Marketing Skills of Librarians


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Marketing Skills of Librarians

  1. 1. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MARKETING SKILLS FOR LIBRARIANS Prof. Thelma S. Kim College of Education Saint Louis University, Baguio City, CAR Paper presented at the PLAI-BRLC Seminar-Workshop on “Developing Competencies of Librarians / Information Specialist for Quality Service” September 29, 2007 @ Aquinas University, Legazpi City.
  2. 2. Change in Libraries (Gallacher, 1999) <ul><li>External Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>changes taking place in the environment in which libraries operate, it includes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Political development </li></ul><ul><li>2. Economic changes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Social trend </li></ul><ul><li>4. Technological developments </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Internal Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>change comes from within the library itself. They originate with: </li></ul><ul><li>1. recognized problems (weaknesses) </li></ul><ul><li>2. strengths (lead librarians to </li></ul><ul><li>consolidate or build on </li></ul><ul><li>their success) </li></ul>
  4. 4. How to approach change? <ul><li>A client who is NOT SATISFIED will go elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 kinds of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Those that make things happen ; </li></ul><ul><li>Those that watch things happen ; </li></ul><ul><li>Those that wonder what happened . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>It is a method of determining basic plans of action regarding matters considered to be critical, even decisive importance ( Riggs, 1984 ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Strategic planning is essentially a process of relating an organizational and its people to their changing environment and the opportunities and threats in marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Planning is a process in which purpose, objectives and action programs are developed, implemented, monitored, evaluated, and reviewed. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Strategic Planning is particularly concerned with anticipating and responding to environment-al factors, taking responsibility for change, and providing unity and direction to a firm’s activities. It is a tool for ordering one’s perceptions about future environment in w which one’s decisions might be played out. ( Sheila Corral, 122 in Seiss, 2002 ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Features of Strategic Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and Control </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of planning and operation </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Vision and Mission Statements <ul><li>Vision is clearly articulated statement of what is wished for the institution to become. </li></ul><ul><li>It should express aspirations, core values, and philosophies. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be very general and not achievable – at least in the near future. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the desired future state, based on the most probable scenario. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>It should be idealistic, inspirational, exciting, and challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, it is a DREAM , an IMPOSSIBLE DREAM . ( Seiss, 2002 ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Mission statement. Penniman writes that a mission is a statement of: </li></ul><ul><li> ☺ what the institution does? </li></ul><ul><li> ☺ why it should contain measurable </li></ul><ul><li>objectives and targets? </li></ul><ul><li> ☺ how it does it? </li></ul><ul><li> ☺ and why? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The mission statement should both guide the library’s planning and communicate what the library is all about. </li></ul><ul><li>establish focus </li></ul><ul><li>Identify who is served and how </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate staff and donors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a measure of effectiveness ( Linda Wallace ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The mission statement should also pack a punch. It should deliver a clear brief dynamic message, and should be easily said as well as read. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Preserving yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Informing today </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiring tomorrow ” </li></ul><ul><li>( Daly City Public Library ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Information , Imagination, Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>(Orange County Library System) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Read , Learn , Discover” </li></ul><ul><li>(Chicago Public Library) </li></ul>
  15. 15. IMAGE BUILDING AND IDENTITY <ul><li>Philosophy : “Identity is what we are, Image is what we appear” </li></ul><ul><li>Aims : Communicate an appropriate message about an organization, its intents and purposes, internally and externally, to all who come into contact with the organization. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Objective : To visibly design, package and deliver quality services to the user, client, or customer. Its main aim is the shaping of customer perception. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The ACID Test <ul><li>Librarians might find it useful to consider the ACID test of corporate identity management before actually deciding on strategic change. The test explores SOUL (core values and cultures), MIND (vision, philosophy, strategy) and VOICE (all communications, direct and indirect) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>ACID investigates: </li></ul><ul><li>A CTUAL Identity </li></ul><ul><li>C OMMUNICATED Identity </li></ul><ul><li>I DEAL Identity </li></ul><ul><li>D ESIRED Identity </li></ul>
  19. 19. PUBLIC RELATIONS <ul><li>The deliberate, planned, and sustained effort to establish mutual understanding between an organization and its publics (UK’s Institute of Public Relations) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations at its simplest is the way in which an organization manages its relations with its publics (Wilson and Gilligan, 1995) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Public relations (for educational institutions) are effort to obtain favorable interest in the institution and/or its programs, typically through planting significant news about them in publications; through obtaining favorable unpaid presentation on radio, television, or in other media; or through the institution’s own activities or events. (Kotler and Fox, 1995) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>CONCEPT (Marshall, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of effective public relations as an essential component of a well manages library is not new. As early as 1958, the importance of public relations had been discussed. Unfortunately, many library administrators have not been as discerning in the implementation of formal public relations programs. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In the present era when competition is all aspect library existence has increased dramatically, library administrators must recognize the value of strong public relations efforts as a means of gaining support from their parent organizations., The importance of the library must be shared by all not only the library personnel; users may need some more persuading to share their belief. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Development in information and communication technologies provide numerous opportunities for the library to position itself as a leader on campus by integrating these new technologies into the library’s traditional roles. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>IMPORTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, there is competition from many sources for the time and effort of users. If no effort is made to capture the attention of users, they may feel that the library is no better then a bookstore. </li></ul>
