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The structure of Jiwarli
Class 1
Peter K. Austin
Department of Linguistics
SOAS, University of London
LSA Summer Institute...
Overview
• Language and speakers
• History of research
• Location and relationships
• Typological overview
– Phonology
– M...
Language and speakers
• Australian Aboriginal language, traditionally
spoken in north-west of Western Australia
• Unrecord...
Jiwarli speaker, Jack Butler
• born 4th May 1901 at
wilukampal Caraline Well
• Mother Silver, father Jack
Butler (shepherd...
Fieldwork and corpus
• Fieldwork 1978 to 1985
• Corpus: 70 texts (traditional narrative,
personal history, acted conversat...
Language locations
Jiwarli location
Language classification
• Mantharta subgroup: Jiwarli, Thiin,
Warriyangka, Tharrkari
• Kanyara subgroup: Payungu, Purduna,...
Social categorisation
Social organisation
Inherent in the section system is three sets of dual organisation
contrasts:
• Matrimoieties — compris...
Kinship
Variation of the Aranda type; excludes marriage to a cross-cousin (mother’s
brother’s child, or father’s sister’s ...
In 18th century
• 600 different groups occupied the whole
continent
• each group had their own land, laws, beliefs,
Dreami...
Pama-Nyungan
Intimate connections
• People – Land – Dreamtime (creation)
• Songs and stories celebrate the ancestral
beings and their t...
Loren Pennington
Walawarru (Wedge-
tailed Eagle - shown
in black) is hunting
the chicks and eggs of
Ngunamurra (Mallee
Fow...
Spinifex people video
Then, one fateful day in 1788
Settlers take the lands
Those who survived
Speakers of Aboriginal languages 2011
Summary
• Australia has been home to Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander people for over 50,000 years
• In 18th century,...
Colonisation and post-colonisation
• Has resulted in destruction of people and
traditional ways of living
• Wholesale loss...
• Establishment of training networks, university
level courses, national curriculum for indigenous
languages study to be l...
Typological overview
• Phonology – typical of Australian Aboriginal
languages:
– 6 places of articulation for oral stops a...
Typological overview
• Phonotactics – typical of Australian Aboriginal
languages:
– All words begin with 1 and only 1 cons...
Typological overview
• Morphology – typical of Australian Aboriginal
languages:
– Major word classes: N (nouns, pronouns,
...
Typological overview
• Morphology:
– Typical word structure:
Root+(AffixType1)*+AffixType2*+(AffixType3)*
– AffixType1 = d...
2015 07 lsa-chicago01
2015 07 lsa-chicago01
2015 07 lsa-chicago01
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Slides from my LSA 2015 Summer Institute course 'Structure of Jiwarli' -- part 1

