Common poisonous
plants in the garden
Gay Wilhelm
Placer County
Master Gardener
...a quarterly newsletter published by the...
THE CURIOUS GARDENER
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
Page 2
Plant identification at this point
is critical....
WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu
Page 3
FALL 2009
Hardwood Cuttings
Zoe Robison
Nevada County
Master Gardener
It is cl...
THE CURIOUS GARDENER
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
Page 4
Now, with your pots at hand
filled to the brim ...
WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu
Page 5
FALL 2009
REMEMBER:
FALL IS THE BEST TIME TO
PLANT!!!
BULLETIN BOARD
Two Fall ...
THE CURIOUS GARDENER
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
Page 6
Planting for winter
interest
Judith Myrick
Plac...
WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu
Page 7
FALL 2009
Witch hazel, Hamamelis
intermedia, is a large deciduous
shrub that f...
THE CURIOUS GARDENER
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
Page 8
Have you noticed that some
of your ornamentals ...
WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu
Page 9
FALL 2009
Fall 2009 CALENDAR
SATURDAYS, year round, 8 AM – Noon
Foothill Farme...
THE CURIOUS GARDENER
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
Page 10
PLACER/NEVADA COUNTY RESIDENTS:
Placer and Nev...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Curious Gardener18315

1,136 views

Published on

a quarterly newsletter published by the University of California Cooperative Extension and the UC Master Gardeners of Placer and Nevada Counties

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,136
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Curious Gardener18315

  1. 1. Common poisonous plants in the garden Gay Wilhelm Placer County Master Gardener ...a quarterly newsletter published by the University of California Cooperative Extension and the UC Master Gardeners of Placer and Nevada Counties Inside Hardwood Cuttings 3 Bulletin Board 5 Plants for Winter Interest 6 Nev Co MG Fall Plant Sale 7 Underground Aliens 8 Calendar of Events 9 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION PLACER COUNTY 11477 E Avenue  Auburn, CA 95603 (530) 889-7385 E-Mail: ceplacer@ucdavis.edu NEVADA COUNTY 255 So Auburn  Grass Valley, CA 95945 (530) 273-4563 E-Mail: cenevada@ucdavis.edu WEBSITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu Poisonous plants can be defined as a plant possessing a property that is injurious to people or animals. Plants may be poisonous to the touch like poison oak or orally toxic like Conium maculatum, hemlock was to Socrates. Many poisonous plants have medicinal uses in controlled doses. Another historical use is using poisonous plants for hunting, like the example of strychnine from Strychnos nux- vomica, strychnine tree. Pyrethrum from Chrysanthemum coccineum is used as an insecticide. Poisonous plants may also have only certain parts that are toxic. Rhubarb, Rheum cultorum, leaves are poisonous while the leafstock is not. Pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, is an example of timing. Pokeberries and the older plant are poisonous while very young shoots have been cultivated and cooked as a green vegetable (that is not a recommendation!). As you can see poisonous plants are actually a very difficult subject. Toxicologists have studied the subject for years in more depth and with more expertise than Master Gardeners. The first question is who ingests the poison? Is the plant ingested by a child, an adult, pet or livestock? Each must be treated differently. How much of the plant has been ingested? Was it a root, leaf or a flower? Continued on page 2 BUDGET NEWS from the County Director, Roger Ingram: UC Cooperative Extension is not immune to the economic downturn that many of you struggle with on a daily basis. The budget has been drastically cut. Given the tight budget situation, we must constantly seek ways to reduce costs. If you have regularly been receiving a print copy of the Curious Gardener, we would like you to convert to re- ceiving the newsletter via email. The email would contain a link to get the newsletter at our website. If you have an email address, you can go to the website (see bottom of page)and subscribe to the Curi- ous Gardener for email delivery. We will be happy to subscribe for you if you find that inconvenient. Please contact Kate Micheels at 530-273- 4563 or cenevada@ucdavis.edu
