Capital Market Analysis and Corporate Laws


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Capital Market Analysis and Corporate Laws

  1. 1. Capital Market Analysis and Corporate Laws Date/ Time / version © South Indian Regional Council for ICWAI MERCHANT BANKERS SHORT NOTES Paper 11
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF MERCHANT BANKERS   <ul><li>All Merchant Bankers must compulsorily register with SEBI, which has classified under 4 categories . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prospectus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tie up of Finances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allotment of Securities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refund of subscription  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(contd..) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF MERCHANT BANKERS (contd..) <ul><ul><li>Underwriters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consultancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co-manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio manager  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultants to issue  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilization of Foreign Funds for companies </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ROLE OF MERCHANT BANKER IN PUBLIC ISSUE <ul><li>Furnishing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Books </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement with Issuing Company </li></ul><ul><li>Action by RBI </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having high integration in dealing with clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclosure of all details to the authorities concerned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding making exaggerated statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclosure of all the facts to its customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not disclosing any confidential matter of the clients to third parties </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SWAP <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Swapping is arranged to reap the benefits arising from the fluctuations in the market – Currency Market or Interest Rate Market or any other market. </li></ul><ul><li>Swap is combination of forwards. Double coincidence of wants, requires that two parties with equal and opposite needs must come into contract with each other – opposite but matching needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Swap – Exchange of currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Rate Swap – Floating Rate to Fixed Rate and vice versa  </li></ul>
  6. 6. LOAN SYNDICATION <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>When more funds are required, different financial institutions are approached for contributing working capital and long-term capital requirements. The financial institutions, joining together for providing finance is known as Credit Syndication . Credit worthiness of borrower is more represented by the merchant banker to the various members of credit syndication, also called consortium finance . </li></ul><ul><li>Activities covered under credit syndication are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimating the total cost of the project of undertaken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing up the financing plan for the total project cost which conforms to the requirements of the promoters and their collaborators, financial institutions and banks, government agencies and underwriters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (contd..) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. LOAN SYNDICATION (contd..) <ul><ul><li>Preparing loan application for financial assistance from term lenders / financial institutions / banks, and monitoring their progress, including pre-sanction negotiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting institution and banks for participation in financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up of term loan application with the financial institutions and banks, obtaining the approval for their respective share of participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranging bridge loans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisting in completion of formalities for drawing of term fiancé sanctioned by institutions by expediting legal documentation formalities, drawing up agreements, etc., as prescribed by the participating financial institutions and banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing working capital requirements and arranging financing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ROLE OF MERCHANT BANKER IN THE ISSUE OF PROSPECTUS <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is the duty of the lead merchant banker to ensure that the prospectus are properly made and should not contain any false information. The merchant banker will also ensure that </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The application form issued will be accompanied by abridged prospectus by the issue company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the abridged prospectus, application form may be linked as perforated part </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconnected matters should not be furnished in the prospectus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MANAGING PUBLIC ISSUE <ul><li>No Merchant Banker is permitted to carry on business other than that in the securities market with effect from December 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum number of lead managers is related to the size of the issue. For an issue of Rs 50 Crores, 2 Lead Managers are required </li></ul><ul><li>Between Rs. 50 to Rs. 100 Crores, 3 lead managers and Rs. 100 to Rs. 200 Crores 4 Lead Managers are to be appointed </li></ul><ul><li>5 or more Lead Managers are appointed, if the size of the issue is above Rs. 200 Crores. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. RESPONSIBILITIES OF LEAD MANAGERS   <ul><li>Entering into an agreement with issuing company with regard to rights, liabilities and obligations. A statement has to be submitted to SEBI with regard to above facts. </li></ul><ul><li>A lead Merchant Banker must have certificate of registration with SEBI. </li></ul><ul><li>He should not have any of connection with the issuing company. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum underwriting commission can be 5% or Rs. 25 lakhs, whichever is less. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DISCLOSURE TO SEBI <ul><li>His responsibility with regard to the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Any change in the information which has been already furnished </li></ul><ul><li>Names of companies for which merchant banker is associated as the lead manager </li></ul><ul><li>Any breach in the capital adequacy requirements </li></ul>
