Open science at Opencamp

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The presentation I held at #ocg12, based on the paper "The case for an open science in technology enhanced learning" by P. Kraker, D. Leony, W. Reinhardt, and G. Beham

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Open science at Opencamp

  1. 1. www.know-center.atOpen Science@PeterKrakerOpencamp Graz #ocg12 gefördert durch das Kompetenzzentrenprogramm
  2. 2. ReferenceKraker P., Leony D., Reinhardt, W., Beham G.: “The case for an open science in technology enhanced learning”, Int. J. Technology Enhanced Learning 3(6), 643-654.Postprint available from: http://is.gd/open_scienceBlogpost with background information: 2 http://science20.wordpress.com © Know-Center 2010
  3. 3. Problems in ScienceInformation overload Exponential growth (Price 1961) Barnaby Rich Effect: “It„s always the other author(s) who publishes too much and “pollutes“, “floods”, “eutroficates” the literature, never me” (Braun and Zsindelay 1985)Exaggerated and inflated claims (Young et al.)Reproducibility of results Datasets and source code not available Methodological information is missing (Knorr-Cetina 1981) Price, 1961 3 extended by Leydesdorff (2008) © Know-Center 2010
  4. 4. Problems in ScienceSimultaneous/repeated discoveriesFormation of “invisible colleges” Technology Enhanced Learning  Disjoint scientific communities (Gillet et al. 2009)  Low-cross citation rate  Low cross-authorship rate (Kirby et al. 2005, Maurer and Khan 2010)  Multi-disciplinarity instead of inter-disciplinarity Can an Open Science help? 4 © Know-Center 2010
  5. 5. What is Open Science?“Open Science means opening up the researchprocess by making all of its outcomes, and theway in which these outcomes were achieved,publicly available on the World Wide Web” Open Data Open Source Open Science Open Open Access Methodology 5 © Know-Center 2010
  6. 6. Open AccessBudapest Open Access Initiative Free availability of publications on the Internet Rights of the author: integrity of the work, acknowlegementE-Prints: Unpublished, Pre-Print, Post-Print arXiv.org, TeLearn ArchiveJournals Green Road Gold RoadDirectory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) 6 © Know-Center 2010
  7. 7. Open DataPublishing the data sets collected in the research process on the World Wide Web, without restricting their use (Murray-Rust 2008)Important for Reproducibility Reuse of data Aggregation of dataGenBank (storing DNA data sequences) – Bermuda http://lod-cloud.net / principlesDataShop: educational data resourcesdataTEL Initiative 7 © Know-Center 2010
  8. 8. Open SourceOpen Source means that software is made available under a license that permits anyone to use, change, improve, or derive from existing source code, and sometimes even to distribute the software (Feller and Fitzgerald 2002)Advantages Reuse of prototypes Easier transfer into practice Larger pool of developersThe R Project for Statistical Computing (http://r-project.org)moodle (http://moodle.org) 8 © Know-Center 2010
  9. 9. Open MethodologyPapers do not contain all the methodological information needed to reproduce a certain research result (Knorr- Cetina 1981) Decontextualization, Typification Procedural remarks are missingOpen Methodology complements paper with an explicit and detailed procedure on how to analyse the data collected and to generate the obtained results E.g. experimental setups, scripts written for computer simulations, and aggregation rules in qualitative data analysismyExperimentThe Stanford Exploration Project (SEP): Reproducing numerical results with makefiles 9 © Know-Center 2010
  10. 10. An Open Science for TELConnect the disjoint communities in TEL Exchange of research findings Discussion on implementations Discussion of approaches to collect and analyse dataEnables reproducibility of research http://jtelsummerschool.eu / Increases value of research Enables researchers to build on each other‟s work Efficiency: reduces redundant design and development Comparability: which approach fits best, effectiveness 10 © Know-Center 2010
