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DataStax: A deep look at the CQL WHERE clause

The WHERE clause restrictions depend on the type of statement, type of column, and whether a secondary index is used. For SELECT statements on partition keys, either all keys must be restricted or none. Clustering columns cannot be restricted if preceding ones are not. Secondary indexes allow restricting columns not in the primary key.

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A deep look at the CQL WHERE clause
CQL WHERE clause
2© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Driver
The WHERE clause restrictions are dependent on:
• The type of statement: SELECT, UPDATE or DELETE
• The type of column: partition key, clustering or regular column
• If a secondary index is used or not
3© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Driver
SELECT statements
Partition key restrictions
4© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Driver
Cluster Date Time Count
‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ ‘12:00’ 251
‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ ‘12:00’ 342
‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ ‘12:00’ 403
‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ ‘12:00’ 451
CREATE TABLE numberOfRequests (
cluster text,
date text,
time text,
count int,
PRIMARY KEY ((cluster, date))
)
Partition Key
Partition key restrictions
5© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Driver
Cluster Date Murmur3 hash
‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ -4782752162231423249
‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ 4936127188075462704
‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ 5822105674898716412
‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ 2698159220916609751
A
C
D B
4611686018427387904
to
9223372036854775807
-9223372036854775808
to
-4611686018427387903
-1
to
4611686018427387903
-4611686018427387904
to
-1
Partition key restrictions
6© 2015. All Rights Reserved.
Driver
Cluster Date Node
‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ A
‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ D
‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ D
‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ C
A
C
D B

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DataStax: A deep look at the CQL WHERE clause

  • 1. A deep look at the CQL WHERE clause
  • 2. CQL WHERE clause 2© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver The WHERE clause restrictions are dependent on: • The type of statement: SELECT, UPDATE or DELETE • The type of column: partition key, clustering or regular column • If a secondary index is used or not
  • 3. 3© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT statements
  • 4. Partition key restrictions 4© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver Cluster Date Time Count ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ ‘12:00’ 251 ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ ‘12:00’ 342 ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ ‘12:00’ 403 ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ ‘12:00’ 451 CREATE TABLE numberOfRequests ( cluster text, date text, time text, count int, PRIMARY KEY ((cluster, date)) ) Partition Key
  • 5. Partition key restrictions 5© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver Cluster Date Murmur3 hash ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ -4782752162231423249 ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ 4936127188075462704 ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ 5822105674898716412 ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ 2698159220916609751 A C D B 4611686018427387904 to 9223372036854775807 -9223372036854775808 to -4611686018427387903 -1 to 4611686018427387903 -4611686018427387904 to -1
  • 6. Partition key restrictions 6© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver Cluster Date Node ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ A ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ D ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ D ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ C A C D B
  • 7. Partition key restrictions 7© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests; Driver
  • 8. Partition key restrictions 8© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster= ‘cluster 1’; InvalidRequest: code=2200 [Invalid query] message="Partition key parts: date must be restricted as other parts are"
  • 9. Partition key restrictions 9© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster= ‘cluster 1’ AND date = ‘2015-09-21’; Driver
  • 10. Partition key restrictions 10© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster= ‘cluster 1’ AND date = ‘2015-09-21’; Driver …with TokenAwarePolicy
  • 11. Partition key restrictions 11© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster= ‘cluster 2’ AND date IN (‘2015-09-21’, ‘2015-09-22’); Driver
  • 12. Partition key restrictions 12© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster 2’ AND date = ‘2015-09-21’; Driver …with TokenAwarePolicy and asynchronous calls SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster 2’ AND date = ‘2015-09-22’;
  • 13. Partition key restrictions 13© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster= ‘cluster 1’ AND date >= ‘2015-09-21’; InvalidRequest: code=2200 [Invalid query] message="Only EQ and IN relation are supported on the partition key (unless you use the token() function)"
