Green Book Classification


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Green Book Classification

  1. 1. Classification and the Five (or Six) Kingdoms Mr. W.R. McCammon, MSNS Pisgah High School
  2. 3. Taxonomy <ul><li>The branch of biology that specialized in classifying organisms into a series of groups called taxa (or taxon for singular). </li></ul><ul><li>The modern classification system has 7 different levels. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Taxonomy <ul><li>KNOW THESE LEVELS IN ORDER!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom – Largest group, there are only 6 (or 5) kingdoms in the entire world. </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum (or Division when dealing with plants and fungi). Many phyla make up a kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Class – Many classes make up a phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Order – Many orders make up a class </li></ul><ul><li>Family – Many families make up an order </li></ul>
  4. 5. Taxonomy <ul><li>Genus – Many genera make up a family. The genus makes up the first part of the scientific name. </li></ul><ul><li>Species – The species name is never used without the genus name. Many species make up a genus. This is the second word in the scientific name. It’s the smallest MOST SPECIFIC group of organisms. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Taxonomy <ul><li>Organisms are named using a system created by Carolus Von Linnaeus called binomial nomenclature which means “two part name.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Until Linnaeus scientific names were long sometimes with 11 or 12 names. Linnaeus proposed a universally accepted system whereby each organism on the planet has a two part name. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Taxonomy <ul><li>The first part of an organisms name is the genus name. It is ALWAYS capitalized. </li></ul><ul><li>The second part of an organisms scientific name is the species name. It is NEVER capitalized. </li></ul><ul><li>All scientific names must be either underlined or written in italics. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Taxonomy <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quercus is the genus name for all oak trees. Quercus rubrum is the name for the red oak. Quercus alba is the white oak. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Taxonomy <ul><li>Remember the rules of scientific naming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be two (sometimes more) words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be either underlined or in italics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First word must be capitalized and the second must be lower case </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Taxonomy <ul><li>Common names are not used because each country, region, and sometimes even different communities have different names for the same thing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the south, we are familiar with the Roly-Poly. In the north it is called a Pill bug. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we call a yellow poplar, is known as the tulip tree by many others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language differences make it difficult too. All scientific names are written in Latin because at the time of Linnaeus, all educated people know Latin. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Taxonomy <ul><li>Scientific names can also give you information about the organism. For example, Canus familiarus is the domesticated dog because it is “familiar.” </li></ul>
  11. 13. The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms <ul><li>2000 years ago, Aristotle created a system of classification with two kingdoms: Plants and Animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He classified plants based on stem differences (woody, herbaceous, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He classified animals based on where they lived (water, air, land.) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms <ul><li>This system remained in place until the invention of the microscope by Galileo. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic organisms were discovered in water that were green like plants, but moved around like animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists couldn’t decide if they were animals or plants so they created a 3 rd kingdom called Protista. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms <ul><li>Everything that wasn’t a plant or animal was thrown into Kingdom Protista so its often called the “Catch-All” kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the bacteria were given their own Kingdom called Monera and the Fungi were separated from the Plant Kingdom and given its own Kingdom called Fungi. </li></ul>
  14. 16. The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms <ul><li>Within the last 20 years, some scientists have decided that the two kinds of bacteria in Kingdom Monera are so different that they should be separated into different Kingdoms. </li></ul>
  15. 17. The 6 (or 5) Kingdoms <ul><li>Kingdom Archaebacteria are the oldest living organisms. They live in the harshest environments on the planet like hot springs (thermophiles), acidic water (acidophiles), volcanic deep-sea vents (Heliophiles). </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Eubacteria are the more common bacteria ( E. coli and such). </li></ul>
  16. 18. Dichotomous Keys <ul><li>One tool used for classification is a dichotomous key. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer a series of questions to determine what the next question will be. </li></ul><ul><li>You continue through the key until the name of the organism is given in the key. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Dichotomous Key <ul><li>1 The coin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is silver in color go to 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is not silver in color go to 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 The coin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has ridges around the edge go to 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doesn’t have ridges around the edge NICKLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 The coin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a picture of George Washington on it QUARTER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doesn’t have a picture of George Washington DIME </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 The coin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has a man with a beard on it PENNY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t have a man with a beard on it DOLLAR </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Viruses <ul><li>Since viruses are not alive they are not classified into any kingdom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not satisfy the characteristics of life from the first chapter we discussed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not grow, develop, or carry out respiration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include mumps, measles, chicken pox, the flu, or even a cold . </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Viruses <ul><li>The only way viruses are able to reproduce is inside a living cell called a host. </li></ul><ul><li>They are classified differently. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses contain a core of nucleic acid that can either be DNA or RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Around the nucleic acid is a layer of protein called a capsid . </li></ul>
  20. 22. Viruses <ul><li>Sometimes viruses have a lipid outer layer called an envelope. </li></ul><ul><li>Once inside a host cell, the viral DNA hijacks the cell and the cell makes viral genes and viral proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses are treated with antivirals NOT antibiotics. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Viral Replication <ul><li>Lytic Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The virus takes over the host cell and makes more viral parts. The new virus fill up the cell until it bursts, killing the host cell and releasing the viruses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lysogenic Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The virus incorporates into the host cells DNA where it may remain dormant for years, but can surface and immediately enter the Lytic Cycle. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria <ul><li>Bacteria are incredibly small </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria are not well represented in the fossil record. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are pathogenic and give the good bacteria a bad name </li></ul>
