Discovering the Legacy of the New Deal Roosevelt and the LiberalResponse to the Great Depression
Essential Questions• What is the proper role of government in people’s lives?• How can economic excesses contribute to hardship and instability in America?• Did the New Deal move America closer or further from its founding ideals?
State Standards• 8.1.9.B Analyze and interpret historical sources.• 8.1.9.C Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation.• 5.2.9.G Analyze political and civic participation in government and society.• 5.3.9.G Explain how the government protects individual rights.• 6.1.9.D Describe historical examples of expansion, recession and depression in the United States.• 6.1.9.H Analyze the economic roles of governments in market economies.• 6.3.9.A Describe ways to deal with scarcity.• 6.4.9.E Analyze how Pennsylvania consumers and producers participate in the global production and consumption of goods or services.
What does Roosevelt mean by the phrase, ―the only thing we have tofear is fear itself‖? What problem in the Depressionmight he be trying to address?
Set up your notebookNew Description of How Program How ProgramDeal Program Affected Has AffectedProgram Society During Contemporary the Depression SocietyAid toElderlyAid toFarmersDirectRelief
The Hundred Days Video Questions• What was Roosevelt’s plan to deal with the Great Depression?• Which of the following accomplishments did he achieve in his first hundred days? (Circle the correct answer.) – He ended the Great Depression. – He put tens of thousands of people back to work. – He took over the banking industry. – He pledged to stop foreclosures. – He provided relief for unemployment. – He restored confidence in the banks. – He reduced the tax rate of most Americans.• What was the relationship between business and government under the NRA? Which political ideology does that connect to?• How many major bills were signed into law at the end of the Hundred Days?• Put it all together: Why might some people view F.D.R.’s First Hundred Days as a success?
Directions• 1. Examine the laminated visual.• 2. Match the placard to the laminated written information.• 3. Summarize the information about the New Deal program and its influence on American society.• 4. Get a new placard.• 5. Repeat the process.
New Deal Programs• Aid to the Elderly • Promotion of• Aid to Farmers Workers’ Rights• Direct Relief • Public Housing• Insured Bank • Public Works Deposits • Regulated Stock• Investment in Market Youth • Rural Electrification• Jobs Programs • Support for the Arts
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowAid to the Provided care The government In 2006,Elderly for the elderly imposed a two American through the percent Social workers and Social Security Security tax on their employers Act. (SSA) the wages paid a Social Federal earned by U.S. Security tax of government employees. about 15 % of provide financial Social Security the worker’s support for payments went earnings. most retired in to effect in Maximum workers who 1940 monthly were over the payment to age of 65. retirees was just over $2,000.
The Legacy of the New Deal Did the New Deal move America closer or further away from its founding ideals?
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowAid to Farmers The The government Early 2000s, the Agricultural subsidized— federal Adjustment paid for— government Act (AAA) farmers to plant continued to aimed to adjust fewer crops and pay generous farmers’ destroy a subsidies to production of portion of their American goods to match crops and farmers. the country’s livestock. declining ability to purchase and consume those goods.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowDirect Relief The government States set up Today attempted to food kitchens government aid people in and food- continues to desperate need distribution provide relief to with the warehouses for needy families Federal the hungry. through federal Emergency Some families and state Relief Act received small welfare (FERA). It cash payments programs. provided $500 for living Public million in expenses. It assistance federal grants to converted programs state and local farmers’ include monthly agencies. surpluses into payments to food for the family, free and needy. low-cost health care and food stamps.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowInsured Bank Federal The agency In the earlyDeposits Deposit regularly 2000s, the FDIC Insurance monitored continued to Corporation banks in order operate, (FDIC) protects to ensure that insuring bank depositors’ their practices depositors’ money were both money up to if their banks profitable and $250,000. failed. The fair. It mission of the guaranteed that FDIC was ―to people who maintain made deposits stability and in federally public approved banks confidence in would not lose the nation’s all their money banking if their banks system.‖ closed.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowJobs Programs The New Deal These programs Government established employed created jobs various jobs about 15 million continued in programs people and some form until including the spent nearly the 1970s. In Civilian $14 billion in the 1980s and Conservation federal funds. 