Company Secretary and Information technology

7,124 views

Published on

Points Discussed:
Why IT?
e-governance
Challenges for CS,
e - transformation
Opportunities for CS
Digital Signature Certificates,
Encryption & Decryption
WHY IT IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR CS WHAT IT CAN DO FOR US
IT Facilitate -GLOBALIZATION, Telecommunications, Advancement, Transportation Facilities, Information Technology & Knowledge Sharing,
Transparency & Good Governance

Published in: Career, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,124
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
84
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Company Secretary and Information technology

  1. 1. This is not a Windows XP Desktop This is a Presentation designed in Microsoft PowerPoint itself Simply a computer can be used in more than one way
  2. 3. IT and Company Secretary
  3. 4. Information Technology & Company Secretary
  4. 5. CS @ IT
  5. 6. [email_address] <ul><li>Why IT </li></ul><ul><li>e-governance </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for CS </li></ul><ul><li>e - transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for CS </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signature Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption & Decryption </li></ul>
  6. 7. WHY IT IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR CS WHAT IT CAN DO FOR US
  7. 8. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IT Facilitate -GLOBALIZATION </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Advancement </li></ul>Transportation Facilities Information Technology & Knowledge Sharing Transparency & Good Governance
  8. 9. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT ADVANCED IT TOOLS HARDWARE'S SOFTWARE'S INTERNET
  9. 10. HI TECH GADGETS INCREASING YOUR EFFICIENCY
  10. 11. The IT Revolution Virtual Keyboard
  11. 12. ADVANCED SOFTWARES TAKING CARE OF YOUR DAY TO DAY NEEDS PEOPLE SOFT SAP SWIFT SUPPLY CHAIN BAAN JD EDWARDS CRM
  12. 13. INTERNET
  13. 14. Which enables
  14. 15. ENABLES FREE TRADE & COMMERCE FREE COMPETITION GLOBAL QUALITY BENCHMARKS SPEED OF SERVICE INCREASED TRANSPERANCY COST EFFICIENCY KNOWLEDGE AND RESOURCE SHARING EXTENDED MARKET BASE
  15. 16. VISION 2020 Of INDIA
  16. 17. DEVELOPED INDIA VISION 2020 DREAM OF PAST-PRESIDENT OF INDIA “ INDIA WILL BE A DEVELOPED NATION IN YEAR 2020.” VISION OF PLANNING COMMISSION “ OUR VISION OF INDIA IN 2020 IS OF A NATION BUSTLING WITH ENERGY , ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION .”
  17. 18. CRITICALITY OF PROFESSIONALS & IT IN ENHANCING INDIAN COMPETITIVENESS THREE THINGS MAKE THE DIFFERENCE PURPOSE PROCESS PEOPLE INDIA AS A DEVELOPED NATION IN 2020 THE WAY TO REALIZE THE DREAMS WHO WITH THE AID OF PROCESSES REALIZE DREAMS PROFESSIONALS ARE THE ‘PEOPLE’ WITH SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS IT IS THE TOOL THROUGH WHICH WE CAN DEVELOP THE SIMPLIFIED PROCESSES I T Professionals
  18. 19. WITHOUT IT THINGS WOULD NOT BE THAT SIMPLE THE NEED OF THE HOUR IS COMPLETE TRANSFORMATION OF THE EXISTING PRACTICES
  19. 20. IT is Changing the Way Business is Done
  20. 21. E-Governance <ul><li>Electronic Governance is the application of IT to the processes of Government functioning to bring about SMART Governance for better: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed/ efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement of Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability (certainty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new ways to increase citizen participation in the democratic process. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>500 implementation </li></ul><ul><li>agencies </li></ul><ul><li>2 lakh sites </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 man-years </li></ul><ul><li>of effort </li></ul><ul><li>20 GOI Deptts </li></ul><ul><li>35 States / UTs </li></ul><ul><li>360 Deptts @ States </li></ul>National e-Governance Projects Land Records Road Transport Police Land Regn Treasuries Comrl Taxes Agriculture Gram Pts Munici palities Employment Exchanges Civil Supplies Education Income Tax Passport Visa MCA21 Insurance Banking National ID Central Excise Pensions GIS e-Posts Common Service Centres Gateway e-Procure e-Office eBiz EDI e-Courts India Portal Core Policies
  22. 23. NEGP –Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) <ul><li>Integrated </li></ul><ul><li>e-BIZ </li></ul><ul><li>EDI </li></ul><ul><li>India Portal </li></ul><ul><li>Common df </li></ul><ul><li>EG Gateway </li></ul><ul><li>E Courts </li></ul><ul><li>E-Office </li></ul><ul><li>E Procurement </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Land Records </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Treasuries </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Gram Panchayats </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><li>Income Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Central Excise </li></ul><ul><li>Passports/Visa & Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>MCA 21 </li></ul><ul><li>National ID </li></ul><ul><li>Pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul>