  2. 2. THE CURIOUS GARDENER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Page 2 Plant identification at this point is critical. In some plants, different parts have a different toxicity level. Maybe the plant itself isn’t toxic but has been sprayed with an herbicide or pesticide. The questions are numerous and can only be answered by a professional. This is a list of common poisonous plants. It is an incomplete list. Just because a plant is not listed does not mean a plant is not poisonous. Ingestion of any plant can cause mild or dire complications. It is always best to investigate thoroughly. Brugmansia spp., or „Angels’ Trumpet’ All parts are poisonous to humans and pets, often proving fatal. Scopalamine and atropine, drugs used in hospitals have similar components. Datura spp., or Jimsonweed, Devil’s Trumpet Flowers, leaves and seeds are poisonous to cattle, human, goats and horses. Daphne odorata, Daphne The berries are poisonous to cats, dogs and humans. Delphinium spp., Delphiniums and Larkspurs All parts are poisonous to cattle, humans and goats. Dicentra spp., Bleeding Heart All parts are toxic to cats, cattle and humans. Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove Used as a cardiac drug in controlled amounts, leaves are toxic to humans. Flowers and seeds also toxic. Cats, dogs, and horses can be affected. Iris spp., Iris Rhizomes and rootstocks are poisonous to cattle, swine and humans. Lantana camara, Lantana Unripe berries can cause lethargy, weakness and collapse of the circulatory system for cats, dogs, goats, cattle, sheep and humans. Nerium oleander, Oleander The poison can cause irregular heartbeats, strengthening of the force of cardiac contractions, causing convulsions and death. It can affect humans as well as dogs, horses, goats, and sheep. Nicotiana Spp., Flowering Tobacco The leaves carry nicotine that affects swine as well as humans. Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed, Thornapple The raw berries and roots have caused deaths of children, adults, swine and horses. Wisteria spp., Wisteria vine Leaves, seeds and all flowers are toxic to humans. Any ingestion of an unknown plant by an animal or a human bears investigation. “Better safe than sorry” bears repeating when it comes to poisonous plants. Continued from page 1 If there is any doubt, do not hesitate to call Poison Control (800-222-1222) or your local veterinarian. References: Cornell University, Poisonous Plant Database: ansci.cornell.edu/plants ASPCA, www.aspca.org/pet- care/poison-control/plants
  3. 3. WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu Page 3 FALL 2009 Hardwood Cuttings Zoe Robison Nevada County Master Gardener It is close to the time to take hardwood cuttings from deciduous ornamental woody shrubs. From leaf-fall to late winter is the proper time for this type of propagation and the procedure to be described here is perfect for your first attempt at rooting stem cuttings. Compared to working with softwood and greenwood cuttings, taken respectively in the spring and late summer, this is much easier in that it requires no special equipment and comparatively little care. Hydrangea, rose, forsythia, viburnum, spirea, red twig dogwood, weigela, barberry, fig, privet, and blueberry are just some of the good candidates for hardwood cuttings here in the milder areas of Placer and Nevada counties. When you decide which plants you plan to propagate, always select the healthiest and most attractive specimens available from which to take cuttings. You are making genetic duplicates and what you see is what you get. Materials You will need sharp, clean bypass pruners, plastic nursery pots, a moist mixture of one part sphagnum peat moss to three parts horticultural grade perlite, and rooting hormone. #1 gallon pots for long cuttings and 4" square pots or 8" bulb pots for shorter cuttings are usual, but anything sanitized and with good drainage will work. As to the media, other combinations of sand, vermiculite, perlite, and peat are possible but this media is simple and works well in most cases. A simple powder form of rooting hormone from your local nursery is adequate for your first tries at propagation. Procedure Right after leaf fall (optimal time) and on into late winter, select mature fully dormant stems from the previous season’s growth. The wood should be firm and not bend easily. There are three types of hardwood stem cuttings- straight, mallet, and heel. The straight cutting is the most commonly used and that procedure will be described here. The mallet and heels are for older and more difficult to root plants. Cut your selected stems back to the point from which they arose so you don’t disfigure your plant in your zeal to propagate