  23. 26. I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria <ul><li>They are prokaryotic – no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic reactions all take place in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are assembled on ribosomes (ribosomes are not membrane bound) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan and polysaccharides (NOT ARCHAEBACTERIA) </li></ul>
  24. 27. I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria <ul><li>Archaebacteria live in extreme environments. Their cells walls do not contain peptidoglycan. </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior to the cell wall is the slime layer, a jelly-like capsule that helps bacterial cells attach to a substrate or deter the host’s infection-fighting cells. </li></ul>
  25. 28. I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria <ul><li>Two kinds of may be attached to the cell wall to aid in locomotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial flagella – acts like a propeller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pili – helps attach to surfaces and attach to one another </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. I. Kingdom Archaebacteria/Eubacteria <ul><li>Bacterial Shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three basic shapes are common: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coccus – Round shaped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baccillus – Rod shaped/cylindrical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 30. II. Kingdom Protista <ul><li>Protistans are a collection of the simplest eukaryotic organisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both unicellular and multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are eukaryotic (have a nucleus, mitochondria, ER and all the other organelles. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. II. Kingdom Protista <ul><li>Animal-like Protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are heterotrophic which means they don’t make their own food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include amoeba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant-like Protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are autotrophic which means they make their own food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include euglena </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Fungi-Like Protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They absorb their food like fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include slime molds </li></ul></ul>II. Kingdom Protista
  30. 33. III. Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Characteristics of Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi are heterotrophs that utilize organic matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saprobes get their nutrients from breaking down dead organic matter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic thrive on tissues in living hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All fungi rely on extracellular enzymatic digestion and absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi are valuable decomposers in the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. IV. The Plant Kingdom <ul><li>Overview of the Plant Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, plants are eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs – green in color and self-sustaining. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most, the gymnosperms and the angiosperms, have vascular tissue for transport of water and nutrients; plus they possess roots and shoot systems. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Overview of the Plant Kingdom (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonvascular plants, such as the bryophytes, have simple internal transport systems (no true roots, stems, and leaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems moving from aquatic biome to a terrestrial biome: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity – Aquatic plants float in water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drying out – aquatic plants are always surrounded by water. Land plants must have protection (waxy covering called a cuticle) </li></ul></ul></ul>IV. The Plant Kingdom
  33. 36. <ul><li>Page Number ______ </li></ul><ul><li>Which division are all non-vascular plants in? Bryophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Give 3 examples of non-vascular plants. </li></ul><ul><li>List 3 characteristics of non-vascular plants. </li></ul>IV. The Plant Kingdom
  34. 37. Index Card #1 <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division Bryophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Moss, Liverwort, hornwort </li></ul><ul><li>Three Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No vascular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No true roots, stems or leaves </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Labeled Moss Diagram
  36. 39. Alternation of Generations
  37. 40. Seedless Vascular Plants <ul><li>Page _____ </li></ul><ul><li>List 3 characteristics common to all seedless vascular plants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have vascular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have water to reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not produce seeds – reproduce with spores. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. Index Card #2 <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division Sphenophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Horsetail, Equisetum , Scouring Rush </li></ul><ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Pioneers used it to scrub their pots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Only one surviving species ( Equisetum ) </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. Index card #3 <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division Pterophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Example - Ferns </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be found near water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spores produced in Sori (usually found on the backs of the leaves). </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. The Seed Plants <ul><li>Page _____ </li></ul><ul><li>3 characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have seeds to reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT require water to reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds in either cones or flowers. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 44. Index Card #4 <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division Coniferophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Pine trees, cedar trees, cypress trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All conifers produce seeds inside cones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow and mature quickly in poor soils </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. The Flowering Plants <ul><li>Page #_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Division Anthophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Three characteristics common to all flowering plants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They produce seeds inside flowers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds can be spread by wind, water, or animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds typically formed inside fruit (ovary). </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. Index Card #5 <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division Anthophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class Monocot </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Lilly, Orchid, Grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel leaf veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower parts in groups of 3 or 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiberous root system </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Index Card #6 <ul><li>Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division Anthophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Class Dicot </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – All other plants that aren’t monocots….oak tree, tomato plant, cucumber, you get the idea… </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Net veins in their leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower parts in groups