oracle 9i cheat sheet

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oracle 9i cheat sheet

  1. 1. Copyright © 2000-2004 Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference GuideDisclaimer 2Oracle Architecture 3Instance 4Database 8Database Utilities 9Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments 10Logfiles 11Tables, Constraints & Triggers 12Views, Synonyms & Sequences 14Clusters 14Index-organized Tables 15Indexes 15Undo Management 16Temporary Segments 16Users, Privileges, Resources & Policies 17Auditing 18Net Services 18Recovery Manager 20Distributed DB, Replication, Heterogenous Services,Advanced Queuing & Data Warehousing 22Real Application Clusters 24Globalization Support 26SQL*Plus 27Data Types (PL/SQL & Database) 28SQL, PL/SQL & Java 30Embedded SQL 34SQLJ 36Label Security 37Performance 37 www.larsditzel.de
  2. 2. 2 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Disclaimer This document is nothing official by Oracle online documentation. Optional parts are Corporation. Oracle holds all rights on its enclosed in square brackets [], a list of items is documentation. Certain terms are registered enclosed in curly braces {}, alternatives within trademarks. brackets or braces are separated by a vertical This quick reference guide is some kind bar |. Keywords appear in regular style and of outgrown cheat-sheet for all of us with are not case-sensitive in most OS. Placehold- limited supply of system memory. It enables ers for input data are enclosed in brackets <> quick lookup of syntax for statements which with corresponding default values underlined. one might need less frequently in daily A comma followed by an ellipsis inclosed in work. So the major goal of this document is square brackets [, …] indicates that the pre- compaction, not clarity. Some syntax options ceding syntactic element may be repeated. An only work under certain circumstances, some ellipsis without preceding comma … indicates options exclude each other. This behaviour that the corresponding syntactic elements have is intentionally not reflected to avoid prolif- been specified beforehand. eration of similar statements. Be aware of your Each section commonly starts with dynamic actions! The author disclaims liability for errors performance views and static data dictionary within this document and subsequent mistakes views (only DBA variants listed) and – oc- that might harm your database. In case of casionally – tables. Initialization parameters uncertainties please refer to Oracle’s excellent follow as well as database packages and im- original documentation, which can be found portant files or processes. Then comes a list online at the Oracle Technology Network of performance tuning measures and desup- (otn.oracle.com) – comprising several hundred ported or deprecated features. The main part megabytes meanwhile – or contact Oracle Cus- of each section is comprised of SQL statements tomer Support. In any quick reference guide grouped by functionality. The final section may there is also no room for discussing concepts state utilities if any exist. and techniques. If you do not know where to Changes from Releases 8i to 9i are colored start just read the Oracle Database Concepts blue for new features or red for obsolete Guide which is very concise. Advanced discus- features. Some features of Server9i Release 2 sions can be found elsewhere, my favourite have been added without another special color resource being asktom.oracle.com. Oracle highlighting than blue but I did not scan the Guru Thomas Kyte has also written excellent whole Release 2 documentation yet. And prob- books on techniques and best practices. Other ably it will not take too long until Server10i invaluable repositories are the sites of Jonathan shows up… Lewis (www.jlcomp.demon.co.uk) and of Steve Outdated syntax has not been removed most Adams (www.ixora.com.au). Not to forget that of the time as one eventually comes across da- lots of technical whitepapers can be found at tabases running older releases of Oracle Server. Oracle’s Technet. – One of my customers still uses Server7. This reference uses a modified Backus-Naur Any suggestions and corrections to improve Form syntax which is adapted from the Oracle this guide are welcome. Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management • Ringstraße 23a • 65824 Schwalbach • Germany Phone/Fax +49 (6196) 889739-0/5 • Mobile +49 (160) 94651446 • info@larsditzel.de www.larsditzel.de Copyright © 2000-2004 Dr. Lars Ditzel Database Management
  3. 3. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 3������ ������ ������������ ���� � �������� ���� ���� ���� ����������� ���������� ���� ���� �������� � ������ ������������ ������ � ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� �� ����������� ���� ��������� ����� � ����� ���� ���� ���� ��� ������ ����� �� ������ ����� �������� � ������� ����� � ����� � ����� � ������� �������� � �������� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ��� �� � �������� ��� ��� ����� ������ ���������� ������� ���� ���� �������� ��������� ��������� ���� ���� ���� ����������� ���������� �������� � ������������� ��������� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ��� �������� ������ � ������ ���� ���� ���������� ��� ��� ����� ���� �������� ������� ������ ��������� ������������� ��� �������� ���� ������ ����� ��� � �������� ����� ������� ����� � ����� � ����� � ���� ������� ������� ��� � ���� �������������� ���� �������� ����������� ������� ���������� ���� �� ������ ����� ��������� � ������ ������ ��� �������� ������������ ������������ ���� ���� � ���� ���� �������� ����� ������� ������� ����� ������� �������� ������ ���� ���������� ����� ������ ����� ������� ���� � ����� ������� ������ � ���� ����� ��������� ������� ������� ����� ���������� ���� � ������ ����� ��������� ����� ������ ����� ���� �������� � ������ ��� ����� ������ ������ ����� ����� ������� � ������ � ������ ���������� � ��������� ��� ���� ������� ����� ������������ ������ � � �� ������� ����� ���� ����� � ������� � ����� ��������� ������ ����� ����� ����� �������� ���������� � ����� ���������� ���� ����� �������� ���� ��������� ������ ���� ������� ���� ������� �������� ������ ������ � �������� ����������� ������ �������� ����� ������� ����� ������� �������� ������� � ���� ��� ��� ����� ����� ����� ��� ������ �� ���� � ���� ���� ���� ������� ������� ������������ ���� ����� ������ � ������� ������� ��������� ��������� ���� ����� ��� �� ��� � ������ ���� ���������� ���� � � ��� ���� ��������� ��������� ������ ���������� ������� � ������ ������� ��� ������ ����������� ��� ��� ����������� ������� ���� ���� ���� ���������� ������� ���� ��� ����� ���� ����� ��������� ��������� ���� �������� ������� ���� ���� ��� ���������� �������� ������� �������� ��������� ����� �������� ��������� �������� � ������ � ������ ���������� ���������� ������������� �������� � ���������� �� ����� ���� �������� ����������� � �������� ������� �� ������ ����� �������� ������� ������� �������� �������� ������� ��������� ������� ���� ��������� � ���� ��� ���� ������ �������� ���������� � ����������������� www.larsditzel.de
  4. 4. 4 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Instance Background Processes (v$bgprocess) Parameters (init<sid>.ora) Tuning/Contention ARC<n>, CJQ0, J<nnn>, CKPT, DBW<n>, spfile, ifile, instance_name, service_names, Statistics classes: DIAG, DMON, EMN0, LCK<n>*, LGWR, db_block_size, sga_max_size, db_cache_size, 1 User, 2 Redo, 4 Enqueue, 8 Cache, 16 LMD0*, LMON*, LMS<n>*, LNSV, LSP0, db_keep_cache_size, db_recycle_cache_size, OS, 32 RAC, 64 SQL, 128 Debug MRP0, NSV0, PMON, QMN<n>, RECO, db_<n>k_cache_size, db_cache_advice, Buffer cache: «Cache Hit Ratio» (v$sysstat) RLAP, RSM0, SMON, RFS<n> shared_pool_size, log_buffer, large_pool_size, or per pool (v$buffer_pool_statistics) BSP<n>*, SNP<n> << obsolete java_pool_size, shared_pool_reserved_size, 1 – («physical reads» / («db block gets» + * RAC processes pre_page_sga, sessions, processes, user_dump_ «consistent gets»)) < 90–95% -> increase Failure of LGWR (Err 470), CKPT (470), DBW<n> dest, background_dump_dest, max_dump_ (471), ARC<n> (473), SMON (474) or RECO (476) «db_block_buffers» or «buffer_pool_keep», lead to termination of instance by PMON. Failure of file_size, local_listener, remote_listener, «buffer_pool_recycle» PMON leads to termination of instance by DBW<n> mts_service, circuits, dispatchers, max_dis- (Err 472). Shared pool: «Shar. Cursors» patchers, shared_servers, max_shared_servers, (v$librarycache) gethitratio for SQL AREA Failed SNP<n> processes are restarted by PMON. shared_server_sessions, dbwr_io_slaves, < 99% remote_os_authent, os_authent_prefix, Library cache: sum(reloads) / sum(pins) > 1% Foreground Processes dml_locks, enqueue_resources, parallel_auto- (v$librarycache) D<nnn>, S<nnn>, P<nnn> matic_tuning, parallel_min_servers, paral- Dict. cache: sum(getmisses) / sum(gets) > lel_max_servers, parallel_min_percent, paral- 15% (v$rowcache) -> increase «shared_ Views & Tables lel_adaptive_multi_user, parallel_threads_ pool_size» v$fixed_table, v$fixed_view_definition, per_cpu, parallel_execution_message_size, par- allel_broadcast_enabled, oracle_trace_enable, LRU latch: «cache buffers lru chain» v$indexed_fixed_column, v$instance, v$sga, (v$latch) misses / gets > 1% -> increase v$sgastat, v$pgastat, v$session, v$process, oracle_trace_collection_{name | path | size}, oracle_trace_facility_{name | path}, java_ «db_block_lru_latches» (max. CPU * 2 or v$bgprocess, v$version, product_component_ BUFFERS / 50) version, v$license, v$option, v$access, v$timer, soft_sessionspace_limit, java_max_sessions- pace_size, lock_sga, shared_memory_address, Redo buffer: «redo%retries» (v$sysstat) v$parameter, v$parameter2, v$spparameter, hi_shared_memory_address, object_cache_op- PGA: «%ga memory%» (v$sysstat), «sorts%» v$system_parameter, v$system_parameter2, timal_size, object_cache_max_size_percent, (v$sysstat), sorts (v$sqlarea), «work- v$obsolete_parameter, v$sql, v$sqlarea, serial_reuse, session_max_open_files, timed_ area%» (v$sysstat, v$sesstat), v$pgastat, v$sqltext, v$sqltext_with_newlines, v$sql_cur- os_statistics, cursor_sharing, drs_start v$sql_workarea, v$sql_workarea_active, sor, v$sql_bind_data, v$sql_bind_meta- pga_%_mem (v$process) data, v$sql_shared_memory, v$sql_plan, v$sql_workarea, v$sql_workarea_active, Packages v$librarycache, v$rowcache, v$rowcache_par- Deprecated Features DBMS_SYSTEM ent, v$rowcache_subordinate, v$open_cursor, set_sql_trace_in_session v$mts v$object_dependency, v$db_object_cache, DBMS_SUPPORT db_block_buffers, buffer_pool_keep, buf- v$shared_pool_reserved, v$bh, x$bh, v$cache, mysid, {start | stop}_trace, {start | stop}_ fer_pool_recycle, mts_circuits, mts_dispatch- v$subcache, v$buffer_pool, v$buffer_pool_ trace_in_session ers, mts_max_dispatchers, mts_servers, statistics, v$db_cache_advice, v$statistics_lev- DBMS_SESSION mts_sessions el, v$filestat, v$tempstat, v$sysstat, v$sesstat, set_sql_trace, {set | clear}_identi- utlbstat.sql, utlestat.sql v$mystat, v$statname, v$waitstat, v$latch, fier, {set | list | clear}_context, set_role, v$latchname, v$latchholder, v$latch_parent, set_nls, is_role_enabled, is_session_alive, Desupported Features v$latch_children, v$event_name, v$system_ unique_session_id, close_database_link, event, v$session_event, v$session_wait, v$recent_bucket, v$current_bucket, db_ reset_package, modify_package_state, block_lru_latches, use_indirect_data_buffers, v$sess_io, v$segment_statistics, v$segstat, switch_current_consumer_group, free_un- v$segstat_name, v$circuit, v$queue, v$shared_ db_block_lru_extended_statistics, db_block_ used_user_memory, set_close_cached_ lru_statistics, lock_sga_areas, shared_pool_re- server, v$shared_server_monitor, v$dispatcher, open_cursors v$dispatcher_rate, v$reqdist, v$queue, v$lock, served_min_alloc, parallel_server_idle_time, DBMS_SHARED_POOL parallel_transaction_resource_timeout, paral- v$enqueue_lock, v$enqueue_stat, v$locked_ keep, unkeep, sizes lel_min_message_pool, mts_rate_log_size, object, v$global_blocked_locks, dba_locks, DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO mts_rate_scale, mts_max_servers dba_lock, dba_lock_internal, v$session_con- set_module, set_action, set_client_info, nect_info, v$session_longops, v$system_cur- read_module, read_client_info sor_cache, v$session_cursor_cache, v$session_object_cache, v$bsp, v$px_session, v$px_sesstat, v$px_process, v$px_process_sys- Files stat, v$pq_sesstat, v$pq_slave, v$pq_sysstat, dbmspool.sql, dbmssupp.sql, catparr.sql, v$pq_tqstat, v$execution, v$mls_parameters, utldtree.sql deptree, session_context www.larsditzel.de
  5. 5. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 5Instance (cont.) Parameters | false}, remote_os_roles = {true | false}, repli- Session Scope Dynamic Init. Parameters show parameter[s] <string> cation_dependency_tracking = {true | false}, alter session set <param> [=] <value>; alter system set <param> [=] <value> rollback_segments = (<rbs> [, …]), row_lock- cursor_sharing = {similar | exact | force}, [comment ‘<text>’] [deferred] ing = {always | default | intent}, serial_reuse = db_block_checking, db_create_file_dest = [scope = {memory | spfile | both} ] {disable | select | sml | plsql | all}, session_max_ ‘<dir>’, db_create_online_log_dest_<1-5> = [sid = { ‘<sid>’ | ‘*’ } ]; open_files = <10>, sessions = <(1.1*proc)+5>, ‘<dir>’, db_file_multiblock_read_count = <8>, sga_max_size = <n>, shadow_core_dump global_names = {true | false}, hash_area_size alter system reset <param> = {partial | full}, shared_memory_address = = <n>, hash_join_enabled = {true | false}, [scope = {memory | spfile | both} ] <0>, shared_pool_reserved_size = <5%SP>, log_archive_dest_<1-10> = {location = <path> [sid = { ‘<sid>’ | ‘*’ } ]; shared_server_sessions = <n>, spfile = <file>, | service = <serv>} [optional | mandatory] sql92_security = {true | false}, sql_trace = {true [[no]reopen [=<300>]] [arch | lgwr] [synch | Static Initialization Parameters | false}, tape_asynch_io = {true | false}, thread async = <n>] [[no]affirm] [[no]delay [= <30>]] active_instance_count = <n>, audit_file_dest = <n>, transactions_per_rollback_segment = [[no]dependency] [[no]alternate [= <dest>]] = <dir>, audit_trail = {none | false | db | true | <5>, undo_management = {manual | auto}, [[no]max_failure [= <n>] [[no]quota_size os}, background_core_dump = {full | partial}, util_file_dir = <dir> [= <n>] [[no]quota_used] [[no]register [= bitmap_merge_area_size = <1m>, blank_trim- <loc>]], log_archive_dest_state_<1-10> = {en- ming = {true | false}, buffer_pool_{keep | Dynamic Initialization Parameters able | defer | alternate}, log_archive_min_suc- recycle} = {<n> | (buffers: <n>, lru_latches: aq_tm_processes = <n>, archive_lag_target = ceed_dest = <1>, max_dump_file_size = {<n> <n>} << deprecated, circuits = <n>, cluster_data- <n>, background_dump_dest = ‘<dir>’, back- | unlimited}, nls_calendar = ‘<cal>’, nls_comp base = {true | false}, cluster_database_instances up_tape_io_slaves = {true | false}, control_file_ = {binary | ansi}, nls_currency = <curr>, = <n>, cluster_interconnects = <ip>[:<ip>…], record_keep_time = <7>, core_dump_dest = nls_date_format = ‘<fmt>’, nls_date_lan- commit_point_strength = <n>, compatible ‘<dir>’, db_{2|4|8|16|32}k_cache_size = <0>, guage = <lang>, nls_dual_currency = <curr>, = <x.x.x>, control_files = (“<file>” [, …]), db_block_checking = {true | false}, db_block_ nls_iso_currency = <terr>, nls_language = cpu_count = <n>, create_bitmap_area_size checksum = {true | false}, db_cache_advice <lang>, nls_length_semantics = {byte | char}, = <8m>, cursor_space_for_time = {true | = {on | ready | off }, db_cache_size = <48m>, nls_nchar_conv_excp = {true | false}, nls_nu- false}, db_block_buffers = <n> << deprecated, db_{keep | recycle}_cache_size = <0m>, meric_characters = <sep>, nls_sort = {binary | db_block_size = <2048>, db_domain = dispatchers = ‘{ (protocol = <prot>) | (descrip- <ling>}, nls_territory = <terr>, nls_time_for- <str>, {db | log}_file_name_convert = (‘prim’, tion = (address =…) ) | (address = (protocol mat = ‘<fmt>’, nls_timestamp_format = ‘stdby’ [, …]), db_files = <200>, db_name = = <prot>) (host = <node>) (port = <port>) ‘<fmt>’, nls_timestamp_tz_format = ‘<fmt>’, <str>, db_writer_processes = <1>, dblink_en- )} (connections = <n>) (dispatchers = <1>) nls_time_tz_format = ‘<fmt>’, object_cache_ crypt_login = {true | false}, dbwr_io_slaves = (index = <n>) (listener = <list>) ( {pool | max_size_percent = <10>, object_cache_op- <0>, disk_asynch_io = {true | false}, distrib- multiplex} = {1 | on | yes | true | both | ({in | timal_size = <n>, optimizer_index_caching uted_transactions = <n>, gc_files_to_locks out} = <n>) | 0 | off | no | false | <n>}) (ticks = = <0>, optimizer_index_cost_adj = <100>, = ‘<f#>[-<f#>]=<n>[!<B>][r][each][: …]’ << <15>) (service = <serv>) (presentation = {ttc | optimizer_max_permutations = <80000>, op- disables Cache Fusion, hi_shared_memory_ad- oracle.aurora.server.