it. Now, cut and discard the thinner tips of the chosen stems - only the stems of average width for the plant chosen will have enough carbohydrate to carry the cutting through the winter. The length of the cuttings you now take from these stems is determined by the length of space between the nodes on the stem. The nodes are the slight bumps or notches on the stem from which buds arise. Ideally, you want at least two nodes below the surface of your media and two nodes above the surface. You must have at least one above and one below with most plants. The length of the cutting will vary from 4" to 30" depending on the species of plant involved and the purpose of the propagation (the 30" cutting would be for preparing root stock for grating fruit trees). Most cuttings will be around 8 to 10 “, unless the nodes are really far apart, and a #1 gallon pot will suffice for these. Continued on page 4
  4. 4. THE CURIOUS GARDENER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Page 4 Now, with your pots at hand filled to the brim with your moistened media and a bit of hormone spilled out onto a clean piece of paper or small dish nearby, make your first cutting with a 45 degree angled cut about 1/4 “ above the top node, then count down to the fourth node and cut straight across just below this bottom node. The 45 degree angle will remind you what is the top portion of the stem. Polarity is critical in that a cutting placed upside down will not root. Next, just touch the bottom cut to the hormone powder and tap the excess off - too much hormone is worse than none at all. Stick the cutting a bit more than half way down into a labeled pot and repeat the process with the rest of the cuttings, spacing them so they won’t be crowded when the buds break. It is never a good idea to have more than one species per pot, and it always a good idea to keep records of what, when, and how for future use. Now, water the cuttings and place outside where they are protected from too much sun or harsh rain. Keep the cuttings slightly moist if the weather doesn’t cooperate and we have a dry late fall and winter. In two months or so, check your cuttings by giving one a slight tug to check for resistance that indicates root formation. If the cutting pulls right out then re- stick it and check again in a few weeks. Some species take four or even more months to form roots. If there is good resistance, carefully tease out the cutting to see if it has formed good vigorous roots. Once you are assured of good root production, transplant your cuttings into pots with good potting soil. Don’t put your new plants in pots that are either too big or too small - suit the size of the cutting and it’s root ball to the size of it’s new temporary home. Give hardwood cuttings a try this year and you will be glad you did. References: California Master Gardener Handbook, 2002, ANR Publication 3382 Plant Propagation ,The Royal Horicultural Society, Philip McMillan Browse, 1999 The Complete Book of Plant Propagation , Graham Clarke and Alan Toogood, 1990 Continued from page 3 Here are some plants that can be propagated by hardwood cuttings: Abelia spp. Berberis thunbergii, Japanese Barberry Camellia spp. Ceanothus spp., California Lilac Deutzia spp. Euonymus spp. Forsythia spp. Lonicera spp. Honeysuckle Hydrangea spp. Philadelphus spp. Mock Orange Hibiscus syriacus Rose of Sharon Weigela spp. Salix spp. Willow Ligustrunum spp. Privet Rhododendron spp. Viburnum spp. Taxus spp. Yew
  5. 5. WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu Page 5 FALL 2009 REMEMBER: FALL IS THE BEST TIME TO PLANT!!! BULLETIN BOARD Two Fall Plant Sales at the UC Davis Arboretum Saturday, October 3 Members: 9am-11am Public: 11am-1pm Saturday, October 17 Public sale only: 9am-1pm http://arboretum.ucdavis.edu/ Sierra College Community Education Courses  Art of Bonsai—October 10, 9am to Noon, Matsuda’s Nursery  Landscape Design –Let’s Get Started, October 10, 9am to Noon, Nevada County campus  Permaculture, Garden and Soil Preparation, October 17, 9am to 4pm, Nevada County campus  Irrigation Design for Rural Property, November 14, 9am to 4pm, Rocklin campus  Water-Wise Landscaping, December 3, 6:30pm-8:30pm, Campus Plaza Shopping Center Register here: www.sccommed.org The 2010 Placer County Gardeners Companion Calendar is NOW AVAILABLE!!! The theme for this wonderful calendar is “Dollars and Sense Gardening” and contains useful tips for gardening inexpensively. The calendar is available at both UCCE offices in Auburn and Grass Valley for $10.00. Local nurseries around the counties also carry and sell the calendar.
