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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>LAKHERI Cement Works is establish in 1905 for producing hydraulic lime. </li></ul><ul><li>It was converted into cement plant in 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>The wet process kilns are used in cement production. </li></ul><ul><li>OPC 33, OPC 43 Grade & PPC is manufactured in ACC Lakheri. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS CEMENT???? <ul><li>Definition: “Cement is a crystalline compound of calcium silicates and other calcium compounds having hydraulic properties” (Macfadyen, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Material with adhesive and cohesive properties </li></ul><ul><li>Any material that binds or unites - essentially like glue </li></ul>
  4. 4. FUNCTION OF CEMENT <ul><li>to bind the sand and coarse aggregate together </li></ul><ul><li>to fill voids in between sand and coarse </li></ul><ul><li>aggregate particle </li></ul><ul><li>to form a compact mass </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Cement <ul><li>2 types of cement normally used in building industry are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Hydraulic Cement </li></ul><ul><li>b) Nonhydraulic Cement </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hydraulic Cement <ul><li>Hydraulic Cement sets and hardens by action of water. Such as Portland Cement </li></ul><ul><li>In other words it means that hydraulic cement are: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Any cements that turns into a solid product in the presence of water (as well as air) </li></ul><ul><li>resulting in a material that does not </li></ul><ul><li>disintegrate in water.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Most common Hydraulic Cement is Portland Cement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nonhydraulic Cement <ul><li>Any cement that does not require water to transform it into a solid product. </li></ul><ul><li>2 common Nonhydraulic Cement are </li></ul><ul><li>a) Lime - derived from limestone / chalk b) Gypsum </li></ul>
  9. 9. PORTLAND CEMENT <ul><li>in PPC the fly ash is added. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical composition of Portland Cement: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Tricalcium Silicate (50%) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Dicalcium Silicate (25%) </li></ul><ul><li>c) Tricalcium Aluminate (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>d) Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>e) Gypsum (5%) </li></ul>
  10. 10. MANUFACTURING OF PORTLAND CEMENT <ul><li>Production Processes are- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accusation of raw material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of raw material for Pyro Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of Clinkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding of clinkers with Adhesive to form Cement. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Production Processes are divide into 8 basic units- <ul><li>Quarry </li></ul><ul><li>Crushing </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material preparation state </li></ul><ul><li>Kiln Feed stage </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel preparation stage </li></ul><ul><li>Pyro-processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cement grinding stage </li></ul><ul><li>Cement packing and dispatch stage. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1. BLASTING : The raw materials that are used to manufacture cement (mainly limestone and clay ) are blasted from the quarry. 3. CRUSHING AND TRANSPORTATION : The raw materials, after crushing , are transported to the plant by conveyor. The plant stores the materials before they are homogenized. quarry 2. TRANSPORT : The raw materials are loaded into a dumper . Next Quarry face 1. BLASTING 2. TRANSPORT 3. CRUSHING & TRANSPORTATION crushing conveyor dumper storage at the plant loader
  13. 13. QUARRY <ul><li>Drilling </li></ul><ul><li>Blasting </li></ul><ul><li>Loading </li></ul><ul><li>Wobbing </li></ul><ul><li>Washing </li></ul>
  14. 14. CRUSHER <ul><li>Size reduction of raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Types – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary crusher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary crusher </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1. RAW GRINDING : The raw materials are very finely ground in order to produce the raw mix . Raw grinding and burning 2. BURNING : The raw mix is preheated before it goes into the kiln, which is heated by a flame that can be as hot as 2000 °C. The raw mix burns at 1500 °C producing clinker which, when it leaves the kiln, is rapidly cooled with air fans. So, the raw mix is burnt to produce clinker : the basic material needed to make cement. Next Back 1. RAW GRINDING 2. BURNING conveyor Raw mix kiln cooling preheating clinker storage at the plant Raw mill
  16. 16. VRTICAL ROLLING MILL (VRM) <ul><li>Used for grinding. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical rollers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic separators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal detectors </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. PYRO-PROCESSES STAGE <ul><li>Cement rotary Kiln </li></ul><ul><li>Pre heaters </li></ul>