  23. 24. IT for Company Secretaries
  24. 25. Challenges for Company Secretaries An IT-ENABLED Company Secretary SHIFTS FROM TRADITIONAL WORK TO STRATEGICAL WORK Notices Agenda Minutes Registers Returns Checklists Strategy Research Representation Problem Solving Management Coordination
  25. 26. IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries IT Enabled CS Does A Lot and Keeps Everyone Happy INVESTORS GOVERNMENT SOCIETY SUPPLIERS CUSTOMERS LENDERS CORPORATE PLANNING LEGAL FINANCE & ACCOUNTS HUMAN RESOURCES PRODUCTION & OPERATIONS MARKETING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EMPLOYEES
  26. 27. IT requirement for CS <ul><li>MCA-21, </li></ul><ul><li>EDIFAR, </li></ul><ul><li>MIS (Management Information System) </li></ul><ul><li>Software's Like CO-SECY/ERP </li></ul><ul><li>Online Secretarial Audit </li></ul><ul><li>e-INCORPORATION </li></ul><ul><li>e-SEARCH </li></ul>
  27. 28. BY CLICK OF A BUTTON YOU CAN OBTAIN WORLD FULL OF INFORMATION Event Based Checklists Fee & Tax Calculators Draft Agenda, Notices & Minutes Latest News & Updates Circulars & Notifications On Line Consultation & Much More …. Case Laws & Judgments Bare Acts & Commentaries Virtual office of CS Compliances Calendar
  28. 29. <ul><li>ẻ Recording & Filing </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ Dividend </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ Audit </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ Governance </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ Library </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings Through Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signatures </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ IPO </li></ul><ul><li>ẻ Groups </li></ul>And Much More …. ẻ TRANSFORMATION OF TRADITIONAL MECHANISMS
  29. 30. Opportunities in IT <ul><li>ONLINE CONSULTANCY </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM AUDITS </li></ul><ul><li>ONLINE VERIFICATION & SUBMISSION OF FORMS/ RETURNS </li></ul><ul><li>ONLINE BACK OFFICE MAINTENANCE </li></ul><ul><li>LEGAL SOFTWARE'S DEVELOPMENT & MARKETING </li></ul><ul><li>MULTINATIONAL MEGA FIRMS </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE PROCESS OUTSOURCING, (KPO) </li></ul>
  30. 31. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>WWW . SEC297 .COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW. SEC372 . COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW. SEC58A .COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW. BUYBACK .COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW. TAKEOVER .COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW . IPOS .COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW . TRADEMARKHELP .COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW. USGAAP .COM </li></ul>
  31. 32. IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries Using IT is a Win Win Proposition <ul><li>Conforming to the requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable and reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Available when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainable </li></ul><ul><li>Better working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved health and safety </li></ul><ul><li>Improved morale </li></ul><ul><li>Improved stability of employment </li></ul><ul><li>Increased return on investment </li></ul><ul><li>Improved operational results </li></ul><ul><li>Increased market share </li></ul><ul><li>Increased profits </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership and mutual understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Taking Company Secretaries to the World </li></ul><ul><li>Increased confidence of people in profession </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced reputation of fellow professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment of legal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in wastage of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Increased security </li></ul>Customers Partners Profession Network Partners Employees Society
  32. 33. <ul><li>Voice Based </li></ul><ul><li>Finance & Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy & Research </li></ul><ul><li>Recording Queries & Complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Back Office Recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Calculations & Claim Settling </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Cases & Commentaries </li></ul><ul><li>Business Solutions </li></ul>BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING
  33. 34. PROVED CHANGES Past Present (Accepted Changes) Steno Dragon Software Books of Accounts Tally Taxation Tax Packages & Calculators Legal Jurix Package
  34. 35. Case Study FOR MERGER & AMALGAMATION CASE LAWS AND JUDGMENTS APPLICATION NOTICE EXPLANATORY STATEMENT SCHEME OF AMALGAMATION/MERGER PETITION VALAUATION WE REQUIRE
  35. 36. THESE ALL CAN BE AVAILABLE ONLINE BY JUST CLICK OF A BUTTON
  36. 37. AND HOW EFFICIENTLY WE UTILIZE THIS TOOL IS UP TO US ‘ IT’ IS A MEANS TO AN END AND NOT AN END ITSELF
  37. 38. Day to Day Affairs IT for PCS Firms <ul><li>Enterprise Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationship Management </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-contracts Management </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Compliance Process </li></ul><ul><li>Online Audit Mechanism - Secretarial Audit, Financial Audit, Cost Audit, Management Audit, HR Audit and QMS Audit </li></ul>
  38. 39. Technology Driven Capital Market Day to Day Affairs
  39. 40. Technology Driven Capital Market Day to Day Affairs
  40. 41. Technology Driven Capital Market Day to Day Affairs
  41. 42. Technology Driven Capital Market Day to Day Affairs
  42. 43. IT is Changing Capital Market Dramatically
  43. 44. Capital Market Future IT is Unthinkable <ul><li>24 X 7 Online Listing Services </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time Due Diligence, Rating and Compliances </li></ul><ul><li>Global Data Banks </li></ul><ul><li>Investment Analysis Modeling Tools for Programmed/ Automated Trading </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless Integration of International Markets and all Market Participant enabling trading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From anywhere – Small village to big cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At anytime – Early morning to midnight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In any manner – Internet, Mobile, PDA, etc </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. 30 T +
  45. 46. 15 T +
  46. 47. 5 T +
  47. 48. 3 T +
  48. 49. 2 T +
  49. 50. 1 T +
  50. 51. 15 T + Seconds Speed is the biggest Challenge… the world is moving very fast
  51. 52. The IT Revolution A thought few years back…. which has become a reality now!!!
  52. 53. Success in professional life. Information Technology is key to
  53. 54. IT Can Help You IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries Save lot of time
  54. 55. IT Can Help You IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries Make Better Decisions
  55. 56. IT Can Help You IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries Coordinate diverse functions effectively
  56. 57. IT Can Help You IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries Be On Time, Everytime
  57. 58. IT is a Powerful Tool for Company Secretaries Its YOU Who Have to Use IT
  58. 59. So What is required
  59. 60. <ul><li>Change in Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to adapt to changes </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation & Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to Learn </li></ul>
  60. 61. IT driven project <ul><li>MCA-21 </li></ul><ul><li>(A mammoth project of Ministry of Company affairs) </li></ul><ul><li>(A public private partnership project) </li></ul>
  61. 62. Paper Based Operations Paper Less Environment From To Paradigm Transformation In the operations of ROC
  62. 63. Assures
  63. 64. Speed , Transparency and Efficiency in delivery of the services by Ministry of Company Affairs (MCA)
  64. 65. Stakeholders Interest & benefits
  65. 66. <ul><li>Business : easy registration and compliances </li></ul><ul><li>Directors : convenience of signing and submission </li></ul><ul><li>Public : easy access to company records </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals : efficiency in services </li></ul><ul><li>Lenders : easy registration and search of charge </li></ul><ul><li>Government : proactive and effective compliance </li></ul><ul><li>MCA Employees: delivery of best services </li></ul>Stakeholder interest
  66. 67. e-Incorporation e-Filings Online Registration and verification of charges Inspection of documents Timely redressal of investor grievance More time to MCA for qualitative analysis Benefits
  67. 68. U 45201 DL 2006 PTC 012121 U45201DL2006PTC12121 This signifies whether co. is Listed (L) or Unlisted (U) This 5 code signifies the business activity of the company This signifies the state in which Co. situates – DL for DELHI This signifies year of registration of company This signifies status of company, Pub/ Pvt - PTC for Private This is registration no. of Company
  68. 69. DIGITAL SIGNATURE CERTIFICATE
