Chapter 9


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Chapter 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9: The Structure of Canada ’ s Government
  2. 2. Need for government <ul><li>Govt provides organization and security </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People give up some of their freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People accept certain restrictions on their freedom so society may have order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of individual are most important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All individuals have the right to be dealt with in the same way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual freedom vs. intellectual equality </li></ul><ul><li>Economic freedom vs. economic equality </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Democracy vs. dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarian govt </li></ul><ul><li>Private ownership vs. public ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam Smith Wealth of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal thinker, private ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public ownership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ideologies <ul><li>Political spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Left wing  ----------------------  Right wing want change, reform, liberal vs. tradition, keep things the same, conservative </li></ul><ul><li>NDP, Liberals, Socialism, Communism Conservative, Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>Bloc Quebecois? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Democracy <ul><li>Democratic system of govt has following elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>citizens come under rule of a constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human rights protected in constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic freedoms (speech, religion, press, discrimination) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in Canada: Charter of Rights and Freedoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regularly schedules, multi-party elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>universal suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>judicial and political roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>categories/levels of govt </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Liberalism <ul><li>Classical liberalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in late 18 th C in western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and intellectual freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human nature is good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform liberalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 19 th C and early 20 th C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger commitment to economic equality </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Conservatism <ul><li>Early conservatives believed that Monarch should have authority over the elected Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Change should be progressive; no radical change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong commitment to intellectual equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral issues are sometimes matter of public not just private concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic freedom </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Socialism <ul><li>Plato, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Henri de Saint-Simon and Robert Owen </li></ul><ul><li>Early 19 th C during Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Believe community should own industrial enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Govt intervention in economy would produce economic equality  make individuals free </li></ul>
  9. 9. Communism <ul><li>Karl Marx Communist Manifesto </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic equality where all people share wealth generated in a country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism where people are free to compete with each other for profit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communism is based on community ownership of all property and means of production—community of workers make decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Marx predicted proletariat would unite to overthrow the bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution instead of slow change </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Communism has not been implemented the Marx intended </li></ul><ul><li>Communism is made up of following elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt tightly controlled by small group of people—little say in govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedoms don ’ t exist—censorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic equality may be achieved through socials programs, but rich get richer and poor get poorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual liberty sacrificed for good of the state </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Fascism <ul><li>“ fascis ” (L) refers to bundle of rods with beheading axe coming out of the middle—symbolized absolute authority of state in ancient Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascism first used by Mussolini during his reign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fascism is made up of the following elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism—if it works, do it ie. decisions-making based on principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of individual is to serve the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and intellectual resources of state are to be used to build up the country </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>First used by Benito Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Individual freedoms permitted only if and when they contributed to the good of the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler and NAZI party in Germany </li></ul>
  13. 13. Canadian Federal Government <ul><li>Governor General = head of state </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister = head of govt </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of representatives (MPs) who help run country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest branch of govt that can make laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>House of Commons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>308 MPs (338 proposed for 2015) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>108 Senators app.'s by GG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be 30 years and retire at 75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From BC: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larry Campbell (Lib - Martin) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobina Jaffer (Lib - Chretien) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yonah Martin (Cons - Harper) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Neufeld (Cons - Harper) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nancy Greene Raine (Cons - Harper) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerry St. Germain (Prog Cons - Mulroney </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Canada ’ s Democracy <ul><li>Representative democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greece = direct democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada adopted from British govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada has monarch as heat of state with a constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GG gives royal assent to legislation; must act on advice of Cabinet Ministers (PM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today little actual power and ceremonial duties </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Canada ’ s Constitution <ul><li>Written constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BNA 1867 sets out powers and structure of govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 main parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Description of power of provincial legislation and Parliament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charter of Rights and Freedoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amending formula: approval of 2/3 of provinces (7 or 10) must be >50% of population as well as of the HofC and Senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Unwritten constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwritten rules and practices--convention </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Canada Act, 1982 <ul><li>British North America (1867) renamed Constitution Act of 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution Act of 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms </li></ul>
