Form = Function


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2nd 21st Century Cohort Training Session

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Form = Function

  1. 1. 21 st Century Skills Training Session 2
  2. 4. <ul><li>Beginning with the End in Mind </li></ul>
  3. 5. ~ Rick Stiggins
  4. 6. <ul><li>Lists of standards or learning outcomes seem to assume that all students start in the same place, at the same time, and proceed to learn in the same way. This has never been true. Today, teachers find out what students already know, can do, and can articulate, and then they teach. The result is that teachers must learn more and more ways to teach to an ever-increasing range of student needs. One part of this challenge is having a comprehensive understanding of one's subject matter, in order to help students learn. The second challenge is learning how to teach small groups within the class rather than always teaching to the large group of students. (Davies, Making Classroom Assessment Work, p. 26) </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Teachers find that a description of what needs to be learned helps students learn more. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Students can assess themselves only when they have a sufficiently clear picture of the targets their learning is meant to attain.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>~ Black and William </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Samples are important if quality classroom assessment is going to be effective. Samples or exemplars can be used by teachers when they: Develop criteria with students </li></ul><ul><li>Show the range of possible ways to represent their learning (give evidence of learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and give descriptive feedback about student work </li></ul><ul><li>Help others understand more about student learning </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Setting and Using Criteria (Gregory, Cameron, and Davies 1997) outlines a process for developing criteria with students: </li></ul><ul><li>Make a brainstormed list </li></ul><ul><li>Sort and categorize the list </li></ul><ul><li>Make and post a T-chart </li></ul><ul><li>Use and revisit and revise </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>There are three general sources of assessment evidence gathered in classrooms: </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Products students create </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations - discussing learning with students </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Research shows students gain 55% to 59% in achievement test scores when teachers instruct using the students' preferred sensory and perceptual modes (Dunn, 1990; Hart, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences Test </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>Insights from Brain Research and Pedagogical Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Judith V. Boettcher </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Every structured learning experience has four elements with the learner at the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mentor/Faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Environment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Every learning experience includes the environment in which the learner interacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A well-planned course provides a variety of interaction choices for students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By ensuring multiple channels of communication, engagement and collaboration within the design of the course, faculty members provide a richly textured environment that can accommodate a full range of student needs and learning styles </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>We shape our tools and our tools shape us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning occurs only within a context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many teachers have been surprised by the shifts in learning dynamics and relationships created by digital tools; at the same time, many teachers are now enthusiastically embracing these changes as they recognize the many benefits of learners becoming more engaged and active in their learning </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>Faculty are the Directors of the Learning Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The role of the faculty is to design and structure the course experiences, direct and support learners through the instructional events, and assess the learner outcomes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Learners bring their own personalized knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most courses are designed with a set of core concepts and knowledge for students to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we do our job of teaching well, our students integrate those new concepts into their unique knowledge structures, richly expanding their useful knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Every learner has a zone of proximal development that defines the space that a learner is ready to develop into useful knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Vygotsky, a student’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) is... The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. (1976, 86) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Concepts are now words; Concepts are organized and intricate knowledge clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept formation is not a one-time event; rather, it is a series of intellectual operations including the centering of attention, abstracting, synthesizing, and symbolizing (Vygotsky 1962) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>All learners do not need to learn all course content; All learners do need to learn the Core Concepts </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What a faculty member does makes a difference in what students do , in what students learn , and in what concepts students may or may not develop . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Everything else being equal, more time-on-task equals more learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As students spend more time interacting with information and practicing skills, the more proficient, accomplished, and confident they will become. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning can be more efficient if we organize information into chunks </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>Digital-Age Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic, Scientific, Economic, and Technological Literacies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and Informational Literacies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicultural Literacies and Global Awareness </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>Effective Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaming, Collaboration and Interpersonal Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal, Social and Civic Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Communication </li></ul></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>Inventive Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability, Managing Complexity, and Self-Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity, Creativity and Risk-taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher-order Thinking and Sound Reasoning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>High Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize, Plan and Manage for Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective use of Real-world Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant, High-quality Products </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning and Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Design and Develop Digital-age Learning Experiences and Assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Model Digital-Age Work and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Promote and Model Digital Citizenship and Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership </li></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>Creativity and Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Information Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Operations and Concepts </li></ul>