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@PatrickMcFadin
Patrick McFadin

Chief Evangelist, DataStax
Cassandra 3.0 Data Modeling
1
A brief history of CQL
You
CQL 3.0 - Cassandra 1.2
• Goodbye CQL 2.0!
• Custom secondary indexes
• Empty IN
CQL 3.1 - Cassandra 2.0
• Aliases
• CREATE <table> IF NOT EXISTS
• INSERT IF NOT EXISTS
• UPDATE IF
• DELETE IF EXISTS
• I...
CQL 3.2 - Cassandra 2.1
• User Defined Types
• Collection Indexing
• Indexes can use contains
• Tuples?
User Defined Types
CREATE TYPE video_metadata (
height int,
width int,
video_bit_rate set<text>,
encoding text
);
User Defined Types
CREATE TABLE videos (
videoid uuid,
userid uuid,
name varchar,
description varchar,
location text,
locat...
CQL 3.3 - Cassandra 2.2
• Date and Time are now types
• TinyInt and SmallInt
• User Defined Functions
• Aggregates
• User ...
User Defined Functions
CREATE TABLE video_rating (
videoid uuid,
rating_counter counter,
rating_total counter,
PRIMARY KEY ...
User Defined Functions
SELECT avg_rating(rating_counter, rating_total) AS avg_rating
FROM video_rating
WHERE videoid = 9905...
Aggregates
CREATE TABLE video_ratings_by_user (
videoid uuid,
userid uuid,
rating int,
PRIMARY KEY (videoid, userid)
);
SE...
CQL 3.4 - Cassandra 3.x
• CAST operator
• Per Partition Limit
• Materialized Views
• SASI
Materialized View
CREATE TABLE videos (
videoid uuid,
userid uuid,
name varchar,
description varchar,
location text,
locat...
Materialized View
CREATE TABLE videos_by_location (
videoid uuid,
userid uuid,
location text,
added_date timestamp,
PRIMAR...
Materialized View
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW videos_by_location
AS SELECT userid, added_date, videoid, location
FROM videos
...
Materialized View Perf
Materialized View Perf
5 Materialized Views vs 5 tables writes async
Materialized View
SELECT location, videoid
FROM videos_by_location ;
location | videoid
----------------------------------...
SASI
CREATE TABLE users (
userid uuid,
firstname varchar,
lastname varchar,
email text,
created_date timestamp,
PRIMARY KE...
Storage Attached Secondary Index
SASI
SASI
CREATE CUSTOM INDEX ON users (firstname)
USING 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.SASIIndex'
WITH OPTIONS = {
'analyzer...
SASI
CREATE CUSTOM INDEX ON users (lastname)
USING 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.SASIIndex'
WITH OPTIONS = {'mode': 'CO...
SASI
CREATE CUSTOM INDEX ON users (created_date)
USING 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.SASIIndex'
WITH OPTIONS = {'mode':...
SASI Indexes
Client
INSERT INTO users(userid,firstname,lastname,email,created_date)

VALUES (9761d3d7-7fbd-4269-9988-6cfd4...
SASI Queries
SELECT * FROM users WHERE firstname LIKE 'pat%';
SELECT * FROM users WHERE lastname LIKE ‘%Fad%';
SELECT * FR...
SASI Guidelines
• Multiple fields to search
• No more than 1000 rows returned
• You know the partition key
• Indexing stat...
SASI Guidelines
• Searching large partitions
• Tight SLA on reads
• Search for analytics
• Ordering search is important
Do...
Cassandra 3.0 Data Modeling
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Cassandra 3.0 Data Modeling