  18. 18. Federal State <ul><li>UK has legislative union—two levels of govt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only national and municipal levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada and US has federal system—three levels of govt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foreign policy, immigration, taxation, currency, criminal laws, transportation, national defence, employment insurance, aboriginal people and postal system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Provincial/territorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education, health care, provincial tax, provincial police, natural resources, roads/bridges, workers ’ comp and housing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shared fed and prov: agriculture/farming, pension plans environmental protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries, local police, local schools, fire dept, public transport, building permits, parks and rec, garbage and recycling </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Executive Branch
  21. 31. Legislative Branch <ul><li>Legislative Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make and amend laws, decide how govt will spend money (GG, Senate, HofC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPs, Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament sits between Sept and June with breaks throughout so MPs can work in their own ridings </li></ul></ul>
  22. 32. <ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review bills passes by HofC – final “ check ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sober second thought ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest amendments, send back bills (rarely done) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy about Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of specific qualifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patronage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representation by population </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 33. Lawmaking process <ul><li>Cabinet decides content of bill </li></ul><ul><li>Private member ’ s bill </li></ul><ul><li>House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>First reading </li></ul><ul><li>Second reading </li></ul><ul><li>Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Third reading  vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If pass  Senate if not  bill dies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Senate same process as in House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>If pass  GG for Royal Assent </li></ul><ul><li>Senate usually will not reject, may delay </li></ul>
  24. 34. <ul><li>Role of GG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reads Speech from the Throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written by PM ’ s staff and outlines what govt hopes to have passed during session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM decides when session will come to a close and GG then prorogues parliament ie. declares session is over </li></ul></ul>
  25. 35. <ul><li>Role of the House of Commons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPs belong to political parties or are independents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some MPs belong to Cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPs from all parties belong to committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One MP will act as Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Official Opposition, shadow cabinet, backbenchers </li></ul><ul><li>Caucus meeting: gathering of all of a party ’ s MPs not public and show of solidarity </li></ul>
  26. 36. <ul><li>Committee meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various committees: special, joint, striking and legislatives…most important are committees of the whole and standing committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committees of the whole: entire HofC meet in Commons chamber all MPs present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Clause-by-clause study of govt ’ s annual budget </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing committee: matched with major ministries to study legislation and study public expenditures </li></ul></ul>
  27. 37. <ul><li>Speaker acts as referee of the House of Commons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies and enforces rules of Commons procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question Period: 45 min in early afternoon is most difficult time for Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition can direct questions to PM or minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not need to notify and must not be about specific bill on the agenda </li></ul></ul>
  28. 38. <ul><li>Role of Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose to act as second legislative house providing regional representation--equal representation to all regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sober second thought ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has power to veto legislation but will not happen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ polish ” legislation from Commons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can supply Cabinet ministers when MPs not available </li></ul></ul>
  29. 39. <ul><li>Reforming the Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-represents business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patronage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influencing lawmakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing letters to MPs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 40. Judicial Branch <ul><li>Foundations of law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law: rules or procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice: what society considers to be right/moral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of Canadian law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil code in QC only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common law and rule of precedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statue law (legislation) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 41. <ul><li>Types of law </li></ul><ul><li>Public – concerns individuals and govt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private or Civil law – concerns individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual </li></ul></ul>
  32. 42. Judiciary <ul><li>Judges must be impartial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No conflict of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judges must be independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free of govt or other pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judges are appt for life (retire at 75) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to expel—vote in HofC and Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free from prosecution when handling a dispute—administer law without fear of suffering personally for decisions </li></ul></ul>
  33. 43. <ul><li>Judges appoint by govt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial govt appts judges to Prov courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must practice law for min 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal govt appts judges to Federal courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Min of 10 years of legal practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judges must sever ties to former law firms and resign from companies </li></ul>
  34. 44. <ul><li>Adversarial system vs. Inquisitorial system </li></ul><ul><li>Courts of BC: </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal Court of BC </li></ul><ul><li>(appellate court—no trials) </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court of BC </li></ul><ul><li>(civil cases over $10 000, serious crimes) </li></ul><ul><li>/ </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Court </li></ul><ul><li>(90% of criminal, family, small claims, traffic) </li></ul>
  35. 45. <ul><li>National Courts of Canada: </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court of Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created 1875 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final appeals court, reviews cases—not a trial court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of 9 judges (1 chief justice and 8 puisne aka junior judges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judges must represent country ie. 3 from QC and 5 from Maritimes, ON and West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judges sit in 5, 7, or 9 depending on importance of case (9 usually for constitutional issues) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 46. <ul><li>Federal Court of Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matters concerning federal govt and employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-govt disputes, patent laws, appeals on tax and citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizenship Court of Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a trial court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews and assess application for Cdn citizenship </li></ul></ul>
  37. 47. Aboriginal Self-Govt <ul><li>Many FN govern themselves through local govt—band council or group of elders </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of band if chief (similar to mayor) </li></ul><ul><li>Directly responsible to people </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time dealing with federal ministers negotiating over licenses, education, access to hwy that cross band land </li></ul>