  • 14. Partition key restrictions 14© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver Cluster Date Node ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-21’ A ‘cluster 1’ ‘2015-09-22’ D ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-21’ D ‘cluster 2’ ‘2015-09-22’ C A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster= ‘cluster 1’ AND date >= ‘2015-09-21’;
  • 15. Partition key restrictions 15© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver • Murmur3Partitioner (default): uniformly distributes data across the cluster based on MurmurHash hash values. • RandomPartitioner: uniformly distributes data across the cluster based on MD5 hash values. • ByteOrderedPartitioner: keeps an ordered distribution of data lexically by key bytes
  • 16. Partition key restrictions 16© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE token(cluster, date) > token(‘cluster 1’, ‘2015-09-21’) AND token(cluster, date) < token(‘cluster 1’, ‘2015-09-23’);
  • 17. Partition key restrictions (SELECT) 17© 2015. All Rights Reserved. • Without secondary index, either all partition key components must be restricted or none of them • = restrictions are allowed on any partition key component • IN restrictions are allowed on any partition key component since 2.2 • Prior to 2.2, IN restrictions were only allowed on the last partition key component • =, >, >=, <= and < restrictions are allowed with the token function
  • 18. Clustering column restrictions 18© 2015. All Rights Reserved. CREATE TABLE numberOfRequests ( cluster text, date text, datacenter text, server inet, time text, count int, PRIMARY KEY((cluster, date), datacenter, server, time)) …
  • 19. Clustering column restrictions 19© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … Datacenter Server Time Count Iowa 196.8.7.134 00:00 130 Iowa 196.8.7.134 00:01 125 Iowa 196.8.7.134 00:02 97 Iowa 196.8.7.135 00:00 178 Iowa 196.8.7.135 00:01 201 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the Memtables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:01, count] : 201 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 Cell name Cell Column name
  • 20. Clustering column restrictions 20© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … Datacenter Server Time Count Iowa 196.8.7.134 00:00 130 Iowa 196.8.7.134 00:01 125 Iowa 196.8.7.134 00:02 97 Iowa 196.8.7.135 00:00 178 Iowa 196.8.7.135 00:01 201 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the SSTables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:0 201 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 Cell name Cell Column name
  • 21. Clustering column restrictions 21© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the Memtables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:01, count] : 201 SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster1’ AND date =‘2015-09-21’ AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server = ‘196.8.7.135’ AND time = ‘00:00’; [Iowa,196.8.7.135,00:00]
  • 22. Clustering column restrictions 22© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster1’ AND date =‘2015-09-21’ AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server = ‘196.8.7.135’ AND time = ‘00:00’; [Iowa,196.8.7.135,00:00] … [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the SSTables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:0 201
  • 23. Clustering column restrictions 23© 2015. All Rights Reserved. [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the Memtables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:01, count] : 201 SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster1’ AND date =‘2015-09-21’ AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server = ‘196.8.7.135’; [Iowa,196.8.7.135]
  • 24. Clustering column restrictions 24© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster1’ AND date =‘2015-09-21’ AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server = ‘196.8.7.135’; [Iowa,196.8.7.135] …[Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the SSTables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:0 201
  • 25. Clustering column restrictions SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster1’ AND date =‘2015-09-21’ AND time = ‘00:00’; [?,?,00:00] InvalidRequest: code=2200 [Invalid query] message="PRIMARY KEY column "time" cannot be restricted as preceding column "datacenter" is not restricted"
  • 26. Clustering column restrictions 26© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server IN (‘196.8.7.134’, ‘196.8.7.135’) AND time = ‘00:00’; In 2.2: [Iowa,196.8.7.134,00:00] [Iowa,196.8.7.135,00:00] …[Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the SSTables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:0 201
  • 27. Clustering column restrictions 27© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server IN (‘196.8.7.134’, ‘196.8.7.135’) AND time = ‘00:00’; In 2.1: InvalidRequest: code=2200 [Invalid query] message="Clustering column "server" cannot be restricted by an IN relation"
  • 28. Clustering column restrictions 28© 2015. All Rights Reserved. = multi-column restriction: (clustering1, clustering2, clustering3) = (?, ?, ?) IN multi-column restriction: (clustering1, clustering2, clustering3) IN ((?, ?, ?), (?, ?, ?)) Slice multi-column restriction: (clustering1, clustering2, clustering3) > (?, ?, ?) (clustering1, clustering2, clustering3) >= (?, ?, ?) (clustering1, clustering2, clustering3) <= (?, ?, ?) (clustering1, clustering2, clustering3) < (?, ?, ?)