  69. 70. Information Technology Act 2000 <ul><li>Creating Trust </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Environment </li></ul>
  70. 71. Information Technology Act <ul><li>IT Act 2000 : Basic legal framework for E-Commerce - promotes trust in electronic environment </li></ul><ul><li>IT Act creates a conducive environment for promoting E-Commerce in the country. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of electronic documents as evidence in a court of law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of electronic signatures at par with handwritten signatures. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Information Technology Act ...contd. <ul><ul><li>Acceptance of electronic documents by the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines digital signatures based on asymmetric public key cryptography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for the creation of Certifying Authorities to issue public key certificates – digital certificates for electronic authentication of users in electronic commerce. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 73. <ul><ul><li>Provides for Controller under the IT Act to license the Certifying Authorities and to ensure that none of the provisions of the Act are violated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for dealing with offences in the cyber space in the form of hackers and other criminals trying to gain access into databases and other business sites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for the establishment of Cyber Appellate Tribunal to try cases under this Act for speedy adjudication of cases arising out of this Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides for appropriate changes in the Bankers Act and the Indian Evidence Act. </li></ul></ul>Information Technology Act ...contd.
  73. 76. <ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signatures </li></ul>
  74. 77. Security of document requires <ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Non-repudiation </li></ul>
  75. 78. Solutions Offered Privacy & Confidentiality Integrity Non-Repudiation Authenticity Physical World Notaries, Physical Presence, Photo ID card Signatures, Barcodes, Watermarks, Sealed letter Notarized signature, Receipts &Confirmations Envelopes Electronic World Digital Signature Digital Signature Digital Signature Encryption
  76. 81. Types of DSC Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Validity of DSC 1 year 2 years
  77. 82. Issuing Authority for DSC
  78. 84. DSC can be obtained <ul><li>Personal capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual User </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representative capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company User </li></ul></ul>
  79. 85. Individual User It can be used for any purpose and in any designation DSC as Individual User Director of any company Manager of any company Authorized representative of any company CS of any company Auditor of any company
  80. 86. Company User <ul><li>DSC can be used in single designation and </li></ul><ul><li>for a single organization only. </li></ul>DSC in the name of Mr. X as a partner of ABC & Associates DSC can be used only by Mr. X on behalf of ABC & Associates e.g.
  81. 87. How to obtain your DSC
  82. 88. Follow following steps: <ul><li>Register yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Online enrollment request </li></ul><ul><li>Physical application with annexure </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading of DSC </li></ul>
  83. 89. On-line registration on Certifying Authorities web-site
  84. 90. <ul><li>Submission of Physical application </li></ul>
  85. 92. Check your DSC
  86. 97. How to Affix DSC on e-forms
  87. 102. Where to keep your DSC
  88. 103. Always keep your DSC on USB token
  89. 104. Pen Drive Vs. USB token Pen Drive / CD USB Token It is a portable hard Disk, which is un-secure and could be used for copying and deleting any files. It is secure device, having inbuilt Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) and Cryptographic processor , used specifically to carry Digital Credentials of individuals and is primarily used for Two Factor authentication. Pen Drive are prone to Virus Attack , as it is a normal hard disk, the certificates can always be destroyed / mutilated by Viruses. A virus cannot affect USB Token , and the digital certificate stored would always be secure. The Digital Certificate has to be manually copied and deleted from the browser each time you would have to sign. In USB Token when you insert the USB Token, it automatically copies the certificate to the browser and when you remove the USB Token it automatically When you carry Digital Certificate in a Pen Drive, it is like keeping blank signed Cheque in your wallet. Where as in USB Token, it is simply storing un-signed cheque book in your vault.
