News and Reality    (Potter, Ch. 12)     10/20/09
Overview•   some ideas on news and framing reality•   Exercise: define framing…•   8 news framing influences•   problems w...
Manufacturing consent – documentary on Noam Chomsky
Key Idea (Potter)• News is not a reflection of actual events;• It is a construction by news workers who are  subjected to ...
Reflection or a Construction?                > Constraints•   Deadlines•   Geographical focus•   Resource limitations•   S...
“Character”Most Americans (68%) use TV as #1 source of electioninformationShrinking sound bites & expanding image bites   ...
Voter decisions based on…Character: 55%Issues: 33%
Media coverage…Character: 48%Issue: 16%
Populism
Family
Family & patriotism
From Agenda-setting to Framing  (in article by David Weaver, School of Journalism, IU)
Defining framing…• Entman: “to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived  reality and make them more salient in a com...
Reflection or a Construction?              > News-Framing1. Commercialism  – Goal of news is to turn a profit  – Journalis...
Reflection or a Construction?              -Framing > News2. Marketing perspective  – Sensationalism  – Soft-news  – Devia...
Reflection or a Construction?              >News-Framing3. Ownership  – Pressure to turn a profit  – Reinforces marketing ...
Reflection or a Construction?               >News-Framing4. Organizational structures  – Small, flexible, entrepreneurial,...
Reflection or a Construction?               >News-Framing5. Branding  – Audience develops loyalty to reporter  – Results i...
Reflection or a Construction?             > News-Framing6. Use of sources  – Based on appearance of expertise  – Willingne...
Reflection or a Construction?             > News-Framing7. American values7. Hyperlocalism
the making of news is…complexManufacturing Consent(by Noam Chomsky)Clip: covering the war in      East-Timor
Objectivity• Fabrication                 surface• Bias                   `          depth
Objectivity• Bias - ignoring important stories       - toward particular political view(s)
•   Fabrication   surface•   Bias•   Partiality•   Context       depth
Objectivity• Balance                 depth
Objectivity?Discussion about international news coverage:(evoked by Dutch journalist/author JorisLuyendijk)Why aren’t jour...
Now, how do I deal with news?• Potter (p. 187): to be well informed,(…) youneed to pay attention to messages and reallythi...
Now, how do I deal with news?It’s not: what is the case, what surrounds us as worldand as society?It’s rather: how is it p...
The politics of news framing
The Gutenberg legacyOn images…“…the medium of the subhuman, the savage, the‘dumb’ animal, the child, the woman, *and+ them...
Evolutionary History
Parsing information                         Type 1                                Type 2                     Word-based   ...
Visualization = Banalization?Rick Roderick and the banalization by mass  media (4/5 – 1:40 - 3:25 and 4:27 – 6:34) )
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News Frames

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  • In this lecture I want to review some of the basic principles of news media. They are mostly based on the book we make our way through, but they also stem from other scientific books on the subject, as well as from my own experience. I let myself be guided – and I think we all let ourselves be guided in our media use – by my previous experiences in the field of journalism and found some great examples that will hopefully be as insightful to you as they were to me. We will see several aspects enter the stage:
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jj4jtvihnvo&hl=nl
  • Geogr. 1 local news, few newspaper not have own geog territory 2. geograf area’s are more importantResource: always more events, handheld devicesEnd: criminal trials, press could illuminate the complexity of issues more and educate the public about the underlying nature of the problem
  • News workers pay careful attention to what kinds of stories and presentation formats generate the largest audience. Had led news workers to believe that the public wants more soft news items than stories about thhe government, economy and political matters2 types of deviance: statistical deviance or norm breaking deviance (person goes into a bank and withdraws money from ohterpeople’s accounts at gunpoint, 700.000 scheringa)
  • Appearance : Lack experience or education to evaluate credentialsIncestuous lagerhuis
  • Am values, individualism – people who do things their own way, moderatism, fanatism of any kind arouses skepticism; social order, where peace and order are valued. People who deviate are wrongdoers. Leadership, responsible capitalismHyper: overall audience shrinks for newspapers, tv-news and even the internet. audience is fragmented in sports-focused news shows such as SportsCenter, celebrity-focusedd news such as E!, comedy news shows such as theDaily Show or The Colbert report and personality-driven news shows such as Bill O’Reilly. These news seekers are less interested in global or national issues and more in
  • (1:24:00 – 1:29:00) The documentary gives a one sided view on news media structures in the United States in the say 70-80 and 90s of the bygone century, and I didn’t want to withhold this little fragment with some paramount examples of how we are deluded by the workings of news media in general. When I was your age and studied in Amsterdam, writings by Mr Chomsky would always spread among the students and I’m quite certain he had a lot of supporters among dutch students in general in his days, and I guess I think it’s a shame that your generation seems in my view to not have been blessed with an outspoken and broadly supported maybe even popular scientific mediacritic such as Chomsky. It also seems that Chomsky’s reputation here, was a lot less popular than oversees, and he has made that claim himself more often than not, precisely because he wasn’t granted access to a mass media audience in his own country. There are of course several reasons to sum up as to what caused that circumstance. Now, I’m not saying please listen very carefully to what mr. Chomsky has to say here as it’s one-sided and probably polarizing,
  • Fab: Jayson blair
  • political and financial interests have huge effect in the ‘media war’ there is no such thing as THE Arabic worldmost CNN, BBC and New York Times journalists don’t speak Arabic languagelength/size of broadcast news coverage or paper article keep news agencies from bringing news with sufficient background, history and nuance
  • News Frames

