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Emerging Roles of Universities:Implications for Research


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ppt of Dr. Normita A. Villa during the 3rd NOCEI Research Forum held at the San Pablo Colleges, San Pablo City last October 19, 2007.

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Emerging Roles of Universities:Implications for Research

  1. 1. Emerging Roles of Universities: Implications for Research Dr. Normita A. Villa Senior Vice-President for Academics & Research First Asia Institute of Technology and Humanities Paper delivered during the 3rd NOCEI Research Forum held at San Pablo Colleges, San Pablo City, Laguna last October 19, 2007.
  2. 2. <ul><li>As society becomes ever more </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge-intensive, it becomes more and </li></ul><ul><li>more dependent on social institutions such </li></ul><ul><li>as the University that </li></ul><ul><li>creates knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>educates people </li></ul><ul><li>provides people with learning resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The new roles of today’s universities emerged from the development of a new world economy wherein knowledge, creativity and innovation play an ever increasing pressure in generating and sustaining growth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The society has entrusted to the University immense responsibilities in the common endeavor of human development – social, economic, technical and cultural advancement and in responding to major planetary problems such as: </li></ul><ul><li>preservation of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>eradication of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>violence and social exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>- International Asso. Of Universities (2004) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Government increasingly turn to universities for solutions to pressing problems, from pest controls to tools for macro-economic management. Firms and industries also turn to universities for the cutting-edge knowledge needed for new patents, products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>- Herness (2000) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>To meet their varied obligations to society, universities have to go beyond their traditional teaching functions and become established research institutions in their own right. </li></ul><ul><li>- Ratoram (2004) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Under any circumstance it is important for universities not to lose sight of their intrinsic goals as institutions devoted to higher learning and to the advancement of knowledge. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Tertiary level institutions are expected to come up with aggressive and timely initiatives and interventions to respond to the challenges of globalization exacerbated by rapid developments in technology and communication. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Schools will continue to be stuck in the past and consequently educational excellence will continue to be elusive unless a powerful group of educators leads the way to initiating desired change. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Education must help individuals to perform tasks for which they are not originally trained, to prepare for a non-linear path, to improve team skills, to use information independently and to lay the basis of complex thinking linked to the realities of globalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Lamberte (2005) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The challenge of increasing diversity in many societies of the world is complicated by social and economic factors. Societies continue to be hindered by segregation, polarization and division. There is also the problem of non-assimilation of minority cultures. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Duderstadt (2005) states: </li></ul><ul><li>As a leader of society at large, the university has a unique responsibility to develop effective models of multicultural and pluralistic communities. Universities must strive to achieve new levels of understanding, tolerance and mutual fulfillment for peoples of diverse racial and cultural backgrounds. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Technology brings diversity which creates a wider multi-formity of goods and process of doing things. Man has now a wide range of alternatives to choose from when making decision about food, clothing, medicines, transportation, communications and other choices to satisfy his needs in life. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The nature of change necessitates a redefinition of the skills mix requirements for the future and ensuring the right skills are available at the right time. The task of the university is to analyze the changes taking place and to sort out those things that will determine the right curriculum to best serve the individuals who will navigate the rapids of change. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>“ More than ever, education will fuel the economy and shape the society… but it cannot be education as usual. It must recognize that learning is now a lifelong process of keeping abreast of change”. </li></ul><ul><li>- Peter Drucker </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Universities are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>Add through research to man’s better understanding of himself and the world he lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate newly acquired knowledge into the total intellectual structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematize and organize knowledge for each generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate existing knowledge and understanding through teaching, writing and other communication media to the intellectual public. </li></ul><ul><li>Train next generation of scholars through apprenticeship. </li></ul><ul><li>Be the custodian of the intellectual standards of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain intellectual leadership in the major fields of human knowledge and its long-term application. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“The eminence of a university is based on the ability of its R & D to generate new ideas while partaking in the process of transforming the society”. </li></ul><ul><li>- Lee (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>The university as it stands today will have to change in profound ways to serve a changing world. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>University as Knowledge Creator </li></ul><ul><li>To survive the global competition, universities are expected to help the nation to become a country with functionally literate, well-educated population with specialists in advanced science and technology who will become knowledge providers. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Educational institutions should focus on building-up an intellectual and learning society and in the creation of a new body of knowledge and breakthrough that would help the country’s economic and social development. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Researches with implications on strengthening human resource development programs in mathematics, science and technology must be done. Nations will have to create knowledge to produce goods and services in a more efficient manner to gain a competitive advantage. For higher education, the challenge is to produce the human resources to lead in this endeavor. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Philippines finds itself facing a world beset by crisis. In the political, economic, and social milieus, changes have been occurring at a rapid pace. We need a lot of researches with implications on how the country can adopt to these changes and how the people should be equipped to survive the onslaught of the rapid changes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In the creation of new knowledge, there is also a big need to emphasize on ethics in such fields as business administration, public administration, medicine and law, among others. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Researches can identify problems and solutions in the widening gap between the rich and the poor, in the perceived apathy of professionals and businessmen towards the plight of the disadvantaged sectors of society and the pervasiveness of graft and corruption in the government. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>As Engine of Production </li></ul><ul><li>A University must not only educate and discover knowledge. It must also create jobs and contribute to the economic well-being of a country. While it is true that a University breaks scientific knowledge, innovation creates new ideas, it is likewise expected to generate competitiveness among nations. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Studies and research outputs are normally the source of major decisions of business and government bureaucrats. Universities lay the foundation for competition and advancement. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Universities, through researches must be transformed to become fundamental sources and creator of application-oriented knowledge. It becomes imperative that universities shall be collaborators in R & D projects of private sectors. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Through the researches of university professors, labor can be made more productive and the economic environment be more conducive to production and innovation. University R & D can create more food production and enhance economic activities. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>As asserted by Brennan and Bjarsnason (2001). “Universities have frequently been regarded as key institutions in processes of economic and social change. The most explicit role they have been allocated is the production of a highly skilled labour and research outputs to meet the economic needs.” </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Universities are likewise expected to produce creative output such as books, modules, experimental ventures, programs, systems and modern teaching paraphernalia. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>As Transmitter of Culture and Exponent of Internationalization of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Universities are expected not only to provide opportunities for global academic discourse that contributes to the creation of new knowledge, but also to safeguard the survival of academic freedom and provide enduring ingredient for a genius global culture in the new century. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>It becomes imperative for universities to integrate newly acquired knowledge into the total intellectual structure, to systema- tize and to organize these knowledge for the generation’s use. It is a must for tertiary educational institutions to maintain intellectual leadership in different fields of human knowledge and its long-term application. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The influx of foreign students in the country, the rise in the number of Filipino students abroad, the need of OFW’s for alternative learning systems, the introduction of limited area studies in few universities and the emergence of regional and international networks and linkages have brought challenges and problems which are very good topics for researches with implications on improving and enriching our partnerships and curricular offerings. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Philippine Universities have become more global and international. There is an urgent need for flexibility, adaptability, pluralism and openness. International collaboration on research has been increasing and implications of researches may help remove the barriers to internationalization of education. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Globalization has its impact on the cultural values of people. In the upsurge of global community, we become peoples of other nations and other cultures. All that will remain are peoples’ unique beliefs, ideas and ways of life. It is therefore, very important for higher educational institutions to work on the preservation of the very foundation of our own culture, to deeply inculcate the good Filipino values and virtues. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Universities must strive to achieve new levels of understanding, tolerance and mutual fulfillment for peoples of diverse racial and cultural backgrounds, both on campus and beyond. It has become increasingly clear that universities must do so within a new political context that will require new policies and practices that need to be research-based. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Universities, likewise must enable all students to appreciate the unique contributions to human culture that come from other cultures and traditions, for everyone to thrive in multi-cultural settings whether in this country or anywhere in the world. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>As Social Critic and Conscience of Humanity </li></ul><ul><li>In an increasingly knowledge-driven society, more and more people seek education as the hope for a better future, the key to good jobs and careers and to meaningful and fulfilling lives. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The university and the society are in constant interaction. The university is affected by the society’s social environment, its value system, its economy, its life style and its total culture. But the university is not just a passive receiver. It likewise affects and influences society to a great extent. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The university is a critic of established patterns of behavior, of current trends and practices. It is a constructive and creative critic. University presents alternatives. Through its researches, it can create new modes of thinking, of valuing and of doing. The university is a strong agent of social change. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>University researches should result to the formation not only of social conscience, but should be able to stress social commitment that translates awareness and concern to involvement and action. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Even the concept of higher education as a public good is being challenged, as society increasingly see college education as an individual benefit determined by values of the market place rather than the broader needs of a democratic society. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Our universities today are in a hurry to adapt the curriculum to the trends and goals of their respective national economies towards globalization to produce graduates who have advantage in knowledge and skills in the global market and functional in the global arena. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>In truth, there has been progress on the universalization of human rights and democracy and on the liberalization of trade and commerce, but there is also a widening gap between the ideal as enshrined in international documents and agreements and the practices of the real world. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Our progressive and materialistic civilization has not been able to overcome the persistent problems of inequality, poverty, ignorance, disease, the enslavement of the human person, body and spirit through all forms of addiction; the destruction of our environment, the depletion of non-renewable resources, and the breakdown of our moral and spiritual values. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>The worship of knowledge over wisdom, of greed over justice and compassion, the satisfaction of the wants of a few at the expense of the needs of most and the unbridled competition over cooperation are bringing our technologically advanced world to the precarious condition it is today - the brink of the destruction of the human spirit. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Quisumbing (2006) states that the “City of Bytes” is sketched as the new capital of the 21st century. She further averred that the increasingly globalization of communication faced the risk of cultural homogenization, the rise of monoculture swallowing up the world’s diverse culture. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>The rapid increase of the volume of information and entertainment has brought about the homogenization of different societies and more and more people become more cut-off from society in which they live. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Universities know that internet and e-mail have revolutionized the modes of learning and communicating. They have opened wide avenues of knowledge, bridged distances and overcome the barriers of time and space. Yet, untold risks and dangers abound, especially for the young. Who cares and who sees to it that their young hearts and minds, their needs and problems, their rights and sensibilities are taken into consideration? </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Who protects the right to privacy and decency? Who safeguards intellectual properties? Information technology is a two-faced coin. As it informs and expands knowledge, it can form and transform us; it can likewise destroy and deform the humanity in us. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>As Universities, we have to take upon ourselves to safeguard our young people and our communities, for us to make studies that will serve as guide in protecting everyones’ right, the development of the present and the protection of the generation to come. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Many believe that the education system, despite large scale spending does not produce graduates needed for modern economic life. There is too much dependence on rote learning and too little emphasis on innovation and creative thinking. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Education should be evaluated not only by the usual standard but more fully by what people are empowered to do in fulfilling their lives and contributing to the greater social good. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>There is a pressing need to research the extent or relevance and responsiveness of university programs with focus on creating quality lives for people and in transforming them to become more human and humane. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Create an “information and knowledge aristocracy” – to use what can unite; to use researches and studies as well as technology not to get ahead of others but to help everyone move up and forward. </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>As Initiators of Alternative Learning System </li></ul><ul><li>Distance learning is creating alternative models of teaching and learning. There is a great demand for researches that will pave the way for policy formulation relative to the appearance of “new providers” of higher education and the emergence of electronic service partnerships between educational institutions and the corporate sector. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>University must assume more responsibility for addressing public interest in the quality of higher education as distance learning opportunities and providers diversify and expand. Since E-learning has emerged as a powerful paradigm offering a blue print for virtual universities, the methods of knowledge-building need to be reformed and more emphasis put on “learning how to learn”. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Knowledge management is about managing people and the knowledge they bring to the workplace. Wealth is now measured on the level of its human capital competencies than the efficiency of machineries. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Knowledge management is about collaboration, teamwork and nurturing the culture of sharing. In an organization where there is a culture of sharing. Knowledge will be abundant. It will not be depleted, but shared, improved and developed. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>The University as repository of official knowledge needs to document knowledge that represents the University’s official position on methods, approaches, policies, services and offerings. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>As repository of informal knowledge, it has to share informal learning through discussions, dialogues, observations and research recommendations for changes. A very important role is to create its own distinctive knowledge to differentiate university in the academic world. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>In the creation of new knowledge management roles, it has to nurture dedicated faculty to capture, package, and maintain knowledge, facilitate human and technical networks and lead the knowledge change. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Knowledge management is an investment in human capital. Apart from investing in technology, university must invent in training and enhancing the skills of its human resources. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>University, likewise should package existing knowledge for easier consumption; it must build communities of experts for knowledge creation, distribution and use at community level. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Higher level institutions are also expected to create pointers to experts and to make initiatives to deliver knowledge directly to clients, via the internet. </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>To create a more knowledge-oriented culture, a university must change its culture to encourage the creation, sharing and use of knowledge. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Knowledge management deals with the organizational optimization of knowledge to achieve enhanced performance, increased value and high return on investment through the use of various tools, processes and methods. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Knowledge management provides the opportunity to develop new systems to store, organize and analyze information so that they can be made useful. Universities, through researches can create the next big thing in business that can provide the measure of competitive advantage. </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Cultivating the Culture of Research </li></ul><ul><li>Research has increasingly been the “indicator” of excellence of any university. </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>As a signal that a university is taking seriously its responsibility of strengthening not just instruction and extension, but especially research, it must be committed to cultivate an environment of research. In particular, it will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promote the use of well-researched data as a basis for policy planning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inject the “research policy” in each of the academic departments by strongly tasking them to conduct a minimum number of researches per year, </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>conduct regular and specialized research trainings to continuously polish the research skills of its faculty and staff, </li></ul><ul><li>set up a body of research experts in various fields to act as consultants and whose expertise can be readily tapped by any individual or group conducting a research, </li></ul><ul><li>review the procedures in the approval of research proposals and see how the process can be better facilitated, </li></ul><ul><li>work closely with deans and chairpersons of various colleges to actively promote research in the college and department, </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>offer research incentives such as recognition, tokens, cash, promotion, etc., </li></ul><ul><li>actively top the resources of private institutions here and abroad, that are willing to become research partners, </li></ul><ul><li>continuously search for outside funding to support the various research projects, and </li></ul><ul><li>facilitate the increase and upgrading of research equipment, such as computers, internet, and laboratories for physical and biological sciences. </li></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li>The academe should be a busy beehive where academics are constantly searching for knowledge and truths. An educator who is worth his weight in gold will never settle for half-truths nor beliefs which have not been scientifically tested. Old beliefs are re-examined for affirmation or rejection; new ones are sought to replace those that no longer satisfy the needs of the time. </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Be like children who remain curious, inquiring, wanting to do something new, learning, re-learning, experimenting, discovering, researching. Only then, do your teaching years, remain the best times of your lives. </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>“ If half the ingenuity spent in finding excuses for not doing what we ought to do were exercised in finding means to do what ought to be done, there would be a great difference .” </li></ul><ul><li>- Benjamin Franklin </li></ul>
  75. 75. Thank You!