90s most of the Corps (CCC), Most work-relief jobs were the Civil Works jobs were in eliminated and Administration construction by the 2000s (CWA), and and creating were replaced the Works goods for the with state-run Progress needy. It also programs. Administration included (WPA). professionals for public assistance projects.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowRegulated Stock Securities and All stock-issuing The SEC’sMarket Exchange companies were functions have Commission required to remained (SEC) regulated register with the virtually the stock by government and unchanged passing a series reveal, the state since the New of laws. It is of certain Deal. It also charged information. continues to with enforcing Companies also regulate the these laws. needed to stock market as submit regular well as financial reports investigate and fully unethical disclose all conduct by stock stockholders transactions. It and investors. limits the amount of credit banks could lend for the purchase of stock.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowRural Tennessee It prevented The TVAElectrification Valley flooding, continues to Authority stimulated crop operate as a (TVA) radically growth, large and cheap transformed the preserved supplier of lives of southern natural electrical power. rural families. resources and Dams It implemented educated constructed a far-reaching farmers. It also then also plan to bring brought electric continue to electrical power to hundreds of provide power and economic thousands of and water to recovery to rural southern regions that impoverished homes. I t would be farmers along caused private sparsely the Tennessee utility populated. River. companies to lower their rates to compete with government electric.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowInvestment in The government The NYA paid In the earlyYouth established the young men and 2000s, the National women $6 to government Youth $25 per month continued to Administration to perform a support a (NYA) to variety of jobs. variety of oversee work It also provided programs programs and work-study dedicated to educational assistance, providing youth grants for men which offered with a solid and women students future. ages 16 to 25. financial aid and part-time jobs. It helped 2 million students pay for college or stay in high school.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowPromotion of The federal Labor unions The federalWorkers’ Rights government increased in size labor board established its and strength. continues to first national Membership operate as the labor policy with jumped from Department of the National 3.2 million to Labor. It Labor Relations 10.5 million in enforces labor Act (Wagner 1941. Workers laws and Act). It declared strikes doubled investigates and that workers had within to years prosecutes the right to of the act going violators. organize. Labor into effect. Membership in unions and elect unions is in representation to decline recently. fight for their interests. A federal labor board was established to enforce labor laws and monitor businesses.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowPublic Housing Public Works The new public A federal Administration housing had agency devoted (PWA) had many healthy to community workers advantages over and housing demolish slums the other slums. development and build low- It renovated still exists under rent housing. and built farm the Department In its first few housing and of Housing and years, the PWA camps for Urban built almost migrant workers Development. 21,700 and other It provides dwellings in 37 homeless job funds for low- communities. seekers. income housing projects and financial help to private homebuilders.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowPublic Works Public Works The agency The agency Administration spent about $4 started to be (PWA) created billion on dissolved in government- thousands of 1939 and has funded building never been construction projects. It revived. Today jobs to provide generated the government unemployed almost 5 billion still provides Americans, hours’ worth of funds for a encourage work for men. variety of industrial It built a variety projects. growth, and of structures improve the across the landscape. country.
Program Description Affects Then Affect NowSupport for the Federal Art It employed These programsArts Project funded more than are now projects in fine 40,000 continued art, music, professionals. N through the literature, and Their work was National theater. brought to Endowment for millions of the Arts (NEA). Americans. The The NEA projects provides grants celebrated to a variety of American life or artists. It also praised aspects funds art of the New organizations Deal. and activities.
Criticism of FDR 2:05 • Why did the Right criticize Roosevelt? • Why did the left criticize Roosevelt? • Name some of the details from the plans of his critics on the Left.
Wrap Up• 1. You group will share your answers to one New Deal program with the class.• 2. Decide where your program belongs on the spectrum to the degree to which New Deal programs affected American society.• 3. We will look at the New Deal program based on three spectrums. – Most positive effect on Life in the 1930s – Greatest Impact on Life Today. – Programs the federal government should not be involved in.