In classroom situation, oral communication is involved. Thus, two specific communication skills are used i.e. speaking and listening.
Each day, we all spend almost 80% of our waking time on communication. Even when we are sleeping, we are sending messages to outside world through our posture and facial expression. It means, whether we intend or do not intend, we communicate.
There are four basic skills involved in becoming effective communicator and these include- speaking, listening, reading and writing. It is a myth that speaking consumes most of our time. A cross sectional research in the area of communication found that 45% of the time is spent on listening, 30% on speaking, 16% on reading and 9% of the time is spent on writing. However, it all depends on the job responsibilities and activities of the individual. A teacher in classroom spends most of the time on speaking and listening while a software engineer spends most of his time on reading and writing.
Communication is normally defined as transmission of message from one individual to another. But if I ask who is a boss. Some of the responses may be ‘Boss is authoritarian’, ’stuburn or rigid’ or ‘always right’, . But the standard meaning of this word is “one’s immediate Superior’. There are two meanings of the same word-one based on your experience and another the standard meaning. Standard or dictionary meaning is referred to as denotative meaning and the meaning you attach to words based on your experience is referred to as connotative meaning. When the receiver interprets the words as intended by the sender, the message is completely or rightly understood. Communication ought to be effective. So, communication can be defined as sharing of meanings between the sender and the receiver.
When a person speaks, his or her whole personality comes into play. Receiver not only interprets the words but also interprets person’s facial expression, gestures, body posture etc. and give meaning to the intended message. More the congruence between verbal and non verbal communication, greater is the effectiveness of communication.
It has been found that the impact of verbal content on effectiveness of communication is about 7%, that of tonal quality how something is said is 38% and non-verbal behaviour has an impact to the extent of 55%. In other words, verbal content is only the tip of iceberg, the remaining iceberg is non verbal communication.
Knowing one’s subject is a precondition to effective communication. If you have thorough understanding of the subject the flow and continuity will be there in communication. If you are clear about what your students will be able to do at the end of instruction, you will be in a position to select and organize the content in an appropriate manner and will be in a position to explain and support with relevant examples in the class.
Effective Communication needs to be pitched to the level of the students. It is thus essential to know age, interest, background, previous attainments, learning styles of the students.
Message ought to be well organized. Depending on the subject matter, choose appropriate sequencing of subject matter. It can be topical sequencing, journalistic question sequencing, chronological sequencing . Always try to organize the content matter from simple to complex, easy to difficulty, concrete to abstract, known to unknown and from observation to reasoning to enable the students to understand the message.
Face is the index of mind and you express feelings through your facial expression. Remain calm and relaxed and have a pleasant smile on your face.
Gestures lend support to verbal content. When you say very small, gesture are somewhat like this. When you indicate direction, you point out finger in that direction.So use appropriate gestures in class.
Your posture depicts enthusiasm or laziness. Adopt erect posture which is indicative of dynamism.
When you dress according to the situation, you feel more confident. So dress formally when you are going for a class.
While speaking to students, treat them on equal footing. Leave your prejudices and biases if any outside the classroom. Prejudices and biases lead to ineffective communication between the teacher and the student.
You should give time to student to grasp the message and then assure yourself of student’s understanding by posing questions, assigning small tasks or problem solving activities to students. Providing and obtaining feedback is essential to improve effectiveness of communication.
Repeat. Listening is an important skill.
There is a clear cut distinction between hearing and listening. Hearing means receiving audio signals while listening means hearing with understanding. It involves deliberate attention, perception and evaluation
For effective listening, it is important to Maintain eye contact with speaker. Other wise, it gives a signal that you are not interested or not with him. Pay attention to what is being said. It requires deliberate effort on the part of the listener.Concentrate on what is being said. Do not colour the perception with your biases and prejudices.Listen for what is being said and try to understand the feelings behind what is being said.Listen for the total message.
Do not try to filter the message. Listen in totality. It is said Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches. Put yourself in the place of the speaker. You will better understand his or her viewpoint. Thought speed is four to five times more than the speech speed. So, use this differential in thought and speech speed productively. Try to build associations between the new information and what you already know or evaluate the logic and consistency of what has been said. Learning will be more
Do not call the subject uninteresting or boring. In that case, you will switch off from the communication. Do not criticize the speaker’s delivery/language. Pay attention only to the content. Take notes in your own words which you can easily interpret afterwards. Let the speaker finish his /her communication. Do not interrupt the speaker in between. If some one is creating distraction, stop it. Do not go on tolerating distraction
Oral Communication Skills PK Tulsi / Chandigarh
Responses: Mother• Loving • Person who gives• Affectionate birth to a child• First teacher• Caring• Understand the child without his saying anything• Nurturing-----------Based on Experience Standard Meaning
Communication:Concept Sharing of meanings – Denotative (Standard /Dictionary meaning – Connotative (based upon Experience)
‘People speak with the vocal organs but communicate with the whole body’ (Abercrombie, 1968)
Oral Communication:Speaking Verbal 7% Tone of the voice 38% Non verbal behaviour 55%
Principles ofEffective Speaking Know thy subject Know the objectives
Principles of EffectiveSpeaking Age Interest Learning styles Previous attainments Social context etc. Know your audience
Principles of EffectiveSpeaking: Message Organize the message Topical organization, chronological organization, Journalistic organization Simple to complex, easy to difficult, known to unknown, concrete to abstract, observation to reasoning Keep it simple and short Use simple language Grammatically correct Technically correct
Principles ofEffective Speaking Be audible Check your articulation and pronunciation Check your rate delivery Vary your pitch Use pauses
Operate from I am OK, You are OK life position I AM NOT OK I AM OK YOU ARE OK YOU ARE OK GET AWAY FROM GET ON WITH I AM NOT OK I AM OK YOU ARE NOT OK YOU ARE NOT OK GET NO WHERE GET RID OFK Ot o N Not OK Perception about oneself OK
Use conversational modeWhisper Soft Conversational Loud YellX X
Principles ofEffective SpeakingFace is the index of mind Emotions expressed through facial expression
Principles ofEffective Speaking Use appropriate gestures
Principles ofEffective Speaking Pay attention to your posture
Nature has given us two ears,two eyes, but one tongue-tothe end that we should hearand see more than we speak Socrates
‘Listening has been variously called the neglected art or forgotten skill in Communication.’ (Adair,1997) The higher the quality of listening the less power externals will be allowed to disrupt communication.’ (Adair; 1997)
Principles ofEffective Listening Maintain eye contact with the speaker Pay attention to what is being said Concentrate Listen without biases and prejudices Listen for both content and emotions behind it
Principles ofEffective Listening Listen for the big picture not for specifics Indulge in empathetic listening Make use of differential in thought speed and speech speed Relate with what you already know Ask questions Analyze and evaluate Take notes in your own words
Principles ofEffective Listening Do not prejudge the communication Do not criticize the speaker’s delivery/language Do not filter the message Do not take copious notes Do not interrupt the speaker Do not tolerate distraction(s)