  18. 18. KILN                                                                                                                                                            
  19. 19. WET PROCESS <ul><li>Raw materials are homogenized by crushing, </li></ul><ul><li>grinding and blending so that approximately </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the raw material pass a No.200 sieve. </li></ul><ul><li>The mix will be turned into form of slurry by </li></ul><ul><li>adding 30 - 40% of water. </li></ul><ul><li>It is then heated to about 2750 º F (1510 º C) in </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal revolving kilns (76-153m length </li></ul><ul><li>and 3.6-4.8m in diameter. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Natural gas, petroluem or coal are used for </li></ul><ul><li>burning. High fuel requirement may make it </li></ul><ul><li>uneconomical compared to dry process. </li></ul>
  21. 21. DRY PROCESS <ul><li>Raw materials are homogenized by crushing, </li></ul><ul><li>grinding and blending so that approximately </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the raw material pass a No.200 sieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture is fed into kiln & burned in a dry state </li></ul><ul><li>This process provides considerable savings in </li></ul><ul><li>fuel consumption and water usage but the </li></ul><ul><li>process is dustier compared to wet process </li></ul><ul><li>that is more efficient than grinding. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In the kiln, water from the raw material is </li></ul><ul><li>driven off and limestone is decomposed into </li></ul><ul><li>lime and Carbon Dioxide . </li></ul><ul><li>limestone lime + Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>In the burning zone, portion of the kiln, silica </li></ul><ul><li>and alumina from the clay undergo a solid </li></ul><ul><li>state chemical reaction with lime to produce </li></ul><ul><li>calcium aluminate. </li></ul><ul><li>silica & alumina + lime calcium aluminate </li></ul>DRY PROCES & WET PROCESS
  23. 23. <ul><li>The rotation and shape of kiln allow the </li></ul><ul><li>blend to flow down the kiln, submitting it to </li></ul><ul><li>gradually increasing temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>As the material moves through hotter regions </li></ul><ul><li>in the kiln, calcium silicates are formed </li></ul><ul><li>These products, that are black or greenish </li></ul><ul><li>black in color are in the form of small </li></ul><ul><li>pellets, called cement clinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Cement clinkers are hard, irregular and ball </li></ul><ul><li>shaped particles about 18mm in diameter. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The cement clinkers are cooled to about 150 ºF (51ºC) and stored in clinker silos. </li></ul><ul><li>When needed, clinker are mixed with 2-5% </li></ul><ul><li>gypsum to retard the setting time of cement </li></ul><ul><li>when it is mixed with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, it is grounded to a fine powder and </li></ul><ul><li>then the cement is stored in storage bins or </li></ul><ul><li>cement silos or bagged. </li></ul><ul><li>Cement bags should be stored on pallets in </li></ul><ul><li>a dry place. </li></ul>
  26. 26. CEMENT MILL <ul><li>Before entering in cement mill the gypsum & fly ash is added. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains two chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary chamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary chamber </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. PACKING HOUSE <ul><li>Types of packers- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumatic packer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical packer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotary packers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main parts of packing house- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cement silo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator & screw conveyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packing machine & hopper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrating machine </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. CEMENT SILO
  29. 29. THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1.GRINDING : The clinker and the gypsum are very finely ground giving a “pure cement”. Other secondary additives and cementitious materials can also be added to make a blended cement. Grinding, storage, packing, dispatch 2. STORAGE, PACKING, DISPATCH : The cement is stored in silos before being dispatched either in bulk or in bags to its final destination. Back Home page dispatch 1. GRINDING 2. STORAGE, PACKING, DISPATCH clinker storage Gypsum and the secondary additives are added to the clinker . silos bags Finish grinding
  30. 30. QUALITY OF CEMENT <ul><ul><li>Fineness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat of Hydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul></ul>