  • 29. Clustering column restrictions 29© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND (server, time) IN ((‘196.8.7.134’, ‘00:00’), (‘196.8.7.135’, ‘00:00’)); In 2.1: [Iowa,196.8.7.134,00:00] [Iowa,196.8.7.135,00:00] …[Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the SSTables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:0 201
  • 30. Clustering column restrictions 30© 2015. All Rights Reserved. … AND datacenter = ‘Iowa’ AND server = ‘196.8.7.134’ AND time > ’00:00’; from after [Iowa,196.8.7.134,00:00] to end of [Iowa,196.8.7.134] …[Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:02, count] : 97 In the SSTables: [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:00, count] : 130 [Iowa, 196.8.7.134, 00:01, count] : 125 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:00, count] : 178 [Iowa, 196.8.7.135, 00:0 201
  • 31. Clustering column restrictions (SELECT) 31© 2015. All Rights Reserved. • Without secondary index, a clustering column cannot be restricted if one of the previous ones was not • = restrictions (single and multi) are allowed on any clustering column • IN restrictions (single and multi) are allowed on any clustering column since 2.2 • Prior to 2.2, IN restrictions (single and multi) were only allowed on the last clustering column or set of clustering columns • >, >=, <=, < restrictions (single and multi) are only allowed on the last restricted clustering column or set of clustering columns • CONTAINS and CONTAINS KEY restrictions are only allowed on indexed collections
  • 32. Secondary index queries 32© 2015. All Rights Reserved. CREATE TABLE numberOfRequests ( cluster text, date text, datacenter text, server inet, time text, count int, PRIMARY KEY((cluster, date), datacenter, server, time)); CREATE INDEX ON numberOfRequests (time); …
  • 33. Secondary index queries 33© 2015. All Rights Reserved. CREATE INDEX ON numberOfRequests (time); CREATE LOCAL TABLE numberOfRequests_time_idx ( time text, cluster text, date text, datacenter text, server inet, PRIMARY KEY(time, cluster, date, datacenter, server); … Table Partition Key Table remaining clustering columns
  • 34. IDX-BIDX-D IDX-C IDX-A Secondary index queries 34© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE time = ‘12:00’; Driver
  • 35. Secondary index queries 35© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE time = ‘12:00’; idx SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests_time_idx WHERE time = ‘12:00’; Results (Primary Keys) table SELECT with full PK; [For each] Add to rows
  • 36. Secondary index queries 36© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE time >= ‘12:00’; InvalidRequest: code=2200 [Invalid query] message="PRIMARY KEY column "time" cannot be restricted as preceding column "datacenter" is not restricted" Direct queries on secondary index support only =, CONTAINS or CONTAINS KEY restrictions.
  • 37. Secondary index queries 37© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE time = ‘12:00’ AND count >= 500 ALLOW FILTERING; idx SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests_time_idx WHERE time = ‘12:00’; Results (Primary Keys) table SELECT with full PK; [For each] Add to rows [if count >= 500]
  • 38. IDX-BIDX-D IDX-C IDX-A Secondary index queries 38© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver A C D B SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster 1’ AND date = ‘2015-09-21’AND time = ‘12:00’; Driver
  • 39. Secondary index queries 39© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests WHERE cluster = ‘cluster 1’ AND date = ‘2015-09-21’ AND time = ‘12:00’; idx SELECT * FROM numberOfRequests_time_idx WHERE time = ‘12:00’ AND cluster = ‘1’ AND date = ‘2015-09-21’; Results (Primary Keys) table SELECT with full PK [For each] Add to rows
  • 40. 40© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver UPDATE/DELETE statements
  • 41. UPDATE statements 41© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver In the UPDATE statements all the primary key columns must be restricted and the only allowed restrictions are: • Prior to 3.0: • Single column = restriction on any partition key or clustering column • Single column IN restriction on the last partition key column • In 3.0: • = and IN single column restrictions on any partition key column • = and IN single or multi column restrictions on any clustering column
  • 42. DELETE statements 42© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver Before 3.0, in the DELETE statements all the primary key columns must be restricted and the only allowed restrictions were: • Single column = restriction on any partition key or clustering column • Single column IN restriction on the last partition key column
  • 43. DELETE statements 43© 2015. All Rights Reserved. Driver Since 3.0: • The partition key columns must be restricted by = or IN restrictions • A clustering column might not be restricted if none of the following is • Clustering columns can be restricted by: • Single or multi column = restriction • Single or multi column IN restriction • Single or multi column >, >=, <=, < restriction
  • 44. © 2015. All Rights Reserved. 44 Design your tables for the queries you want to perform.