  6. 6. THE CURIOUS GARDENER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Page 6 Planting for winter interest Judith Myrick Placer County Master Gardener Iused to hate winter. Any day that wasn’t warm and sunny was a wasted opportunity to be outdoors, planting, transplanting and enjoying the sight of hundreds of flowers and the many shades of green a garden provides. Now, I’m older and wiser. I’m also willing to admit I need a break. I find myself looking forward to that time of year when the garden rests and so do I. I’ve learned, though, that winter doesn’t have to be a dreary time of year. Some thoughtful plant selection can produce a winter landscape that is beautiful and exciting. There are many ways in which plants and trees can add interest to the winter landscape. Evergreen conifers add color, texture and architectural drama. They vary in size, shape and in the texture of their foliage. They may be tall, shrubby or weeping. They may have needle-type foliage like pine, spruce, fir or hemlock, or have scale-like foliage like juniper and arborvitae. In contrast to the conifers, there are broad-leafed evergreens like Mexican abelia, Abelia floribunda, a shrub with a graceful, arching habit. It ranges in size up to 10 ft tall but is usually shorter. This abelia is often in full bloom in January. Strawberry Tree, Arbutus unedo, is another broadleaf evergreen tree or shrub. It grows to 8-35 feet with equal spread. It has red-brown shredding bark, dark green red- stemmed leaves, clusters of small urn-shaped flowers, and round red fruits that resemble strawberries. Both flowers and fruits may appear at the same time in fall and winter. Boxwood, or Buxus, hybrids hold their green color well throughout winter. They are cold -hardy, grow from 3-5 ft high, 3- 4 ft wide and need little pruning. Mahonia aquifolium, or Oregon grape, is a bushy evergreen that grows to 6 ft high with a 5 ft spread. Scattered mature red leaves remain throughout the year. Leaves turn purple or bronze in winter. Yellow flowers appear in late winter, followed by edible blue-black grape-like fruit. In the leafless season, deciduous trees get a chance to show off branch structure, bark patterns, and stem color. The branches of Cornus nuttallii, Pacific or Western dogwood, grow in an attractive horizontal pattern. Cornus stolonifera, Redtwig dogwood, has bright red twigs. Severe pruning encourages new branches and twigs for winter display. Cornus stolonifera „Flaviramea‟ produces yellow twigs and branches. Another tree notable for its coral red twigs and branches in winter is the Coral Bark Maple, Acer palmatum „Sango Kaku‟. In winter we can especially appreciate the lovely bark of Crape Myrtle, Lagerstroemia indica, as well as Lacebark Elm, Ulmus parvifolia, and River Birch, Betula nigra. Not only is it a nice color, the bark of the River Birch flakes and curls in cinnamon-colored sheets. Paperbark Maple, Acer griseum, is another tree that sheds its bark in long, thin sheets. Not until its leaves have fallen can we appreciate the twisted branches of Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick, Corylus avellana ‘Contorta’. This deciduous shrub can reach 8-10 ft tall and wide. Flowering Cherry, Prunus subhirtella „Autumnalis‟, is a 25- 30 ft tall tree with pinkish-white flowers that often appear during warm spells in January. For winter flowers, Camellia japonica tops the list. Choose this 6-12 ft tall tree according to its bloom season, early, mid or late. Continued on page 7
  7. 7. WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu Page 7 FALL 2009 Witch hazel, Hamamelis intermedia, is a large deciduous shrub that flowers from December to March in shades of red, yellow or orange. Daphne odora, or Winter Daphne, is a demanding evergreen shrub with fragrant pink flowers. Daphne needs porous soil, excellent drainage, some shade during the day, and little summer water. Don’t forget Forsythia, a fountain-shaped shrub whose bare branches are covered in yellow flowers beginning in February. Lovely yellow 1-inch flowers appear January to March on Winter jasmine, Jasminum nudiflorum, a deciduous vine. Another winter-flowering vine is Carolina Jessamine, Gelsemium sempervirens. Fragrant tubular