    1. 1. News and Reality (Potter, Ch. 12) 10/20/09
    2. 2. Overview• some ideas on news and framing reality• Exercise: define framing…• 8 news framing influences• problems with objectivity
    3. 3. Manufacturing consent – documentary on Noam Chomsky
    4. 4. Key Idea (Potter)• News is not a reflection of actual events;• It is a construction by news workers who are subjected to many influences and constraints.
    5. 5. Reflection or a Construction? > Constraints• Deadlines• Geographical focus• Resource limitations• Story formula (WWWWW)
    6. 6. “Character”Most Americans (68%) use TV as #1 source of electioninformationShrinking sound bites & expanding image bites 30 25 20 15 Seconds 10 5 0 1992 1996 2000 2004 Election year Sound bite Image bite
    7. 7. Voter decisions based on…Character: 55%Issues: 33%
    8. 8. Media coverage…Character: 48%Issue: 16%
    9. 9. Populism
    10. 10. Family
    11. 11. Family & patriotism
    12. 12. From Agenda-setting to Framing (in article by David Weaver, School of Journalism, IU)
    13. 13. Defining framing…• Entman: “to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendations for the item described.”• McCombs: “framing is the selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object is discussed.”• Potter: framing “shapes what gets selected and presented as news”. They help journalists “do their jobs more easily and fulfill the goals of the businesses that employ them”.
    14. 14. Reflection or a Construction? > News-Framing1. Commercialism – Goal of news is to turn a profit – Journalists construct stories to attract a large audience – Rent audience to advertisers – Promote commercial products
    15. 15. Reflection or a Construction? -Framing > News2. Marketing perspective – Sensationalism – Soft-news – Deviance – Entertain and retain audiences
    16. 16. Reflection or a Construction? >News-Framing3. Ownership – Pressure to turn a profit – Reinforces marketing perspective
    17. 17. Reflection or a Construction? >News-Framing4. Organizational structures – Small, flexible, entrepreneurial, quick adaptation – Compartmentalized, specialized functions, staff of technical people
    18. 18. Reflection or a Construction? >News-Framing5. Branding – Audience develops loyalty to reporter – Results in regular attention to particular station – Reporters become celebrities
    19. 19. Reflection or a Construction? > News-Framing6. Use of sources – Based on appearance of expertise – Willingness to tell a good story – Used repeatedly by multiple organizations – Incestuous relationship
    20. 20. Reflection or a Construction? > News-Framing7. American values7. Hyperlocalism
    21. 21. the making of news is…complexManufacturing Consent(by Noam Chomsky)Clip: covering the war in East-Timor
    22. 22. Objectivity• Fabrication surface• Bias ` depth
    23. 23. Objectivity• Bias - ignoring important stories - toward particular political view(s)
    24. 24. • Fabrication surface• Bias• Partiality• Context depth
    25. 25. Objectivity• Balance depth
    26. 26. Objectivity?Discussion about international news coverage:(evoked by Dutch journalist/author JorisLuyendijk)Why aren’t journalists honest about their subjectivity?
    27. 27. Now, how do I deal with news?• Potter (p. 187): to be well informed,(…) youneed to pay attention to messages and reallythink about them”, in terms of your • knowledge structures • higher order skills•www.fair.org: blog with insights in structuralnews functioning
    28. 28. Now, how do I deal with news?It’s not: what is the case, what surrounds us as worldand as society?It’s rather: how is it possible to accept informationabout the world and about society as informationabout reality when one knows how it is produced?(from: The Reality of the Mass Media – N. Luhmann)
    29. 29. The politics of news framing
    30. 30. The Gutenberg legacyOn images…“…the medium of the subhuman, the savage, the‘dumb’ animal, the child, the woman, *and+ themasses…” W. J. Thomas Mitchell Art Historian
    31. 31. Evolutionary History
    32. 32. Parsing information Type 1 Type 2 Word-based Visual-basedMedia Dependent on literacy Independent of literacy Print media Visual media Short evolutionary history Long evolutionary historyBiology No specialized brain centers Specialized brain centers Processed @ 500 msec Processed @ 50 msec Difficult to recall Easy to recallCognition Extensive rehearsal for memory Minimal rehearsal for memory Schema dependent Not schema dependent Slow inferences Quick inferences Secondary to compelling visuals Assigned priority over words Explicit propositional syntax No propositional syntax Marker of intellect Marker of “idiocy”Culture Culturally constructed as rational Culturally constructed as emotional Sophistication Lack of sophistication Socially stratifying, exclusionary Socially equalizing, inclusionary
    33. 33. Visualization = Banalization?Rick Roderick and the banalization by mass media (4/5 – 1:40 - 3:25 and 4:27 – 6:34) )

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