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2015 07 lsa-chicago01

  1. 1. The structure of Jiwarli Class 1 Peter K. Austin Department of Linguistics SOAS, University of London LSA Summer Institute 2015-07-06
  2. 2. Overview • Language and speakers • History of research • Location and relationships • Typological overview – Phonology – Morphology
  3. 3. Language and speakers • Australian Aboriginal language, traditionally spoken in north-west of Western Australia • Unrecorded until 1978 when I began work with last fluent speaker; he died in 1986 • Sample story
  4. 4. Jiwarli speaker, Jack Butler • born 4th May 1901 at wilukampal Caraline Well • Mother Silver, father Jack Butler (shepherd), step-father jinapuka (Warriyangka) • As child, looked after old Jiwarli men at Glen Florrie station • Also spoke Thalanyji, Jurruru, Panyjima, English • Married 1927, four children • Died 10th May 1986
  5. 5. Fieldwork and corpus • Fieldwork 1978 to 1985 • Corpus: 70 texts (traditional narrative, personal history, acted conversations, simple stories, 1371 sentences), elicitation (1017 sentences) • Lexicon: 1370 entries • Comparative data: Warriyangka, Thiin, Tharrkari
  6. 6. Language locations
  7. 7. Jiwarli location
  8. 8. Language classification • Mantharta subgroup: Jiwarli, Thiin, Warriyangka, Tharrkari • Kanyara subgroup: Payungu, Purduna, Thalanyji, Pinikura • Ngayarta subgroup: Jurruru, Panyjima, Kariyarra, Ngarluma, Yinyjiparnti etc. • Tharrkari and Purduna have undergone extensive historical phonological changes
  9. 9. Social categorisation
  10. 10. Social organisation Inherent in the section system is three sets of dual organisation contrasts: • Matrimoieties — comprising mother-child sets, namely karimarra and purungu as one matrimoiety, and panaka and palyarri as the other. • Patrimoieties — comprising father-child sets, namely karimarra and palyarri as one patrimoiety, and panaka and purungu as the other. • Merged alternate generation levels — comprising members of one generation level plus those an even number above or below it, namely karimarra and panaka as one generation level, and purungu and palyarri as the other.
  11. 11. Kinship Variation of the Aranda type; excludes marriage to a cross-cousin (mother’s brother’s child, or father’s sister’s child) and preferred marriage is for a man to marry the child of his mother’s cross-cousin, that is his mother’s mother’s brother’s daughter’s daughter or his mother’s father’s sister’s daughter’s daughter – called yakanma Within this system there are four lines of patrilineal descent: • Ego’s patriline - including papu father and mayili father’s father. • Ego’s mother’s patriline — including pipi mother and thami mother’s father. • Ego’s father’s mother’s patriline — including ngapari father’s mother, and ego’s sister’s children. • Ego’s mother’s mother’s patriline — including kantharri mother’s mother, and nganyi mother-in-law.
  12. 12. In 18th century • 600 different groups occupied the whole continent • each group had their own land, laws, beliefs, Dreamings, songs, stories and ways of speaking • 350 different languages • people grew up multilingual due to marriage exogamy • languages can be classified into 17 families (cf. Indo-European vs. Turkic) – these may or may not all be distantly related
  13. 13. Pama-Nyungan
  14. 14. Intimate connections • People – Land – Dreamtime (creation) • Songs and stories celebrate the ancestral beings and their travels across the land • Landscape is covered in dreaming tracks of the ancestral beings • These can be represented in sand drawings or, in modern times, by paintings that map the land, the ancestors and the people
  15. 15. Loren Pennington Walawarru (Wedge- tailed Eagle - shown in black) is hunting the chicks and eggs of Ngunamurra (Mallee Fowl - shown in red). An Eagle man and his wife set off to hunt the Mallee Fowl. The Mallee Fowl knows it is being followed and tries to lead the eagles away from his nest
  16. 16. Spinifex people video
  17. 17. Then, one fateful day in 1788
  18. 18. Settlers take the lands
  19. 19. Those who survived
  20. 20. Speakers of Aboriginal languages 2011
  21. 21. Summary • Australia has been home to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for over 50,000 years • In 18th century, 350 languages were spoken across the continent, and all communities were multilingual • Through their languages, stories, songs and art people expressed their relationships to the land, the ancestral beings, their history, and each other
  22. 22. Colonisation and post-colonisation • Has resulted in destruction of people and traditional ways of living • Wholesale loss of languages and traditions, especially in the south and east • Since 1970s communities and scholars have been documenting languages and cultures, developing educational and other materials • Since 1990s indigenous people have fought for their lands and worked to revitalise their languages and cultures
  23. 23. • Establishment of training networks, university level courses, national curriculum for indigenous languages study to be launched in August 2015 • Cautious optimism for the future for some languages?
  24. 24. Typological overview • Phonology – typical of Australian Aboriginal languages: – 6 places of articulation for oral stops and nasals; contrasts: apical, laminal, peripheral – No voicing contrast – 4 laterals – Two rhotics: rr and r – Two glides: y and w – Three short vowels: i, u, a – Three long vowels, restricted distribution: ii, uu, aa
  25. 25. Typological overview • Phonotactics – typical of Australian Aboriginal languages: – All words begin with 1 and only 1 consonant – All roots minimally CVCV or have long monosyllable CVV – All words end in vowel; cf. –pa and –ma – Syllables: CV(V)(C) – Roots: CV(V)(C)CV(V)(C) – Restricted CC clusters: homorganic nasal+stop, apical nasal/lateral/flap+peripheral stop, palatal lateral/nasal+peripheral
  26. 26. Typological overview • Morphology – typical of Australian Aboriginal languages: – Major word classes: N (nouns, pronouns, demonstratives) and V – Minor word classes: particles, adverbs (no P category) – N inflect for case; V inflect for tense/aspect/mood or dependent clause categories – Case system split-ergative determined by animacy and clause type – Productive agglutinating morphology, some suppletion
  27. 27. Typological overview • Morphology: – Typical word structure: Root+(AffixType1)*+AffixType2*+(AffixType3)* – AffixType1 = derivation? Category selective, recursive – AffixType2 = inflection? Category selective, recursive (eg. up to 2 cases) – AffixType3 not category selective (“clitic” in Australianist literature)

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