yellow flowers appear in late winter. Carolina Jessamine can be trained on a trellis or used as a ground cover. Colorful berries brighten the branches of many shrubs in winter. Metallic purple berry clusters decorate the arching branches of Callicarpa, or Beautyberry. The bright red berries of hollies ( Ilex species), Cotoneaster, Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo), Heavenly Bamboo ( Nandina domestica), and Firethorn ( Pyracantha cultivars), add welcome splashes of color to the winter landscape. Closer to the ground are the perennials and bulbs that offer colorful foliage and/or flowers in winter. Violas and violets, primrose (Primula), Iceland poppy (Papaver), Paludosum daisy ( Chrysanthemum paludosum), and wallflower (Erysimum) are winter-flowering as are Winter iris (Iris unguicularis), Snowdrops (Galanthus), and Siberian Squill (Scilla siberica). Continued from page 6 Nevada County Master Gardener FALL PLANT SALE Saturday, October 10 9am to Noon California Native Plants, Perennials and Grasses Garden Specialty items WHERE: Nevada County Master Gardener Demonstration Garden (on NID grounds, 1036 W. Main) REFERENCES: Sunset Western Garden Book UC Davis Arboretum
  8. 8. THE CURIOUS GARDENER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Page 8 Have you noticed that some of your ornamentals are looking a little sad? Are your plants displaced in the yard for no apparent reason? Sometimes the evidence is right in front of you but sometimes you have to dig a little deeper. Gophers: there are five species of the pocket gopher in California. They can range in length from 6 to 10 inches. Signs and symptoms of the presence of gophers underground include mounds of fresh soil. The mounds are formed as the gopher digs and pushes the dirt to the surface. Typically the mounds are horseshoe shaped in appearance. The entry hole is usually off to one side of the mound and plugged. Pocket gophers live in a system of burrows that can cover up to 2000 square feet. The burrows are about 3 inches in diameter and 6 to 12 inches below the surface. Gopher burrow systems are very sophisticated and consist of a series of tunnels and chambers that serve a variety of purposes. Pocket gophers often invade yards and gardens and feed on garden crops, vines, shrubs and trees. They can also cause cosmetic damage in the lawn and to plastic water lines. There are a few measures to control gophers. The most safe and effective method is to set traps. Secondly, baits can be used quite successfully. When using bait to eliminate gophers, it is crucial to locate the main burrow with a probe. Baits should be used with caution in living situations with children and pets. Underground fencing is commonly used to deter gophers from attacking valuable ornamentals or trees. Hardwire is commonly used in basket form or underneath raised-bed crop gardens to prevent penetration. Sometimes no control is needed because the gopher population is self limiting. The natural predators in the environment include owls, snakes, cats, dogs and coyotes. While inspecting the yard and you see a more circular mound with a plugged hole in the center, that is most likely the habitat of the mole. A mole is a small insect eating mammal. Moles also live underground in a network of tunnels. The moles burrow just below the surface and the tunneling is oftentimes visible in lawn areas and gardens where plant material may be dislodged. Several means of control are available but there is no one tried and true method. Trapping is the most dependable method of control. These traps are specifically for moles and should not be confused with gopher traps. There are many other products on the market ranging from mothballs to whistling bottles. None of these repellant methods have been scientifically proven to be effective. Toxic baits are not effective due to the insect diet of the mole. The use of wire mesh baskets and wire liners in the bottom of raised beds are effective in eliminating plant damage. So the key to identifying the species of your yard invasion is the appearance of the mound (crescent shaped: gopher and round mound: mole) and a visible or not visible tunneling. These yard pests are active all year with the exception of very cold winter days. For more specific information on the management of these pests please go to the University of California Integrated Pest Management website: www.ipm.ucdavis.edu Happy hunting! Underground aliens Mary Gish Nevada County Master Gardener
