Information Literacy: the 21st Century Skills

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Paper presented during the PLAI-STRLC Regional Conference on Promoting Information Literacy for Lifelong Learning, September 25, 2006 at Capuchin Retreat Center, Lipa City, Batangas

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Information Literacy: the 21st Century Skills

  1. 1. Information Literacy: the 21st Century Skills * Corazon M. Nera Director of Libraries, Lyceum of the Philippines University Member , Board for Librarians, PRC *Paper presented during the PLAI-STRLC Regional Conference on Promoting Information Literacy for Lifelong Learning, September 25, 2006 at Capuchin Retreat Center, Lipa City, Batangas
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Information literacy means being information smart. </li></ul><ul><li>knowing when a book may be more helpful than a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>knowing how to make critical judgment about information. </li></ul><ul><li>critical life skill in today’s information jungle. </li></ul><ul><li>21st century literacy is information literacy. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Literacy Summit identifies 4 literacies <ul><li>Technology literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Media creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Social competence and responsibility </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. From Library Instruction to Information Literacy Library education User education Library orientation Resource Based Learning Bibliographic instruction Information Literacy Information Literacy Library instruction 21 st Century 1990’s (20 th Century) 1980’s
  5. 5. <ul><li>2.1 teaching the use of access tools such as catalogs of library holdings, abstracts, encyclopedias, and other reference sources </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 redefined to provide students bibliographic instruction thru a variety of techniques </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 is tutor-centered, instructions are imputed by a tutor not to a student-centered, independent learning approaches, by the use of variety of instructional techniques </li></ul>2. Library/bibliographic instructions: Nature and Limitations
  6. 6. <ul><li>2.4 delivery involves library tours and orientation lectures not to fully integrated and accredited units </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 self-guided resources are limited leaving delivery on the librarian/tutor </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 focuses on discrete components of library activities but does not explore the more complex tasks of information retrieval </li></ul>2. Library/bibliographic instructions: Nature and Limitations
  7. 7. <ul><li>2.7 failed to encourage students to become independent library users </li></ul><ul><li>2.8 concentrated on concrete skills of tools usage and it did not address the open ended nature of research based problem solving tasks </li></ul><ul><li>2.9 activities that introduce students to the library environment its resources, services and physical layout of its collections </li></ul>2. Library/bibliographic instructions: Nature and Limitations
  8. 8. <ul><li>2.10 focus the inductions process on the use of a particular library does not teach the students how to be information literate </li></ul><ul><li>2.11 covers resources bound to the library, not beyond the walls of the library and variety of formats </li></ul><ul><li>2.12 evolved from a sporadic service by ad hoc delivery into fully centralized information literacy practices recognized by accrediting bodies </li></ul>2. Library/bibliographic instructions: Nature and Limitations
  9. 9. <ul><li>2.13 information literacy reaches far beyond bibliographic instruction </li></ul><ul><li>2.14 involve development of technical skills higher-level analytic and evaluative skills </li></ul><ul><li>2.15 Information literacy “allows us to express, to explore, to understand the flow of ideas and using ideas and information undergoing revolutionary changes. Information literacy refers to complex, integrated, higher level skills appropriate to our age </li></ul>2. Library/bibliographic instructions: Nature and Limitations
  10. 10. <ul><li>3.1 key to empowerment, development and happiness </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 information can “help” in creating ideas, finding directions, acquiring skills, getting support or confirmation, getting motivated, calming down or relaxing, getting pleasure or happiness, and reaching goals </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 critical in a wide range of contexts </li></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  11. 11. <ul><li>3.4 information literate citizens - the building blocks for a society that is equitable and possesses economic growth potential. Need information for professional, personal, and entertainment activities </li></ul><ul><li>3.5 requirement in accessing and making appropriate use of information through the internet </li></ul><ul><li>3.6 changes in the practice of teaching and learning </li></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  12. 12. <ul><li>3.7 undergraduate education identifies the need for more active learning </li></ul><ul><li>3.8 American Library Association (ALA) defined the information-literate person as one who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must be able to recognize when information is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information </li></ul></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  13. 13. <ul><li>3.9 Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) 5 standards. The information-literate student: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines the nature and extent of the information needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accesses needed information effectively and efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into their knowledge base and value system </li></ul></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understands many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and accesses and uses information ethically and legally </li></ul></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  15. 15. <ul><li>3.10 The Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL) Seven Pillars’ Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recognize an information need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify what information will fulfill the need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constructing strategies for locating information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>locating and accessing the information sought </li></ul></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>comparing and evaluating information obtained from different sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizing, applying and communicating information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesizing and building upon information </li></ul></ul>3. Why are we concerned about Information Literacy and its programs?