{SGiopServer | GiopServ- timizer_mode = {first_rows_{1|10|100|1000} dress = <0>, ifile = <file>, instance_groups er} })’, drs_start = {true | false}, fal_client = | first_rows | all_rows | choose | rule}, = <gr> [, …], instance_name = <sid>, <serv>, fal_server = <serv>, fast_start_io_target oracle_trace_enable = {true | false}, parallel_ instance_number = <n>, java_max_ses- = <n> << deprecated, fast_start_mttr_target broadcast_enabled = {true | false}, parallel_in- sionspace_size = <0>, java_pool_size = = <0>, fast_start_parallel_rollback = {hi | stance_group = <gr>, parallel_min_percent = <20k>, java_soft_sessionspace_limit = <0>, lo | false}, fixed_date = <date>, global_con- <0>, partition_view_enabled = {true | false}, large_pool_size = <n>, local_listener = <serv>, text_pool_size = <1m>, hs_autoregister = plsql_compiler_flags = {[debug | non_debug], lock_name_space = <name>, lock_sga = {true | false}, job_queue_processes = <0>, [interpreted | normal]}, plsql_v2_compat- {true | false}, log_archive_format = <fmt>, license_max_sessions = <0>, license_max_us- ibility = {true | false}, query_rewrite_enabled log_archive_start = {true | false}, log_buffer = ers = <0>, license_sessions_warning = <0>, = {true | false}, query_rewrite_integrity = <n>, logmnr_max_persistent_sessions = <1>, log_archive_dest = <dir>, log_archive_du- {stale_tolerated | trusted | enforced}, remote_ max_commit_propagation_delay = <700>, plex_dest = <dir>, log_archive_max_processes dependencies_mode = {timestamp | signature}, max_dispatchers = <5>, max_enabled_roles = = <1>, log_archive_trace = <0>, log_check- session_cached_cursors = <0>, sort_area_re- <20>, max_shared_servers = <n>, o7_diction- point_interval = <bl>, log_checkpoint_time- tained_size = <n>, sort_area_size = <65536>, ary_accessibility = {true | false}, open_cursors out = <sec>, log_checkpoints_to_alert = {true star_transformation_enabled = {temp_disable = <50>, open_links = <4>, open_links_per_in- | false}, parallel_adaptive_multi_user = {true | true | false}, statistics_level = {typical | basic | stance = <4>, optimizer_features_enable | false}, parallel_threads_per_cpu = <n>, all}, timed_os_statistics = <0>, timed_statistics = <9.0.0>, oracle_trace_collection_name pga_aggregate_target = <0>, plsql_native_c_ = {true | false}, tracefile_identifier = ‘<id>’, = <name>, oracle_trace_collection_path = compiler = <path>, plsql_native_library_dir undo_suppress_errors = {true | false}, work- <dir>, oracle_trace_collection_size = <n>, = <dir>, plsql_native_library_subdir_count = area_size_policy = {auto | manual} oracle_trace_facility_name = {oracled, oraclee, <0>, plsql_native_linker = <path>, plsql_na- oraclesm, oraclec}, oracle_trace_facility_path = tive_make_file_name = <path>, plsql_native_ Session Parameters Only <dir>, os_authent_prefix = <OPS$>, os_roles make_utility = <path>, resource_limit = {true constraint[s] = {immediate | deferred | default}, = {true, false}, parallel_automatic_tuning = | false}, resource_manager_plan = <plan>, ser- create_stored_outlines = {true | false | ‘<cat>’} {true | false}, parallel_execution_message_size vice_names = <serv> [, …], shared_pool_size = [nooverride], current_schema = <schema>, er- = <n>, parallel_max_servers = <n>, paral- <16/64m>, shared_servers = <0/1>, standby_ ror_on_overlap_time = {true | false}, flagger = lel_min_servers = <0>, pre_page_sga = {true archive_dest = <path>, standby_file_manage- {entry | immediate | full | off }, instance = <n>, | false}, processes = <n>, rdbms_server_dn = ment = {manual | auto}, trace_enabled = {true isolation_level = {serializable | read commit- <x.500>, read_only_open_delayed = {true | | false}, transaction_auditing = {true | false}, ted}, plsql_debug = {true | false}, skip_unus- false}, recovery_parallelism = <n>, remote_ar- undo_retention = <900>, undo_tablespace = able_indexes = {true | false}, sql_trace = {true chive_enable = {true | false}, remote_listener = <ts>, user_dump_dest = <dir> | false}, time_zone = {‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ | local | <serv>, remote_login_passwordfile = {none | shared | exclusive}, remote_os_authent = {true dbtimezone | ‘<tz_region>’}, use_{private | www.larsditzel.de
  6. 6. 6 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Instance (cont.) stored}_outlines = {true | false | ‘<cat>’} Debug events | tracefile_name 10015 (rollback), 10046 (process), 10049, | lkdebug Hidden Initialization Parameters 10051, 10053, 10210, 10211, 10212, 10231, | nsdbx 10232, 10235, 10248 (dispatcher), 10249 | -G {<inst> | def | all} _system_trig_enabled, _log_simultane- (shared server + dispatcher), 10257 (pmon), 10262, | -R {<inst> | def | all} ous_copies, _log_io_size 10289 (hex dump), 10297 (oid caching), 10325 | setinst {“<inst> [, …]” | all} (control), 10408 (block keywords), 10520 (avoid | sgatofile <”path”> Deprecated Initialization Parameters invalidations), 10619 (compatibility), 19027 (ctxx- | dmpcowsga <”path”> mts_dispatchers, mts_servers path), 29700 (v$ges_convert% views), 30441 | mapcowsga <”path”> %_area%_size <<for dedicated server cofigurations | hanganalyze [level] oradebug | ffbegin Obsolete Initialization Parameters { help [cmd] | ffderegister job_queue_interval, db_block_max_dirty_tar- | setmypid | ffterminst get, hash_multiblock_io_count = <n> | setospid <ospid> | ffresumeinst | setorapid <orapid> [‘force’] | ffstatus | dump <dump> <lev> [addr] | core Events | dumpsga [bytes] | ipc { alter system set event = | dumplist | unlimit | alter session set events [=] } | event <evt> | procstat ‘<dbg_evt> trace name context | session_event <evt> | call <func> [<arg> , …] } {forever, level <n> | off }’ | dumpvar {p | s | uga} <var> [lev] alter session set events [=] | setvar {p | s | uga} <var> <val> { ‘immediate trace name | peek <addr> <len> [lev] { heapdump | blockdump | treedump | poke <addr> <len> <val> | controlf | systemstate | buffers } | wakeup <orapid> level <n>’ | suspend | ‘<oerr> trace name errorstack level <n> | resume [; name processstate level <n>]’ } | flush | close_trace Instance Startup/Shutdown Utilities startup orapwd [force] [restrict] [pfile=<par>] [ nomount | file=<file> password=<pwd> entries=<n> [exclusive | parallel [retry] | shared [retry]] oradim { mount [<db>] | open –{new | edit | delete | startup | shutdown} [read {only | write [recover]} | recover] –{sid <SID> | srvc <serv>} –newsid <SID> [<db>] } ] –usrpwd <pwd> –intpwd <pwd> shutdown –maxusers <n> –startmode {a | m} [ normal | transactional [local] –shutmode {a | i | n} | immediate | abort ] –{starttype | shuttype} alter database [<db>] {srvc | inst | srvc, inst} { mount [ {standby | clone} database] –pfile <par> –timeout <n> [exclusive | parallel] << obsolete tkprof <trc> <out> | dismount [explain=<user>/<pwd>@<netserv>] | open [read only | [read write] [table=<tab>] [print=<n>] [sys=no] [resetlogs | noresetlogs] ] [insert=<file>] [record=<file>] | close [normal | immediate] }; [aggregate=<n>] [sort=<opt>] otrcfmt Instance Modification oemctl alter system {enable | disable} restricted { {start | stop | status | ping} session; oms [<user>/<pwd>] | {start | stop} alter system {quiesce restricted | unquiesce}; paging [<host> <name>] | {enable | dis- able | dump | export | import} alter system {suspend | resume}; eventhandler [<file>] alter system kill session ‘<SID>,<Serial#>’ | {import | export} registry [<file>] [immediate]; <user>/<pwd>@<repalias> alter system disconnect session | configure rws } ‘<SID>,<Serial#>’ oemapp {console | dataguard} [post_transaction | immediate]; vppcntl –start alter system shutdown [immediate] ‘D<nnn>’; vtm alter system register; alter system flush shared_pool; www.larsditzel.de
  7. 7. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 7Instance (cont.) Database Locks (v$lock) CU cursor bind, DF data file, DL direct cache, RT redo thread, SC system commit modes loader parallel index creation, DM data- number, SM smon, SN sequence number, 0 - none, 1 - null (NULL), 2 - row share base mount, DR distributed recovery, DX SQ sequence number enqueue, SS sort seg- (SS), 3 - row exclusive (SX), 4 - share (S), distributed transaction, FS file set, HW ment, ST space transaction, SV sequence 5 - share row exclusive (SSX), 6 - exclu- space management operation, IN instance number value, TA generic enqueue, TS sive (X) number, IR instance recovery, IS instance temporary segment (ID2=0) or new block user types and names state, IV library cache invalidation, JQ allocation (ID2=1), TT temporary table, TM dml enqueue, TX transaction job queue, KK redo thread kick, L[A-P] UN user name, US undo segment ddl, enqueue, UL user-defined lock library cache lock, MM mount defini- WL being-written redo log, XA instance tion, MR media recovery, N[A-Z] library registration attribute lock, XI instance system types and names cache pin, PF password file, PI/PS parallel registration lock BL buffer hash table, CF control file trans- operation, PR process startup, Q[A-Z] row action, CI cross-instance call invocation, Table Locks (TM) SQL Statement Mode Acquired Additional Mode Allowed? Row Locks? RS RX S SRX X select none Y Y Y Y Y select … for update RS Y* Y* Y* Y* N X lock table … in row share mode RS Y Y Y Y N insert RX Y Y N N N X update RX Y* Y* N N N X delete RX Y* Y* N N N X lock table … in row exclusive mode RX Y Y N N N lock table … in share mode S Y N Y N N lock table … in share row exclusive mode SRX Y N N N N lock table … in exclusive mode X N N N N N RS = SS (subshare), RX = SX (subexclusive), SRX = SSX (share-subexclusive) * waits occur for conflicting row locks of concurrent transactions www.larsditzel.de
  8. 8. 8 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Database Views & Tables Files v$database, v$controlfile, v$controlfile_re- catalog.sql, catproc.sql, utlrp.sql, utlip.sql, cord_section, v$deleted_object, utlirp.sql, utlconst.sql, utlincmpt.sql, v$compatibility, v$compatseg, v$timezone_ utldst.sql, timezone.dat, timezlrg.dat, names, dictionary, dict_columns, dba_catalog, catlg803.sql, u0703040.sql, r0703040.sql, dba_objects, dba_object_size, dba_keepsizes, u080<n>0<n>0.sql, r08000<n>0.sql, dba_analyze_objects, props$, database_prop- d080<n>0<n>.sql erties, database_compatible_level Tuning/Contention Parameters phyrds, phywrts (v$filestat) db_create_file_dest, db_create_online_log_ dest_<n>, undo_tablespace, cluster_database, control_files, db_name, db_domain, db_files, compatible, read_only_open_delayed DB Creation [national character set create controlfile [‘<ctrl>‘] [reuse] create database [<db>] {<UTF8> | <AL16UTF16>} ] set database <db> [datafile…] [logfile…] [datafile ‘<file>’ [, …] size <n> [reuse] [set time_zone = … [[no]resetlogs]; [autoextend {on | off } [next <1xBS> { ‘<{+|-}hh:mi>’ create spfile [= ‘<spfile>’] from maxsize {<n> | unlimited}] ]] | ‘<time_zone_region>’ } ] pfile [= ‘<pfile>’]; [logfile [group <n>] [set standby database create pfile [= ‘<pfile>’] from (‘<log>’ [, …] ) size <n> [reuse] {protected | unprotected} ] spfile [= ‘<spfile>’]; [, [group <n>] [archivelog | noarchivelog] [exclusive]; alter database [<db>] backup controlfile to (‘<log>’ [, …] ) size <n> [reuse] ] … ] { ‘<file>’ [reuse] [default temporary tablespace <ts> DB Modification | trace [resetlogs | noresetlogs] }; [tempfile ‘<file>’] alter database [<db>] rename global_name alter database [<db>] create standby controlfile [extent management local] to <db>; as ‘<file>’ [reuse]; [uniform [size <1> [k | m]] ]] alter database [<db>] default temporary alter database [<db>] set standby database [undo tablespace <SYS_UNDOTBS> tablespace <ts>; {protected | unprotected}; [datafile ‘<file>’ alter system set undo_tablespace = <new_ts>; alter database [<db>] [autoextend…] [, …] ]] alter database [<db>] convert; commit to switchover to [physical] [controlfile reuse] alter database [<db>] reset compatibility; {primary | standby} [wait | nowait]; [maxdatafiles <n>] [maxinstances <n>] alter database [<db>] [national] character set alter database [<db>] activate [physical] [maxlogfiles <n>] [maxlogmembers <n>] <new_char>; standby database [skip [standby logfile]]; [maxloghistory <n>] [character set {<charset> alter database [<db>] set {dblow = <str> | | <UTF8> | <UTFE> | <AL32UTF8>} ] dbhigh = <str> | dbmac {on | off } }; Data Guard CLI alter Other Utilities dgmgrl [-silent] [-xml] [-debug] [-echo] { configuration set state = dbassist connect <user>/<pwd>@<service> ‘[online | offline]’ dbca | site ‘<site>’ set { state = ‘[online | offline]’ startup [restrict] [force] [pfile=<file>] | auto pfile = ‘<pfile>’ [off ] } [nomount | mount [<db>] | resource ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] set | open [read {only | write} ] ] { state = ‘<state>’ shutdown {normal | immediate | abort} | property ‘<prop>’ = ‘<val>’ }; show { configuration [verbose] [‘<prop>’] create | site [verbose] ‘<site>’ [‘<prop>’] { configuration ‘<conf>’ | resource [verbose] ‘<res>’ [‘<prop>’] as primary site is ‘<prim>’ [on site ‘<site>’] | site ‘<site>’ } | dependency tree resource is ‘<res>’ hostname is ‘<host>’ | log [alert] [latest] on site ‘<site>’ }; instance name is ‘<inst>’ enable { configuration | site ‘<site>’ | resource service name is ‘<serv>’ ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] }; site is maintained as physical; disable { configuration | site ‘<site>’ | resource remove { configuration ‘<conf>’ | site ‘<site>’ }; ‘<res>’ [on site ‘<site>’] }; www.larsditzel.de
  9. 9. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 9Database Utilities Views & Tables Loads [[x]’<str>’] [and [x]’<str>’] v$loadcstat, v$loadistat, v$loadpstat, sqlldr | terminated [by] v$loadtstat, dba_exp_files, dba_exp_objects, userid = <user>/<pwd> data = <data> {whitespace | [x]’<str>’ | eof } dba_exp_version, sys.incexp, sys.incfil, control = <ctrl> parfile = <par> log = [[optionally] enclosed…] } sys.incvid <log> bad = <bad> discard = <discard> [trailing [nullcols] ] discardmax = <n> skip = <n> load = [sorted indexes] <n> errors = <n> rows = <n> bindsize [singlerow] Files = <65536> readsize = <65536> silent ( { <col> { <sqlfunc> | sysdate | recnum catexp.sql, catexp7.sql, migrate.bsq | sequence [( { <n>[.<x>] = ( {header | feedback | errors | discards | partitions | all} [, …] ) direct = <n> | max | count } )] } Export multithreading = <n> streamsize = <n> | <col> [filler] exp columnarrayrows = <n> parallel = <n> [ position ( { <x> [ {: | -} <y>] help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile file = <file> skip_unusable_indexes = <n> | * [+<z>] } ) ] = <par> file = <expdat.dmp> filesize skip_index_maintenance = <n> com- { char [(<n>)] = <n> volsize = <n> log = <log> buf- mit_discontinued = <n> external_table | varchar [(<n>)] fer = <n> silent = <n> recordlength = = {not_used | generate_only | execute} | varcharc <n> direct = <n> rows = <y> indexes resumable = <n> resumable_name = <str> | date [“<fmt>”] = <y> grants = <y> constraints = <y> resumable_timeout = <7200> datecache | time triggers = <y> feedback = <0> statistics = <n> | timestamp = {estimate | compute | none} record = bind array size = | time with time zone (n rows) * ( SUM (fixed field lengths) + SUM(max. | timestamp with time zone <y> compress = <y> consistent = <n> varying field lengths) + ( (number of varying length object_consistent = <n> flashback_scn = fields) * (size of length indicator [2 or 3, system | interval year to month <scn> flashback_time = <time> resumable dependent]) ) ) | interval day to second = <n> resumable_name = <str> resum- | integer [external] [(<n>)] able_timeout = <7200> template = <x> Controlfile | smallint tablespaces = (<ts> [, …]) transport_ta- [ options ( | float [external] blespace = <n> tts_full_check = <x> [, …] [bindsize = <n>] [columnsarrayrows = | double point_in_time_recover = <n> <n>] [direct = {true | false}] [errors = <n>] | byteint recovery_tablespaces = <ts> [, …] [load = <n>] [multithreading = {true | | zoned [external] (p [,<s>]) { full = <n> | owner = <schema> false}] [parallel = {true | false}] [readsize | decimal [external] (p [,<s>]) | tables = (<tab>[:<part>] [, …] = <n>] [resumable] [resumable_name] | raw [(<n>)] [query = <expr>] ) } [resumable_timeout] [rows = <n>] [silent | varraw inctype = {complete | cumulative | incre- = ({feedback | errors | discards | all} [, …])] | long varraw mental} << deprecated [skip = <n>] [skip_index_maintenance] | varrawc Perform full exports as user System. [skip_unusable_indexes] [streamsize = | graphic [(<n>)] buffer size = <n>] ) ] | graphic external [(<n>)] (n rows) * SUM(max. field length + size of length indicator [2 or 3, system dependent]) | vargraphic [(<n>)] } [recoverable | unrecoverable] [terminated by {load | continue_load} data {“<str>” | whitespace} ] Import [{infile | inddn} [‘<load.dat>’ | * ] [ {nullif | defaultif } ({<col> | <pos>}) imp [“str [x]’<char>’”] <op> { [x]‘<str>’ | blanks } [and…] ] help = <n> userid = <user>/<pwd> parfile [“recsize <n> buffers <n>”] [enclosed by ‘<chr>’ and ‘<chr>’] = <par> file = <expdat.dmp> filesize = [badfile ‘<load.bad>’ | baddn] [“<sql_stmt>(:<col>)”] <n> volsize = <n> log = <log> buffer [{discardfile | discarddn} ‘<load.dsc>’] [, <col> …] ) = <n> recordlength = <n> rows = <y> [{discards | discardmax} <n>] [into table <tab> …] grants = <y> indexes = <y> indexfile = [characterset <char>] [begindata…] <file> constraints = <y> commit = <n> [byteorder {big | little} [endian] ] compile = <y> ignore = <n> inctype = [byteordermark {check | nocheck} ] [length [semantics] Migration {system | restore} feedback = <0> show = <n> statistics = {always | none | safe | {byte | char | character} ] mig recalculate} analyze = <y> recalculate_sta- [concatenate <n>] dbname = <db> new_dbname = <new> tistics = <n> destroy = <n> skip_unus- [continueif pfile = <initfile> spool = <logfile> check_ able_indexes = <n> toid_novalidate = { [this | next] [preserve] only = <false> no_space_check = <false> (<type> [, …] ) resumable = <n> resum- [(] <pos> multiplier = <15> nls_nchar = <char > able_name = <str> resumable_timeout | last [preserve] [(] } = <7200> streams_configuration = <y> <op> [x]’<str>’ [)] ] streams_instatiation = <n> { full = <n> | into table <tab> tables = (<tab>[:<part>] [, …])} fromuser [ ({partition | subpartition} <part>) ] = <schema> [, …] touser = <schema> [, [skip <n>] …] transport_tablespace = <n> datafiles = {insert | replace | truncate | append} ‘(<file> [, …] )‘ tablespaces = (<ts> [, …]) [options (file = <db_file>) ] tts_owners = <owner> [, …] point_in_ [when ({<col> | <pos>}) time_recover = <false> <op> { [x]‘<str>’ | blanks } [and…] ] Order: type defs – table defs – table data – indexes [fields – constraints, views, procedures, triggers { enclosed [by] – bitmap, functional, domain indexes www.larsditzel.de
  10. 10. 10 Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments Views & Tables fet$, seg$ relocate | fix}_bitmaps, tablespace_rebuild_ v$tablespace, v$datafile, v$datafile_copy, quotas, tablespace_fix_segment_states, v$datafile_header, v$dbfile, v$offline_ Parameters tablespace_migrate_{from | to}_local, range, v$tempfile, v$temp_extent_map, segment_{verify | corrupt | dump | db_block_checking, db_block_checksum, v$temp_extent_pool, v$temp_space_header, moveblocks}, segment_drop_corrupt, seg- recovery_parallelism, fast_start_parallel_roll- v$temp_ping, v$backup, v$recover_file, ment_number_{blocks | extents}, back, db_file_name_convert, log_check- v$recovery_file_status, v$recovery_log, point_timeout, log_checkpoints_to_alert, DBMS_TTS v$recovery_progress, v$recovery_status, db_writer_processes, db_file_simultane- transport_set_check, downgrade v$recovery_transactions, v$instance_recovery, ous_waits, standby_file_management, v$fast_start_servers, v$fast_start_trans- read_only_open_delayed Deprecated Features actions, v$managed_standby, dba_ta- fast_start_io_target, log_checkpoint_interval blespaces, dba_ts_quotas, dba_data_files, Packages dba_temp_files, dba_segments, dba_extents, DBMS_REPAIR Desupported Features dba_free_space, dba_free_space_coalesced, dba_free_space_coalesced_tmp[1-3], check_object, {skip | fix}_corrupt_blocks, db_block_max_dirty_target, db_file_simul- ts_pitr_objects_to_be_dropped, ts_pitr_check, dump_orphan_keys, rebuild_freelists, taneous_writes, db_block_checkpoint_batch, transport_set_violations, dba_dmt_free_space, admin_tables, segment_fix_status parallel_transaction_recovery dba_dmt_used_extents, dba_lmt_free_space, DBMS_SPACE dba_lmt_used_extents, pluggable_set_check, unused_space, free_blocks, space_usage uni_pluggable_set_check, straddling_ts_ob- DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN jects, ext_to_obj_view, ts$, file$, filext$, uet$, tablespace_verify, tablespace_{rebuild | TS Creation alter tablespace <ts> { online | offline [ next <n> | timeout <n> | delay <n> create tablespace <ts> [ normal | temporary | immediate | nodelay | expire <n> | cancel [datafile ‘<file>’] << only optional if | for recover ] }; << deprecated [immediate] [nowait] | disconnect DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST is set alter tablespace <ts> { read {write | only} [from session] [finish [nowait]] ] [size <n>] [reuse] | permanent | temporary }; | [standby] tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] [autoextend {off | on [next <n>] alter tablespace <ts> [minimum extent <n>] [until [consistent with] controlfile] [maxsize {<n> | unlimited} ] } ] default storage (…); | [standby] datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] [,’<file>’… [autoextend…] ] alter tablespace <ts> coalesce; [until [consistent with] controlfile] [minimum extent <n>] | logfile ‘<log>’ } alter tablespace <ts> {begin | end} backup; [blocksize <n> [k]] [test [allow <x> corruption] ] alter database [<db>] datafile <n> [, …] [noparallel | parallel [<n>] ] [default storage ( [initial <5xBS>] end backup; [next <5xBS>] [pctincrease <50>] | continue [default] | cancel }; [minextents <1>] recover [automatic] [from ‘<log_path>’] Datafiles { database [until { cancel | change <scn> [maxextents {<n> | unlimited} ] [freelists <1>] [freelist groups <1>] alter system checkpoint [global | local]; | time ‘<YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS>’ }] [buffer_pool {default | keep | recycle} ] )] alter system check datafiles [global | local]; [using backup controlfile] [logging | nologging] alter database [<db>] datafile ‘<file>’ [, …] | [managed] standby database [permanent | temporary] [online | offline] { resize <n> | autoextend… | online [timeout <n> | cancel [immediate] ] [extent management | offline [drop] | end backup }; | [standby] tablespace ‘<ts>’ [, …] { dictionary | local alter database [<db>] tempfile ‘<file>’ [, …] [until [consistent with] controlfile] [autoallocate | uniform [size <1m>]] }] { resize <n> | autoextend… | online | [standby] datafile {‘<file>’ | <n>} [, …] [segment space management | offline | drop [including datafiles] }; [until [consistent with] controlfile] {manual | auto} ]; alter database [<db>] rename file | logfile <log> create undo tablespace <ts> ‘<file>’ [, …] to ‘<new_file>’ [, …]; | continue [default] [datafile ‘<file>’… [autoextend…] ] << s.a. | cancel } alter database [<db>] create datafile [extent management local] [noparallel | parallel (degree {<n> | default} ‘<file>‘ [, …] [as {new | ‘<file>‘ [, …]} ]; [uniform [size <1m>]]; [instances <1> | default] )] alter system dump datafile ‘<file>’ create temporary tablespace <ts> block min <x> block max <y>; [tempfile ‘<file>’… [autoextend…] ] << s.a. [extent management local] Recovery [uniform [size <1m>]]; set autorecovery {on | off } drop tablespace <ts> [including contents [and datafiles] set logsource <dir> [cascade constraints] ]; alter database [<db>] recover [automatic] [from ‘<log_path>‘] TS Modification { { [standby] database [until { cancel | change <scn> alter tablespace <ts> add {datafile | tempfile} | time ‘<YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS>’ }] ‘<file>’ size <n> [reuse] [autoextend…]; [using backup controlfile] alter tablespace <ts> rename datafile | managed standby database ‘<file>’ [, …] to ‘<new>’ [, …]; www.larsditzel.de
  11. 11. Oracle Server 9i Quick Reference Guide 11Tablespaces, Datafiles & Segments (cont.) Utilities Row piece: Base64 dbv file=<file> overhead, no. of columns, cluster key ID, OOOOOO – FFF – BBBBBB – RRR start=<n> end=<n> logfile=<log> rowids of chained row pieces, Restrict(6B): blocksize=<2048> feedback=<0> col data (col length, col value, …) Block#{Xb} - Row#{Xb} - File#{Xb} parfile=<fil> segment_id=<ts.fil.blck> RowID Packages Blocks Logical: DBMS_ROWID v$type_size hex string of variable length (rowid_create, rowid_object, rowid_rela- Block header: Extend(10B): tive_fno, rowid_block_number, ro- static (61B), table directory, row direc- DataObj#{32b} - RelFile#{10b} - wid_row_number, rowid_to_absolute_fno, tory (2B*rec), interested transaction list Block#{22b} - Row#{16b} rowid_to_extended, rowid_to_restricted) (23B*tx)Logfiles Views & Tables (_allow_resetlogs_corruption Files << undocumented & unsupported) v$log, v$logfile, v$thread, v$loghist, v$log_ dbmslm.sql, dbmslmd.sql, dbmslms.sql, history, v$database, v$archive, v$archive_dest, dbmscdcp.sql, dbmscdcs.sql catcdc.sql, Packages v$archive_dest_status, v$archive_gap, initcdc.sql v$standby_log, v$archived_log, v$archive_ DBMS_LOGMNR_D processes, v$logmnr_dictionary, v$logmnr_pa- build Tuning/Contention rameters, v$logmnr_logs, v$logmnr_contents, DBMS_LOGMNR v$system_event, v$sysstat dba_source_tables, dba_source_tab_columns, add_logfile, start_logmnr, end_logmnr, mine_value, column_present Redo latch: dba_subscriptions, dba_subscribed_tables, «redo allocation», «redo copy» (v$latch) dba_subscribed_columns, change_sources, DBMS_LOGMNR_SESSION «misses» / «gets» > 1% or change_sets, change_tables {add | remove}_logfile, {create | attach | «immediate_misses» / («immediate_gets» + detach | destroy}_session, column_present, «immediate_misses») > 1% Parameters include_src_tbl, mine_value, {prepare | -> decrease «log_small_entry_max_size» release}_scn_range, set_dict_attr, set_ses- db_create_online_log_dest_<1-5>, thread, -> increase «log_simultaneous_copies» sion_params log_buffer, log_archive_max_processes, (max. CPU * 2) log_archive_start, log_archive_dest, log_ar- DBMS_[LOGMNR_]CDC_PUBLISH chive_format, standby_archive_dest, log_ar- {create | alter | drop}_change_table, drop_ {subscription | subscriber_view}, purge Desupported Features chive_duplex_dest, log_archive_dest_ DBMS_[LOGMNR_]CDC_SUBSCRIBE v$targetrba, log_archive_buffers, log_archive_ <1-10>, log_archive_dest_state_<1-10>, get_subcription_handle, subscribe, buffer_size, log_block_checksum, log_simul- remote_archive_enable, fal_client, fal_server, {activate | drop}_subscription, {extend | taneous_copies, log_small_entry_max_size, log_archive_trace, archive_lag_target, purge}_window, {prepare | drop}_ sub- lgwr_io_slaves log_archive_min_succeed_dest, log_file_ name_convert, arch_io_slaves, utl_file_dir, scriber_view logmnr_max_persistent_sessions, _log_simul- taneous_copies, _log_io_size Archive Mode Logfiles alter database [<db>] drop archive log { list | stop | {start | next | all | alter database [<db>] add [standby] logfile [standby] logfile member ‘<log>’; <n>}} [thread <n>] [group <n>] (‘<log>’, …) alter database [<db>] clear [to <dest>] << always applies to current instance size <n>; [unarchived] logfile {group <n> | ‘<log>’} alter database [<db>] alter database [<db>] [unrecoverable datafile]; {archivelog | noarchivelog}; {enable [public] | disable} thread <n>; alter database add supplemental log data alter system archive log [thread <n>] alter database [<db>] add [standby] logfile ( {primary key | unique index} [, …] ) { start [to ‘<log_path>’] | stop member ‘<log>’ [reuse] to group <n>; columns; | current << global log switch alter database [<db>] register [or replace] alter database drop supplemental log data; | next | all | sequence <n> | group <n> [physical] logfile ‘<log>’ [, …]; alter table add supplemental log group <grp> | change <n> | logfile ‘<file>’ }; alter database [<db>] rename file (<col> [, …] ) [always]; alter system switch logfile; ‘<log>’ [, …] to ‘<new_log>’ [, …]; alter table drop supplemental log group <grp>; << applies only to current instance alter database [<db>] drop [standby] logfile group <n>; www.larsditzel.de

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