  12. 12. ACTION AGAINST MERCHANT BANKERS <ul><li>Action can be taken against a merchant banker when he is found guilty of non-compliance of regulations. The defaults committed by the Merchant Banker can be categorized into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General – failure to submit the diligence certificate in the prescribed manner to SEBI or failure to dispatch refund orders, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major – Underwriting not properly taken up or when there are excess members of merchant bankers for an issue than the permissible limit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor – consists of advertisements not being in conformity with prospectus, delay in allotment of securities, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (contd..) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ACTION AGAINST MERCHANT BANKERS (contd..) <ul><ul><li>Serious defaults – unethical practice or non cooperation with SEBI. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For each of these defaults, there are points and accordingly action will be taken by SEBI against the erring merchant bankers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. FURNISHING DETAILS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY <ul><li>A merchant Banker should provide details of the capital structure of the company in the following manner :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized, Issued, Subscribed and Paid-up Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the present issue including contribution by Promoters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid-up capital after the issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share Premium account  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Merchant Banker should also provide details regarding lock-in-period, nature of allotment, Rights, Bonus and face value of securities and issue price of securities, etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE PRICING OF INITIAL ISSUE <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A listed company can freely price its equity shares through a public issue. The free pricing of equity shares is subject to the compliance and disclosure of norms as specified by SEBI. While freely pricing the initial pricing of shares, a merchant bank requires the approval of RBI.  </li></ul><ul><li>Public Rights issue can be made in any denomination according to Section 13 (4) of the Companies Act, after fulfilling the conditions laid down by SEBI. The issue of shares in any denomination is subject to the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shares should not be issued in a decimal of rupee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing shares denomination should not be altered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There should be only one denomination for the shares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (contd..) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. THE PRICING OF INITIAL ISSUE (contd..) <ul><ul><li>Memorandum and Articles of the company should permit for the change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodical disclosure to SEBI with regard to any change in the denomination of shares </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. ISSUE PRICE <ul><li>The issue price of a company’s share can be on any of the following basis – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earning per share – EPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P/E Ratio in comparison with the industries’ P/E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Rate of Return on Net Wroth in the last 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Return on increased Net Worth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net Asset Value method – NAV </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. MERCHANT BANKING ORGANISATIONS IN INDIA <ul><li>Can be classified under 4 categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant Banking division of Commercial Banks – both Indian and Foreign – SBI Capital Market, Grindlays Bank, Citibank, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub division of Commercial Banks – Can bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant Banking activities of Financial Institutions – ICICI, IFCI, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant Banking by Financial Service Firms – Stock Brokers or others independent companies – Kotak Mahindra, Karvey Consultants, CRB Capital Market, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MERCHANT BANKERS <ul><li>Merchant Bankers have to abide by the Code of Conduct as prescribed by the SEBI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity – Observance of high standards of integrity and fairness in all dealings with clients and other merchant bankers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Service – Rendering high standards of service, exercising due diligence, ensuring proper care and exercising independent professional judgment, disclosing to the clients, wherever necessary, possible sources of conflict of duties and interests, while providing unbiased services . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (contd..) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MERCHANT BANKERS (contd..) <ul><ul><li>Fair Practice Responsible Statement - Refraining from making any statement or becoming privy to any act, practice or unfair competition, which is likely to be harmful to the interest of other merchant bankers, or is likely to place other merchant bankers in a disadvantageous position in relation to the merchant banker, while competing for or executing any assignment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Advice – Not to indulge in making any exaggerated statement, oral or written, to the client, either about the qualification or the capability to render certain services, or achievements in regard to services rendered to other clients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrecy – Not to divulge to other clients, press or any other party, any confidential information about the client and deal in the securities of any client without disclosing to the Board, as required under the regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(contd..) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MERCHANT BANKERS (contd..) <ul><ul><li>Information – Making constant efforts to ensure that the investors are provided with true and adequate information, without making any misguided or exaggerated claims, in order to make them aware of the attendant risks before they undertake any investment decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospectus – Making available copies of the prospectus, memorandum and related literature to the investors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allotment – Initiating adequate steps to ensure the fair allotment of securities, and refund of application money without delay. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (contd..) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MERCHANT BANKERS (contd..) <ul><ul><li>True market – Not to be a party to the creation of false market, price rigging or manipulation, passing on price sensitive information to brokers, members of the stock exchanges and other players in the capital market, or take any other action which is unethical or unfair to the investors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance – Abiding by the provisions of the Act, Rules, and Regulations which may be applicable and relevant to the activities carried out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>