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The future of 21st century global education


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The presenter discusses the relationships between systems thinking, leadership and sustainability in complex learning organizations: Implications for new educational leadership research and development.

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The future of 21st century global education

  1. 1. The Future of 21 st Century Educational Leadership and Management Dr. Joyce Pittman, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Welcome!
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Why this topic <ul><li>It fits with the request by the Search Committee  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globally connected universities and programs tend to be complex. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I think it will interest you. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Drexel graduates work in complex organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I have some unique perspectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have spent much of my career developing, managing or leading complex projects, programs, organizations and people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have been able to study the challenge from many different viewpoints. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. About me <ul><li>Graduated HS in June 1969 (Age: 18) </li></ul><ul><li>Entered undergraduate education 1969 – 1970 University of Arkansas. Pine Bluff, Arkansas </li></ul><ul><li>Entered Southern Illinois University, 1970-1972, fall. Carbondale, Illinois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Got married, had my first child 1971, 2 nd in 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entered to Chicago State University 1972 – earned Bachelors of science and Masters of science in education. Chicago, Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>Entered Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1996-1999 completed Ph.D. with honors. Ames, Iowa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… and the story is too long to go on from here  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother of three sons and grandmother of six children </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Experiences <ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>AT & T Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Hollister Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Sylvan Learning Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Testing Service, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>CELT Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges and Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Prairie State Community College </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Morris College </li></ul><ul><li>Crete-Monee School District, Chicago Suburban </li></ul><ul><li>University of Cincinnati </li></ul><ul><li>United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education and Higher Education (UAEU and Abu Dhabi University) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Questions <ul><li>How many ways can you define : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems thinking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How would you describe a complex organization? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you explain or view the interrelationships between leadership, systems thinking and sustainability in a complex organization? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose of the Lecture <ul><li>Share a set of thought processes for a broader and more effective way of thinking about applying leadership principles in complex organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Examine research about personal leadership approaches and how to use them for building sustainable business, education and community solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain key concepts of systems thinking and sustainability </li></ul>
  9. 9. Three Topics The Universe
  10. 11. Today, the study of leadership is complex
  11. 12. Defining five leadership approaches Integrative In recent times some theorists or researchers include more than one type of leadership variable, and this is referred to as an integrative approach. A good example of the integrative approach is the theories of charismatic and transformational leadership. About two decades ago that is in the 1980’s leadership researchers got very interested in the emotional and symbolic aspects of leadership. These processes helped in explaining and understanding of how leaders influenced followers to make sacrifices for the common good of the entire organization, putting their own materialistic interests in the second place so to speak. The theories of charismatic and transformational leadership describe this important aspect of leadership. Situational The situational approach emphasizes the importance of contextual factors that influence leadership processes (Yukl, 2002, p. 13). The major variables that are examined under this approach included the characteristics of followers, the nature of the work performed by the leader’s unit, the type of organization and the nature of the external environment.
  12. 13. More… Trait The term trait refers to a variety of individual attributes, including aspects of personality, temperament, needs, motives and values. Values are internalized attitudes about what is right and wrong, ethical and unethical, moral and immoral. Trait approach was one of the earliest ways for studying leadership. Attributes of leaders such as personality, motives, values, and skills were examined. Behavior The research found that two types of leadership behavior differentiated between effective and ineffective leaders: (a) Task-oriented behavior – Effective managers did not spend their time and effort doing the same kind of work as their subordinates. b) Relations-oriented behavior: For the effective leaders, task-oriented behavior did not occur at the expense of concern for human relations .
  13. 14. And the Power-Influence This approach to the stud y of leadership seeks to explain leadership effectiveness in terms of the amount and type of power possessed by leader and how power is exercised. Power is viewed as important not only for influencing subordinates, but also for influencing peers, superior, and people outside the organization such as clients and suppliers. Yukl (2002) defines power as “the capacity of one party (the “agent”) to influence another party (the “target”).
  14. 15. An Effective Leader will <ul><li>Drive a Simple Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders make things simple </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 The best visions are often mundane </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 Clarity of purpose removes complexity without throttling innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat, repeat, repeat </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 70% of the people did not get it the first time you said it </li></ul><ul><li>Have a teachable point of view </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 A story that communicates the ideas with values, emotional energy, and edge </li></ul><ul><li>􀂃 For more information see various works by Noel Tichy </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: Richard, C. (2006). Leading Complex Organizations: LFM Alumni Conference—13 October 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>© 2006 PRTM Proprietary </li></ul>
  15. 16. Next, we will discuss “ Systems Thinking.”
  16. 18. Definition <ul><li>Critical Systems Thinking (CST) is a new development in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>CST provides a holistic frame of reference that lets managers focus on the relevant issues and avoid the endless search for more and more detail </li></ul>
  17. 19. How it works <ul><li>The CTS approach recognizes the growing variety of systems methods and offers a way to integrate them in ways that effectively address complex problems of the new learning organization. </li></ul><ul><li>It offers a process, I call the 3 Ds or D 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D1 = description of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D2 = diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D3 = design of new solutions </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Overview of Systems Thinking Skills Inspired by works of Barry Richmond, George Richardson and of course Peter Senge