  9. 9. WEB SITE: ceplacernevada.ucdavis.edu Page 9 FALL 2009 Fall 2009 CALENDAR SATURDAYS, year round, 8 AM – Noon Foothill Farmers‟ Market, Courthouse parking lot, Auburn SATURDAYS, year round, 10 AM – Noon “Master Gardeners & Friends” Radio Talk , KNCO Radio, 830 AM October Friday—Sunday, October 2,3, and 4 from 11am to 6pm at the Gold Country Fairgrounds: Visit the Master Gardeners at the AUBURN HOME SHOW and ask your gardening questions! Saturday, October 3 from 10am-Noon at Full Circle Demonstration Garden (Nev Co. ROOD Center) Composting Basics Saturday, October 10 from 9am-Noon at NC Master Gardener Garden (1036 W. Main, GV) : FALL PLANT SALE Saturday, October 17 from 10am-Noon at NC Master Gardener Garden (1036 W. Main, GV) : Planting Cool Season Ornamental and Turfgrass Saturday, October 17 from 10am-11am at Roseville Utility Exploration Center by Mahany Park:: Basic Composting November Saturday, November 7 from 10am-Noon at Full Circle Demonstration Garden (NC ROOD Center) Composting Basics Saturday, November 14 from 10am-Noon at NC Master Gardener Garden (1036 W. Main, GV) : Ornamental Grasses Saturday and Sunday, November 21 and 22 from 9am to 5pm at the Gold Country Fairgrounds: Visit the Master Gardeners at the Mandarin Festival and ask your gardening questions! Saturday, November 21 from 2pm-3:30pm at Roseville Utility Exploration Center by Mahany Park:: Selecting and Growing Fruit Trees December Saturday, December 5 from 10am-Noon at NC Master Gardener Garden (1036 W. Main, GV) : Propagation
  10. 10. THE CURIOUS GARDENER UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Page 10 PLACER/NEVADA COUNTY RESIDENTS: Placer and Nevada County residents may receive The Curious Gardener by mail, free of charge. County residents are encouraged to subscribe by e-mail to save postage costs. OUT-OF-COUNTY RESIDENTS: Mail subscription is $10.00 per year (by check payable to UC Regents) by mail, or free by e-mail by contacting: UCCE Placer County 11477 E Avenue (530) 889-7385 Auburn, CA 95603 E-Mail: ceplacer@ucdavis.edu The Curious Gardener is published quarterly by the University of California Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners of Placer and Nevada Counties. UCCE PLACER & NEVADA COUNTIES Kevin Marini PROGRAM REP: HOME HORT AND COMPOSTNG EDUCATION MASTER GARDENER COORDINATOR 530-889-7399 PEGGY BELTRAMO—PLACER MG LIZ REES—NEVADA CO. MG The Curious Gardener is published quarterly in January, March, June, and September. PLACER-NEVADA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION OFFICE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 11477 E AVENUE (BUILDING 306, DEWITT CENTER) AUBURN, CA 95603 NONPROFIT ORG U.S. POSTAGE PAID AUBURN, CA PERMIT NO. 148 SubscribingProduction Information The University of California prohibits discrimination against or harassment of any person employed by or seeking employment with the University on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, physical or mental disability, medical condition (cancer-related or genetic characteristic), ancestry, marital status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or status as a covered veteran (covered veterans are special disabled veterans, recently separated veterans, Vietnam-era veterans or any other veterans who served on active duty during a war or in a campaign or expedition for which a campaign badge has been authorized) in any of its programs or activities or with respect to any of its employment policies, practices, or procedures. University Policy is intended to be consistent with the provisions of applicable State and Federal laws. Inquiries regarding the University’s nondiscrimination policies may be directed to the Affirmative Action/Staff Personnel Services Director, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1111 Franklin, 6th Floor, Oakland, CA 94607-5200; (510) 987-0096 University of California, United States Department of Agriculture, Placer and Nevada Counties Cooperating

×