Industrialization

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  • Industrialization

    1. 1. Industrialization and Reform America’s Rise to Industrial Supremacy and the Societal Change that Resulted 1865-1917
    2. 2. From Agricultural to Industrial <ul><li>Why did farmers go into debt? </li></ul><ul><li>How did farming change? </li></ul><ul><li>What were other problems farmers faced? </li></ul>
    3. 3. From Agricultural to Industrial <ul><li>Farming transitioned from independent farmer to commercial farmer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post- Civil War farmers transition from self- sufficient to one crop farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1865-1900 agriculture becomes international business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent on banks, railroads, foreign markets, and world supply and demand </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Industrial Technology <ul><li>A time of innovation in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to Civil War- 36,000 patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next 30 years-440,000 patents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential business inventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1866 transatlantic cable created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander Graham Bell creates commercially useful telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T installed nearly half a million telephones by 1890s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1868-Christopher Sholes invents the typewriter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1870- cash register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1891- Calculating adding machine </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Inventions that Change Society <ul><li>1870s- Electricity as a source of light and power </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent light bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generators and power plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created simultaneously by Henry Bessemer and William Kelly </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Industrialization Begins <ul><li>What 2 factors converge to help America industrialize? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the railroad help industrialization flourish? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the part of the economy that each of the following headed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J.P. Morgan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John D. Rockefeller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Carnegie </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Science of Production <ul><li>Frederick Taylor- created principles of “scientific management” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdividing tasks in production process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers more interchangeable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving assembly line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfected by Henry Ford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut time to create product </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Railroad Expansion <ul><li>Key to industrial development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal method of transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened distant markets and suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became corporate model for other industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell stock to raise capital ($) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cutthroat competition </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Railroad Expansion <ul><li>How many miles of track was there in 1900? </li></ul><ul><li>How many transcontinental railroads were there in 1900? </li></ul><ul><li>How long did it take to cross the country prior to the transcontinental R.R.? </li></ul><ul><li>How long did it take to go coast to coast on the Transcontinental R.R.? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Railroads in the 19th Century <ul><li>Miles of track in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1860- 30,000 (primarily in the East) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1869- First transcontinental railroad completed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1870- 52,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1880- 93,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1890- 163,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1900- 193,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roads created by subsidies from local, state and federal government </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Corporation <ul><li>Existed since colonial times </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the public to invest in a business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses like the railroads too big for 1 person to finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investors given limited liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risked only amount of investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not liable for debts of corporation beyond investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amounts of money could be raised </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Corporations in the Late 1800s <ul><li>First adapted by railroads, especially the Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Used by businesses like Andrew Carnegie in the steel industry and John D. Rockefeller in the Oil Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created through his own profits and sale of stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used vertical and horizontal integration to dominate </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Vertical Integration <ul><li>Taking over all of the different businesses on which a company relies for its primary function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie Steel- controlled mines, railroads, steel mills, finishing shops, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Vertical Integration
    15. 15. Carnegie Steel <ul><li>In 1859, what process developed to produce steel? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the predominant steel baron of his time? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors led to Pittsburgh being the center of the steel world? </li></ul><ul><li>How much did Carnegie get for the sale of his company in 1901? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Horizontal Integration <ul><li>Combining a number of businesses engaged in the same type of business into a single corporation </li></ul><ul><li>John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started as a small refining company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bought out other refineries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those that wouldn’t sell were driven out of business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also started to integrate vertically </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Horizontal Integration
    18. 18. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>How much of the oil business did Rockefeller control? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Rockefeller expand his oil empire? </li></ul><ul><li>What act broke the Standard Oil Company into separate companies? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some institutions that Rockefeller established? </li></ul><ul><li>How much did Rockefeller give away? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Responses to Capitalist Theories Criticism of Unrestrained Industrialism
    20. 20. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Based on Charles Darwin’s laws of evolution and natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>In society only the fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Appealed to corporate leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justified their tactics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed competition and Laissez faire government policies </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Gospel of Wealth <ul><li>Advanced by Andrew Carnegie and other wealthy people </li></ul><ul><li>Stated people of great wealth should set aside any money in excess of their needs for the good of the community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This allowed the wealthy to give as they see fit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also toned down any feelings of guilt in acquiring such large fortunes </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Problems of Monopoly <ul><li>Monopoly-when one or a limited number of businesses control an industry </li></ul><ul><li>Many groups critical of the concentration of wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>laborers, farmers, consumers, small manufacturers, radicals, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed monopolies for artificially high prices and an unstable economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flagrant display of wealth also angered people </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Wages and Working Conditions <ul><li>What was the most disturbing aspect of industrialization? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to puddlers in the steel industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the steel industry, how many hours did most men work? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Wages and Working Conditions <ul><li>Standard of living rising since Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Laborers’ Hardships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average income below minimum needed for reasonable comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No job security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages cut in hard times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine, repetitive tasks requiring little skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten hour days, six days a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent industrial accidents with no compensation </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Women and Children <ul><li>Filled need for unskilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Paid less than adult males </li></ul><ul><li>Women by 1900 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% manufacturing workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of all women were wage earners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile industry largest employer of women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.7 million under age 16 employed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most employed in agriculture (60%) </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Emerging Unionization <ul><li>Unions were often viewed as radical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for much of the violence that occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railroad Strike of 1877 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America’s first major national labor conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurt the reputation of labor organizations </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. The Knights of Labor 1/2 <ul><li>First real national labor organization founded in 1869 </li></ul><ul><li>Included all who toiled (business and professional people) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included virtually all women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excluded lawyers, bankers, liquor dealers, and professional gamblers </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. The Knights of Labor 2/2 <ul><li>Did not have much central direction </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to replace wage system with a cooperative system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers control large part of economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Started as secret organization </li></ul><ul><li>1870 moved in open under leadership of Terence Powderly </li></ul><ul><li>1890s- organization started to disappear </li></ul>
    29. 29. The AFL American Federation of Labor 1/2 <ul><li>Started in 1886 </li></ul><ul><li>Association of unions representing skilled workers </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Samuel Gompers </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in basic premises of capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted greater share for workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use strikes in necessary </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Homestead Strike <ul><li>Homestead plant of Andrew Carnegie produced steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages were repeatedly cut by Henry Clay Frick (Carnegie’s assistant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1892, after wage cut announced, the union called for a strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frick shut down plant and hired nonunion workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting broke up between workers and strikebreakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA National Guard sent in to protect strikebreakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This helped to break the steel workers’ union </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. The Pullman Strike 1/2 <ul><li>Pullman Palace Car Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured sleeping and parlor cars for railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a model town for workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression of 1893 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pullman slashed wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not cut rents for workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers went on strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugene Debs, head of railroad union, supports strikers </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. The Pullman Strike 2/2 <ul><li>Presidential Involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleveland order 2,000 troops to Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal order forbids the strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strike collapses </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Citations <ul><li>The Unfinished Nation </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Power: Increasing Productivity. Goldhil. 2003. Discovery Education. 8 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>Wages & Working Conditions. Intelecom. 2004. Discovery Education. 7 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads: Connecting the Coasts. Goldhil. 2003. Discovery Education. 8 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution. Intelecom. 2004. Discovery Education. 8 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>John D. Rockefeller. Discovery Channel School. 2005. Discovery Education. 13 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>Steel Industry. United Learning. 1997. Discovery Education. 13 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>Homestead Strike 1892. Aims Multimedia. 1986. Discovery Education. 27 October 2008 <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/> </li></ul>

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