should be informed and not hasty.<br />Hindsight bias – after the event, the answer seems obvious.<br />
  23. 23. How useful is reason as a way of knowing?<br />
  24. 24. Is Mathematics reducible to reason?<br />Mathematical and logical truths may tell us lots about the rules and patterns we are working with,<br />And maths and physics may reveal complex truths on a scientific level like how to create an atomic bomb.<br />But they may not provide us with much practical information which is useful in day to day life.<br />It looks as if maths is a numerical version of a rational proof<br />Is there any difference between the knowledge provided by logical reasoning and the knowledge provided by maths?<br />
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  26. 26. Is religious faith rational?<br />Islam<br />
  27. 27. Christianity<br />
  28. 28. Buddhism<br />
  29. 29. Hinduism<br />
  30. 30. Judaism<br />
  31. 31. Faith and Religious belief<br />All these people have a belief in a type of religious knowledge which sometimes appears to transcend reason.<br />this is known as religious faith.<br />But how reliable is this?<br />The trouble with religious faith is that it is often not based on evidence, and therefore is not easy to proove or disprove.<br />Yet many religious people claim that faith gives them access to some of the most important truths that they know about.<br />
  32. 32. Which is more reliable reason or emotion?<br />Should you follow your heart or your head?<br /> EMOTION <br /> REASON<br />
  33. 33. How effective is reason as a way of attaining knowledge?<br />Benefits of reason<br />It is able to give precise and direct answers, which are true in all situations.<br />Rational information is either true or false – there is no abiguety about what constitutes a correct answer<br />Drawbacks of reason<br />The things we know that are logically true or false may be arbitrary. For example I might know with 100% certainty that is a man is a bachelor, then he must be an unmarried man. <br />But this may not give me very much practical information; it doesn’t tell me anything about bachelors in the real world.<br />