  25. 25. MARKETING IN LIBRARIES <ul><li>MARKETING means developing a philosophy … that puts the customer at the center of everything one does … Marketing is not intimidation or coercion. It is not “hard selling” and deceptive advertising. It is a sound, effective technology for creating exchanges and influencing behavior that, when properly applied, must be socially beneficent because its major premise is responding to customer needs and wants. </li></ul>
  26. 26. CONCEPTS <ul><li>Marketing, Management and the Librarians (De Saez, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing is a management discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing can be better appreciated, if librarians would look at information as a commodity to be valued in all spheres, and themselves as key players. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Librarians will need to recognize that developing effective marketing strategies is more difficult today </li></ul><ul><li>To compete effectively for the time, energy, and support of users, readers and clients, all libraries must identify what their competition is and why its is succeeding in the same market. </li></ul>
  28. 28. TYPE OF MARKETING IN LIBRARIES <ul><li>RELATIONSHIP MARKETING refers to the development, growth, and maintenance of long-term, cost effective exchange relationships with individual customers, suppliers, employees ad other partners for mutual benefit. The external marketing relationship is broadened. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>In RELATIONSHIP MARKETING , the term customer takes on new meaning. Employees serve customers within an organization as well as outside it; individual employees and their departments are customers of an suppliers to one another. They must apply the same high standards of customer satisfaction to intradepartmental relationships as they do to external customer relationships. </li></ul>
  30. 30. CUSTOMER LOYALTY <ul><li>Programs to encourage customer loyalty are not new. (Rowley, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>What is LOYALTY ? The theoretical literature on customer loyalty conceptualizes loyalty as an interaction of attitude and behavior. In other words, loyalty (or the absence of it) is exhibited through both customer behavior and attitude. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Four conditions related to loyalty <ul><li>Loyalty signifies a favorable correspondence between relative attitude and repeat patronage </li></ul><ul><li>Latent loyalty is associated with high relative attitude, but low repeat patronage </li></ul><ul><li>Spurious loyalty represents a low relative attitude with high patronage </li></ul><ul><li>No loyalty is associated with a low relative attitude, combined with low repeat patronage. </li></ul>
  32. 32. How Should Loyalty Be Managed? <ul><li>A framework for customer loyalty identifies the antecedents of a loyalty relationship. These antecedents are: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive antecedents </li></ul><ul><li>Affective antecedents </li></ul><ul><li>Conative antecedents </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Given these antecedents, it is now clear why the library needs to consider : </li></ul><ul><li>The Images (brand images) and expectations that users hold with respect to the nature and quality of their services. </li></ul><ul><li>The Emotions and Levels of Satisfaction that are provided by the library’s service. </li></ul><ul><li>The Behavior Pattern of Users </li></ul>
  34. 34. MARKETING STRATEGIES <ul><li>What magical tools can help organizations / companies overcome the problems of fickle-minded customers, price-slashing competitors, and mood swings in the economy? </li></ul><ul><li>PILLAR 1. SOLVE YOUR CUSTOMER’S PROBLEMS </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>PILLAR 2 . TREAT CUSTOMERS WITH RESPECT . </li></ul><ul><li>The best retailers translate the basic concepts of respect into a set of practices built around people, policies, and place: </li></ul><ul><li>They select, prepare, and manage their people to exhibit competence, courtesy, and energy when dealing with customers. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>They institute policies that emphasize fair treatment of customers – regardless of their age, gender, race, appearance, or size of purchase or account. Likewise, their prices, returns policy and advertising are transparent. </li></ul><ul><li>They create a physical space, both inside and outside the store, that is carefully designed to value customers’ time. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>How to offer Convenience: </li></ul><ul><li>Offer convenient retail locations and opening hours and be easily available by telephone and the internet (access convenience) </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easy for customers to identify and select desired products (select convenience) </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Make it possible for people to get the products they want by maintaining a high rate of in-stock items and by delivering store, Internet, or catalog orders swiftly ( Possession convenience ) </li></ul><ul><li>Let customers complete or amend transactions quickly and easily ( Transaction convenience ) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Communication Strategies <ul><li>Firstly , consider the different stages in a communication process: </li></ul><ul><li>The Cognitive Stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Affective Stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Behavior Stage </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Secondly , choose the communication model. Arguably, the best known of these models is the AIDA. This includes the following elements: </li></ul><ul><li>A TTENTION ( awareness of the product ) </li></ul><ul><li>I NTEREST ( intrigued? ) </li></ul><ul><li>D ESIRE ( attracted to the services ) </li></ul><ul><li>A CTION ( feel positive towards the service ) </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Combining the stages and the model would have this picture: </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness / attention Cognitive Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Interest and desire Affective Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Action Behavior Stage </li></ul>
  43. 43. DESIGNING THE MESSAGE <ul><li>The elements of the message that need to be considered are: </li></ul><ul><li>☺ MESSAGE CONTENT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>☺ MESSAGE STRUCTURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>☺ MESSAGE FORMAT </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>☺ MESSAGE SOURCE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. SELECTING COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>Communication channels can be divided into PERSONAL and NON-PERSONAL </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of personal communication channels: </li></ul><ul><li>1. advocate channels </li></ul><ul><li>2. expert channels </li></ul><ul><li>3. social channels and consultants </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Non-personal communication channels include: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Press </li></ul><ul><li>2. Television </li></ul><ul><li>3. Radio </li></ul><ul><li>4. Leaflets </li></ul><ul><li>5. The Web </li></ul>
  46. 46. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>External and internal pressures contribute to the changes in libraries </li></ul><ul><li>There are myriad approaches to face these changes but basic steps such as the following are advisable </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning including visioning and missioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public relations and image building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing particularly relationship marketing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>3 . The approaches cited can help libraries and librarians ensure their survival, growth and development in a very fast changing environment. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Thank you very much and have a pleasant day. </li></ul>