  19. 21. Dr. Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline According to Management Today, “Peter Senge’s advocacy of the learning organization helped begin a revolution in the workplace. And, the relevance of Senge’s work on systems thinking is growing rather than diminishing over time. As more businesses go global, the need to overcome psychological barriers to necessary organizational change increases.”
  20. 23. Introducing Sustainability True False Not Sure
  21. 24. The natural environment – our survival and quality of life depends on a healthy natural environment . Reference:
  22. 25. Three foundational laws govern sustainability in all complex systems
  23. 26. What is the 2 nd law of Thermodynamics? <ul><li>The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that &quot;in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>This is also commonly referred to as entropy . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A watchspring-driven watch will run until the potential energy in the spring is converted, and not again until energy is reapplied to the spring to rewind it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A car that has run out of gas will not run again until you walk 10 miles to a gas station and refuel the car. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entropy wins when organisms cease to take in energy and die. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Sustainability = Capacity to perform <ul><li>Thermodynamic potential is a measure of a system's capacity to perform work. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing entropy in our food system is reducing the potential of the system to do work (produce food). </li></ul><ul><li>Case-in-Point: The Gulf Oil Spill and the fishing industry </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary___________ Permanent_________ </li></ul>
  25. 28. What is sustainability, really?
  26. 29. Sustainability <ul><li>May be defined in relation to the quality of life in a community -- whether the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community are providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Sustainability Model or Not?
  28. 32. A sustainable community view Rather than the three partially connected circles shown on the previous page, a better picture of a sustainable community is the circles within circles shown below: A view of community as three concentric circles: the economy exists within society, and both the economy and society exist within the environment.
  29. 33. Definitions of sustainability
  30. 34. Finally,
  31. 36. Introducing Complex Organizations
  32. 37. Leadership and Complex Organizations <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Complex organizations may refer to: </li></ul><ul><li>organizations that have many people, processes, rules, strategies, and basic units </li></ul><ul><li>the object of study in Charles Perrow's book Complex Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia </li></ul>
  33. 38. Leadership and Systems Thinking <ul><li>Sections of this topic for further study include: </li></ul><ul><li>Basics – Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What's a System? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What's Systems Theory? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What's Systems Thinking? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. What is a system?
  35. 40. A pile of sand is not a system. If you remove a sand particle, you have still got a pile of sand. However, a functioning car is a system. Remove the carburetor and you no longer have a working car.
  36. 41. What’s systems thinking? <ul><li>SYSTEMS THINKING AND LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>The systems paradigm is a way of thinking about the strategic environment, and how to develop processes in organizations that achieve strategic goals. </li></ul>
  37. 42. Systems theory and leadership <ul><li>The systems paradigm should be viewed as a tool that leaders can use to design their organization's capability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) analyze tactical and strategic environments; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) develop and enact strategies in response to environmental demands; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) sustain an adaptive and productive organizational culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These three types of organizational processes are important in determining whether an organization can achieve [and sustain] strategic objectives in competitive environments. </li></ul>
  38. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>System dynamics is the study of complex systems, including such human systems as families, organizations, cities, and nations. </li></ul><ul><li>If you look deeply into any system and analyze the relationships between members, you will find infinite complexity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a systems approach to a problem, you start by realizing that there is no inherent end to a system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no such thing as a complete theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The quest is to look at a problem more comprehensively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resolutions come from rethinking how we deal with complexity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We all deal quite effectively with many highly complex tasks, like driving our cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Senge. Systems Thinking. Available: July 10, 2010. </li></ul>
  39. 44. Leadership and Sustainability <ul><li>Sustainability is a set of conditions and trends in a given system that can continue indefinitely - Alan AtKisson, President, AtKisson Inc. (2004) </li></ul>
  40. 45. LEADERSHIP AND SUSTAINABILITY By Michael Fullan, Ph.D. What standards were to the 1990s, leadership is to the future. This shift depicts awareness that standards strategies by themselves are not powerful enough to accomplish large-scale, sustainable reform. System transformation of the type educators now aspire to [become] cannot be accomplished without first ensuring solid leadership at all levels of the system. Establishing the high-quality leadership that will facilitate reform is difficult because we are starting in a hole: we are losing scores of talented people as demographics shift and early retirements mount. These changes, of course, also provide an opportunity for new leaders to emerge, but the turnover is so high that we need to devote massive attention to the leadership &quot;problem.“ Downloaded: July 10, 2010.
  41. 46. Leadership, Systems Thinking and Sustainability in Complex Organizations
  42. 47. Conclusion: Timeline to New Leadership Paradigms <ul><li>In the 1990s, we learned how to improve literacy and numeracy at the elementary level where the principal is the key player in leading reform and improving student performance. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 2000s, school districts have embraced the development and support of the school principal as instructional leader (Fink & Resnick, 2001), but despite these good beginnings, the principal as instructional leader is too narrow a concept to carry the weight of the reforms that we need for the future . </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century schools are emerging as complex organizations, which require a different way of thinking and doing that is more connected and community oriented. </li></ul>
  43. 48. The application of L+CST+S in Complex Organizations <ul><li>To manage schools as “complex organizations”, we need, leaders who can engage in systems thinking to create a fundamental transformation in the learning cultures of schools and the sustainability of the teaching and learning profession itself. </li></ul><ul><li>LEADERSHIP AND SUSTAINABILITY. Michael Fullan, Ph.D. </li></ul>
  44. 49. Questions: Form Three Groups/Teams <ul><li>How many ways can you define : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems thinking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How would you describe a complex organization? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you explain or view the interrelationships between leadership, systems thinking and sustainability in a complex organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation: You have 3 minutes. </li></ul>