  11. 11. An Open Science for TELBenefits Stakeholders (e.g. teachers) Research prototypes become more widely available Can be used in practice much earlier Greater impact on practice and more visibility for TEL research. Fosters Open Innovation  moodle (originally PhD research project) 11 © Know-Center 2010
  12. 12. IssuesLegal and technical issues Guidelines, standardized formats, appropriate licenses, and proper citation methods.Social issues Issues among computer scientists - data, code (Stodden 2009)  The time it takes to clean up and document for release  The possibility that code/data may be used without citation  Legal barriers, such as copyright  Potential loss of future publications  Competitors may get an advantage  Privacy constraints Reputation 12 © Know-Center 2010
  13. 13. Recommendations for implementing an Open ScienceOpen Science is a community effortReproducibility and comparability as standard reviewing criteriaJournals and conferences: making the submission of source code, data, and methodological descriptions together with the paper mandatory Bermuda principles: DNA sequences should be rapidly released into the public domain (GenBank) Conferences and journals themselves should in turn commit to making the papers openly accessibleTechnical problems: review existing initiatives (DataCite; Stodden 2010) 13Standing problem: awareness © Know-Center 2010
  14. 14. More to comeBarcamp Graz: May 11-13, 2012 Politcamp, Wissenscamp, Designcamp, iCamp, Geocamp http://barcamp-graz.atSpecial Track Science 2.0 (#STS) at i-KNOW 2012: Sep 5, 2012 Open Science Recommendation Analysis of Science Change in scientific practice http://i-know.tugraz.at/i-science/science-2-0 14 © Know-Center 2010
  15. 15. ReferencesBrase, J. 2009. DataCite - A global registration agency for research data in Fourth International Conference on Cooperation and Promotion of Information Resources in Science and Technology. IEEE, pp. 257–261.Drachsler, H. et al. 2010. Issues and considerations regarding sharable data sets for recommender systems in technology enhanced learning. Procedia Computer Science, 1(2), pp.2849-2858.Feller, J. & Fitzgerald, B., 2002. Understanding Open Source Software Development, Addison-Wesley.Gillet, D., Scott, P. & Sutherland, R. 2009. STELLAR European research network of excellence in technology enhanced learning in International Conference on Engineering Education & ResearchKirby, J., Hoadley, C. & Carr-Chellman, A. 2005. Instructional Systems Design and the Learning Sciences: A Citation Analysis. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(1), pp.37-48.Knorr-Cetina, K., 1981. The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of Science, Pergamon PressMaurer, H. & Khan, M.S. 2010. Research trends in the field of e-learning from 2003 to 2008: A scientometric and content analysis for selected journals and conferences using visualization. Interactive Technology and Smart Education, 7(1), pp.5-18.Murray-Rust, P., 2008. Open Data In Science. Serials Review, 34(1), pp.52-64.Price, D.J.D.S. 1963. Little science, big science. Columbia Univ. Press.Reinhardt, W., Meier, C., Drachsler, H. & Sloep, P, 2011. Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings. In C. D. Kloos, D. Gillet, R. M. C. Garcìa, F. Wild, & M. Wolpers, eds. Towards Ubiquitous Learning. Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, pp 531–536. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg.Stodden, V., 2009. The Legal Framework for Reproducible Scientific Research: Licensing and Copyright. Computing in Science & Engineering, 11(1), pp.35-40.Stodden, V., 2010. The Scientific Method in Practice: Reproducibility in the Computational Sciences. Sloan School Working Paper, 4773-10, MIT. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1550193 [Accessed April 10, 2011].Young, N.S., Ioannidis, J.P. a & Al-Ubaydli, O. 2008. Why current publication practices may distort science. PLoS medicine, 5(10), p.e201. 15 © Know-Center 2010
  16. 16. www.know-center.atThank you!@PeterKrakerpkraker@know-center.athttp://science20.wordpress.comhttp://mendeley.com/profiles/peter-kraker-2 gefördert durch das Kompetenzzentrenprogramm

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