  90. 105. Loss of your DSC and Revocation of your DSC
  91. 106. How does Digital Signature work Encryption/Decreption through DSC
  92. 107. DSC is a combination of key pair
  93. 110. Secret Key Cryptography <ul><li>Single key used to encrypt and decrypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Key must be known by both parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming we live in a hostile environment (otherwise - why the need for cryptography?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private key used to digitally sign. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public key used to verify. </li></ul></ul>
  94. 111. <ul><li>Private keys are used for decrypting. </li></ul><ul><li>Public keys are used for encrypting. </li></ul><ul><li>encryption </li></ul><ul><li>plaintext ciphertext </li></ul><ul><li>public key </li></ul><ul><li>decryption </li></ul><ul><li>ciphertext plaintext </li></ul><ul><li>private key </li></ul>Using Keys
  95. 112. Digital Signature <ul><li>With private key document can be digitally signed </li></ul><ul><li> signing </li></ul><ul><li>plaintext signed message </li></ul><ul><li> private key </li></ul><ul><li> verification </li></ul><ul><li>signed message plaintext </li></ul><ul><li> public key </li></ul>
  96. 113. ALICE BOB
  97. 114. Transmitting over an insecure channel. <ul><li>Alice wants to send Bob a private message. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A public is Alice’s public key. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A private is Alice’s private key. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B public is Bob’s public key. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B private is Bob’s private key. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  98. 115. Hello Bob, Wanna get together? Alice Bob encrypt using B public decrypt using B private
  99. 116. OK Alice, Your place or mine? Alice Bob decrypt using A private encrypt using A public
  100. 117. Bob’s Dilemma <ul><li>Nobody can read the message from Alice. </li></ul><ul><li>How does Bob know that the message was really sent from Alice? </li></ul><ul><li>Bob may be comforted to know that only Alice can read his reply. </li></ul>
  101. 118. Alice can sign her message! <ul><li>Alice can create a digital signature and prove she sent the message (or someone with knowledge of her private key). </li></ul><ul><li>The signature can be a message digest encrypted with A private . </li></ul>
  102. 119. Signing with encryption
  103. 120. Alice Bob Sign with A private check signature using A public encrypt using B public decrypt using B private Both signing with encryption
  104. 121. Implications <ul><li>Suppose Alice denies she sent the message? </li></ul><ul><li>Bob can prove that only someone with Alice’s key could have produced the message. </li></ul>
  105. 122. Rs. Let’s Take another example
  106. 123. Measures to avoid misuse of DSC
  107. 124. Exclusive Access Password Management Avoidance in DSC Delegation Apply/affix DSC with proper care USB Tokens in proper Lock n Key
  108. 125. Misuse of DSC may lead to
  109. 126. <ul><li>Filing of form without the knowledge of owner </li></ul><ul><li>Change of Management of the company i.e. filing of form 32 and change of director </li></ul><ul><li>Dispute under sec.397/398 </li></ul><ul><li>Section 628 cases for wrong information </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-certification of forms without the knowledge of professionals </li></ul>
  110. 127. Future Usages of DSC with Government
  111. 128. <ul><li>500 implementation </li></ul><ul><li>agencies </li></ul><ul><li>2 lakh sites </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 man-years </li></ul><ul><li>of effort </li></ul><ul><li>26 GOI Deptts </li></ul><ul><li>35 States / UTs </li></ul><ul><li>360 Deptts @ States </li></ul>Land Records Road Transport Police Land Regn Treasuries Comrl Taxes Agriculture Gram Pts Munici palities Employment Exchanges Civil Supplies Education Income Tax Passport Visa MCA21 Insurance Banking National ID Central Excise Pensions GIS e-Posts Common Service Centres Gateway e-Procure e-Office eBiz EDI e-Courts India Portal Core Policies
  112. 129. <ul><li>Issuing forms and licences </li></ul><ul><li>Filing tax returns online </li></ul><ul><li>Online Government orders/treasury orders </li></ul><ul><li>Online file movement and approval system </li></ul><ul><li>Public information records </li></ul><ul><li>E-voting </li></ul><ul><li>Online money orders </li></ul>
  113. 130. E-transformation opens tremendous opportunities for Professionals & Business Houses, But it require extensive care while its usage, as with negligence one can lose his own identity/ integrity which may cause serious problems.
  114. 131. Thank You

×