  17. 17. <ul><li>4.1 Librarians, teachers, technologists and policy makers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information skills training and teaching at all levels of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training members of the existing workforce in effective information handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people of all ages need to be prepared for lifelong learning </li></ul></ul>4. Who should be responsible for Information Literacy?
  18. 18. <ul><li>4.2 Libraries can provide key access points to electronic and print information </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 Libraries and librarians are effective resources for information access </li></ul>4. Who should be responsible for Information Literacy?
  19. 19. <ul><li>A global issue and many initiatives have been documented relatively to technology and information skills. Integrate information skills instructions within the curricula. Other initiatives distance education, research publications activities related to information literacy. Employers and policy makers have addressed the need for workforce development. </li></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  20. 20. <ul><li>In the Philippines: </li></ul><ul><li>UPILS Forum (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>PATLS Forum (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>PLAI-STRLC Conference (2006) </li></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  21. 21. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Information Literacy: the Australian agenda: proceedings of a conference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 p romote Information Literacy as a means of personal and national advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 explore Information Literacy as an essential competency </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  22. 22. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 ensure that delegates understand Information Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.4 develop cross sectional cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 establish a broad based national coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.6 identify agenda for changes </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  23. 23. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Learning for Life: Information Literacy and the autonomous learner (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Literacy: the professional issue (1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>catalyst for the professions and industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Literacy in the workplace </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  24. 24. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Concept, Challenge, Conundrum: From Library Skills to Information Literacy (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>review understanding of the term Information Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appraise connectivity between types of libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop strategies for advancing Information Literacy </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  25. 25. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learning Connection: Information Literacy and Student Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thesis that examines ways of experiencing information literacy in researching </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  26. 26. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>6. In Monash University, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, University of Melbourne, and other academic libraries offer the following programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.1 Liason librarian (expert for particular subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.2 Research skills classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.3 Info-tech (online research skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.4 Info guides (guides and pathfinders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.5 e-Query (online information desk) </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  27. 27. <ul><li>In Australia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.6 Special Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting off-campus study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting research activities of staff and postgraduates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting the teaching activities of staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.7 Traditional services </li></ul></ul>5. What activities, programs and strategies have been done on Information Literacy?