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Cassandra 3.0 Data Modeling

  1. 1. @PatrickMcFadin Patrick McFadin
 Chief Evangelist, DataStax Cassandra 3.0 Data Modeling 1
  2. 2. A brief history of CQL You
  3. 3. CQL 3.0 - Cassandra 1.2 • Goodbye CQL 2.0! • Custom secondary indexes • Empty IN
  4. 4. CQL 3.1 - Cassandra 2.0 • Aliases • CREATE <table> IF NOT EXISTS • INSERT IF NOT EXISTS • UPDATE IF • DELETE IF EXISTS • IN supports cluster columns LWT
  5. 5. CQL 3.2 - Cassandra 2.1 • User Defined Types • Collection Indexing • Indexes can use contains • Tuples?
  6. 6. User Defined Types CREATE TYPE video_metadata ( height int, width int, video_bit_rate set<text>, encoding text );
  7. 7. User Defined Types CREATE TABLE videos ( videoid uuid, userid uuid, name varchar, description varchar, location text, location_type int, preview_thumbnails map<text,text>, tags set<varchar>, metadata set <frozen<video_metadata>>, added_date timestamp, PRIMARY KEY (videoid) );
  8. 8. CQL 3.3 - Cassandra 2.2 • Date and Time are now types • TinyInt and SmallInt • User Defined Functions • Aggregates • User Defined Aggregates
  9. 9. User Defined Functions CREATE TABLE video_rating ( videoid uuid, rating_counter counter, rating_total counter, PRIMARY KEY (videoid) ); CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION avg_rating (rating_counter counter, rating_total counter) CALLED ON NULL INPUT RETURNS double LANGUAGE java AS 'return Double.valueOf(rating_total.doubleValue()/ rating_counter.doubleValue());';
  10. 10. User Defined Functions SELECT avg_rating(rating_counter, rating_total) AS avg_rating FROM video_rating WHERE videoid = 99051fe9-6a9c-46c2-b949-38ef78858dd0;
  11. 11. Aggregates CREATE TABLE video_ratings_by_user ( videoid uuid, userid uuid, rating int, PRIMARY KEY (videoid, userid) ); SELECT count(userid) FROM video_ratings_by_user WHERE videoed = 49f64d40-7d89-4890-b910-dbf923563a33
  12. 12. CQL 3.4 - Cassandra 3.x • CAST operator • Per Partition Limit • Materialized Views • SASI
  13. 13. Materialized View CREATE TABLE videos ( videoid uuid, userid uuid, name varchar, description varchar, location text, location_type int, preview_thumbnails map<text,text>, tags set<varchar>, metadata set <frozen<video_metadata>>, added_date timestamp, PRIMARY KEY (videoid) ); Lookup by this?
  14. 14. Materialized View CREATE TABLE videos_by_location ( videoid uuid, userid uuid, location text, added_date timestamp, PRIMARY KEY (location, videoid) ); Roll your own
  15. 15. Materialized View CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW videos_by_location AS SELECT userid, added_date, videoid, location FROM videos WHERE videoId IS NOT NULL AND location IS NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY(location, videoid); Cassandra rolls for you
  16. 16. Materialized View Perf
  17. 17. Materialized View Perf 5 Materialized Views vs 5 tables writes async
  18. 18. Materialized View SELECT location, videoid FROM videos_by_location ; location | videoid -------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=px6U2n74q3g | 06049cbb-dfed-421f-b889-5f649a0de1ed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qphhxujn5Es | 873ff430-9c23-4e60-be5f-278ea2bb21bd /us/vid/0c/0c3f7e87-f6b6-41d2-9668-2b64d117102c | 0c3f7e87-f6b6-41d2-9668-2b64d117102c /us/vid/b3/b3a76c6b-7c7f-4af6-964f-803a9283c401 | 99051fe9-6a9c-46c2-b949-38ef78858dd0 /us/vid/b3/b3a76c6b-7c7f-4af6-964f-803a9283c401 | b3a76c6b-7c7f-4af6-964f-803a9283c401 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdJlsOZVGwM | 49f64d40-7d89-4890-b910-dbf923563a33 /us/vid/41/416a5ddc-00a5-49ed-adde-d99da9a27c0c | 416a5ddc-00a5-49ed-adde-d99da9a27c0c
  19. 19. SASI CREATE TABLE users ( userid uuid, firstname varchar, lastname varchar, email text, created_date timestamp, PRIMARY KEY (userid) ); Lookup by this?
  20. 20. Storage Attached Secondary Index
  21. 21. SASI
  22. 22. SASI CREATE CUSTOM INDEX ON users (firstname) USING 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.SASIIndex' WITH OPTIONS = { 'analyzer_class': 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.analyzer.NonTokenizingAnalyzer', 'case_sensitive': 'false' };
  23. 23. SASI CREATE CUSTOM INDEX ON users (lastname) USING 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.SASIIndex' WITH OPTIONS = {'mode': 'CONTAINS'};
  24. 24. SASI CREATE CUSTOM INDEX ON users (created_date) USING 'org.apache.cassandra.index.sasi.SASIIndex' WITH OPTIONS = {'mode': 'SPARSE'};
  25. 25. SASI Indexes Client INSERT INTO users(userid,firstname,lastname,email,created_date)
 VALUES (9761d3d7-7fbd-4269-9988-6cfd4e188678,’Patrick’,’McFadin’, ’patrick@datastax.com’,’2015-06-01’); userid 1 userid 2 Memtable SSTable SSTable SSTable SASI Index Node Data lastname lastname firstname firstname email email created_date created_date SASI Index SASI Index Indexer
  26. 26. SASI Queries SELECT * FROM users WHERE firstname LIKE 'pat%'; SELECT * FROM users WHERE lastname LIKE ‘%Fad%'; SELECT * FROM users WHERE email LIKE '%data%'; SELECT * FROM users WHERE created_date > '2011-6-15' AND created_date < '2011-06-30'; userid | created_date | email | firstname | lastname --------------------------------------+---------------------------------+----------------------+-----------+---------- 9761d3d7-7fbd-4269-9988-6cfd4e188678 | 2011-06-20 20:50:00.000000+0000 | patrick@datastax.com | Patrick | McFadin
  27. 27. SASI Guidelines • Multiple fields to search • No more than 1000 rows returned • You know the partition key • Indexing static columns Use SASI when…
  28. 28. SASI Guidelines • Searching large partitions • Tight SLA on reads • Search for analytics • Ordering search is important Don’t Use SASI when…

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