  28. 28. <ul><li>determine the extent of information needed </li></ul><ul><li>locate and evaluate information </li></ul><ul><li>incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>use information ethically, legally and with an understanding of economic and social issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Literacy includes library literacy , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media literacy , computer literacy , internet literacy , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research literacy and critical thinking skills . </li></ul></ul>6. Information Literacy can be defined as a set of abilities to:
  29. 29. <ul><li>7.1 ACRL (Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000) adopted for use in Mexico, Spain, Australia, Europe, South Africa. These are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I. The information-literate student determines the nature and extent of the information needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>II. The information-literate student must be able to recognize when information is needed </li></ul></ul>7. National Standards for Information Literacy
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>III. The information-literate student have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IV. The information-literate student uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V. The information-literate understands many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information, and accesses and uses information ethically and legally </li></ul></ul>7. National Standards for Information Literacy
  31. 31. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>In addition, there are 20 performance indicators and 87 outcome measures of which some examples are listed below: Sample of ACRL performance indicators and outcome </li></ul>The student reads the text and selects main ideas The student summarizes the main ideas to be extracted from the information gathered III The student investigates benefits the applicability of various investigative methods The student selects the most appropriate investigative methods or information retrieval system for accessing the needed information II The student explores general information sources to increase familiarity with the topics The Information-literate student defines and articulates the need for information I Sample outcome Sample performance indicator Standard
  32. 32. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>Sample of ACRL performance indicators and outcome </li></ul>The student posts permission granted notices, as needed for copyrighted material The student acknowledges the use of information sources in communicating the product or performance V The student organizes the content in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the product or performance The student applies new and prior information to the planning and creation of a particular product or performance IV Sample outcome Sample performance indicator Standard
  33. 33. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>Use of Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Librarians and faculty can collaborate to integrate the teaching into the curricula plan teaching modules together they can measure whether or not the students have learned the appropriate information developed standard tool kit consisting of instructional tools, web pages and other resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching involves much preparatory work developing teaching modules for undergraduates involves the customizing of teaching to appropriate student levels </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>Use of Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To help academic librarians become well-trained instructors and to create productive partnerships with teaching faculty, ACRL has created the Institute for information Literacy to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. prepare librarians to become effective teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. support librarians, other educators and administrators in playing a leadership role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. forge new relationship throughout the educational community </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>7.1 ACRL (Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000) adopted for use in Mexico, Spain, Australia, Europe, South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program initiatives include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual Immersion Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Strategies: Best Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Resources </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>7.2 ALA American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT) standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Power: Building partnerships for learning. These are: </li></ul>Standard 1. The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively. Standard 2. The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently.
  37. 37. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>Standard 3. The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information skills for independent learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard 4. The student who is an independent learner in information literature pursues information related to personal interests. </li></ul>
  38. 38. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>Standard 5. The student who is an independent learner in information literature appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard 6. The student who is an independent learner in information literature appreciates literature and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information skills for social responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy Standard 7. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society. Standard 8. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology.
  40. 40. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy Standard 9. The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information.
  41. 41. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>7.2 ALA American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT) standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Power: building partnerships for learning is designed to help students become skillful producers and consumers of information. It is built on the following guidelines to help teachers incorporate information skills throughout the curriculum: </li></ul>
  42. 42. 7. National Standards for Information Literacy <ul><li>1. Helping students flourish in a learning community </li></ul><ul><li>Joining teachers and others to identify links </li></ul><ul><li>Designing authentic learning tasks and assessments </li></ul><ul><li>4. Defining their role in student learning </li></ul>
  43. 43. 8. Requirement for Success in Information Literacy Programs <ul><li>8.1 Creating a successful learning environment includes: a user-friendly physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>8.2 Diverse electronic information access </li></ul><ul><li>8.3 Appropriate state-of-the-art technology classrooms </li></ul>
  44. 44. 8. Requirement for Success in Information Literacy Programs <ul><li>8.4 Librarian-faculty cooperation and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>8.5 Librarians must ensure that students receive guidance and assistance at the time of need, in a collaborative learning and problem-solving environment </li></ul>
  45. 45. 9. Expected Outcomes of Teaching Information Skills <ul><li>9.1 Students become lifelong learners </li></ul><ul><li>9.2 Students acquire critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>9.3 Students become effective and efficient users of all types of information </li></ul><ul><li>9.4 Students use information responsibly </li></ul><ul><li>9.5 Students become effective in doing research </li></ul><ul><li>9.6 Students become productive members of the workforce </li></ul>
  46. 46. 10. Conclusions <ul><li>Information literacy is becoming an important global initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians and faculty are collaborating to train students in information </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens in every country will need training </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher training institutions as well as library/information schools must update education programs </li></ul>
  47. 47. 10. Conclusions <ul><li>Teachers and librarians will be challenged by the training of future citizens and members of the workforce by working with policy members </li></ul><ul><li>National and international collaborations are needed </li></ul><ul><li>New skills are needed in digital education, research and the work environment </li></ul>

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