of 4 or 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap root system </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Index Card #7 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Porifera </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Sponges </li></ul><ul><li>Page _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is full of pores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodites </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. Index Card #8 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Cnidaria </li></ul><ul><li>Page number______ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Jellyfish, Hydra, and Coral </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stinging cells called Cnidocytes/nematocysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One body opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two body forms (medusa and polyp) </li></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Index #9 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Platyhelminthes </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – All flatworms including tapeworms and a freshwater, free-living planaria </li></ul><ul><li>Page_________ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One body opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalization-sense organs in a “head” region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilaterially symmetrical </li></ul></ul>
  48. 51. Index Card #10 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Nematoda </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – All roundworms including heartworms and soil nematodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Page___________ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round with NO segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First group to have separate sexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First group to have TWO body openings (mouth and anus) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. Index card #11 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca (shelled-animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Class Gastropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Snails and slugs </li></ul><ul><li>Page______ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally means “stomach-foot” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large “foot” used for movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single shell or no shell at all </li></ul></ul>
  50. 53. Index Card #12 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>Class Bivalvia </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Clams and oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two shells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incurrent siphon and Excurrent siphon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buries itself in the sand with its large foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul></ul>
  51. 54. Index Card #13 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>Class Cephalpoda </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Squid and Octopus </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large brains and advanced sense organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally means, “Head-foot” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot is divided into arms/tentacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No shell (octopus) or an internal shell (squid) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 55. Index Card #14 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Annelida </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Earthworm and leech </li></ul><ul><li>Page Number_______ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All segmented worms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 hearts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodites </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. Slide #15 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda (jointed-legged animals with exoskeletons made of chitin) </li></ul><ul><li>Class Arachnida </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Spiders, scorpions, and horse shoe crabs. </li></ul><ul><li>Page_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper-based (green) blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two body sections (abdomen and cephalothorax) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 legs </li></ul></ul>
  54. 57. Kingdom 16 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Class Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Lobsters, crabs, shrimps, crawdaddies </li></ul><ul><li>Page_________ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 or more legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two body sections (abdomen and cephalothorax) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large pinching claws </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. Index 17 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Class Chilopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Centipede </li></ul><ul><li>Page________ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One pair of legs per segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores – They will bite!!! </li></ul></ul>
  56. 59. Index 18 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Class Diplopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Millipede </li></ul><ul><li>Page_______ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two legs per segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivore – Don’t bite </li></ul></ul>
  57. 60. Index Card #19 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Arthropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Class Insecta </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – All insects </li></ul><ul><li>Page _____ </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 body sections (head, thorax, and abdomen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go through some type of metamorphosis. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 61. Index Card #20 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Echinodermata </li></ul><ul><li>Page_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Starfish, sand dollar, and sea urchin, Sea Squirt </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spiny-skinned” animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Vascular System controls many tube feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regeneration as long as ring canal isn’t damaged </li></ul></ul>
  59. 62. Index Card #21 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of ALL chordates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-anal Tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharangeal Gill Slits </li></ul></ul>
  60. 63. Index Card #22 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Agnatha </li></ul><ul><li>Page____ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Hagfish and the Lamprey </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jawless Fish </li></ul></ul>
  61. 64. Index Card #23 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Chondrichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Page________ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Sharks, skates, and rays </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletons made up of cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scales are modified teeth and teeth are modified scales. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 65. Index Card #24 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Osteichthyes </li></ul><ul><li>Page_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Catfish and trout (all bony fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletons made up of bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swim bladder for buoyancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral line – sense organ used for detecting minor changes in the water. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 66. Index Card #25 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Amphibia </li></ul><ul><li>Page_______ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Frogs, Toads, Newts, Salamanders </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist skins (used for breathing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of their life on land and part in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feet don’t have claws </li></ul></ul>
  64. 67. Index Card #26 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Reptilia </li></ul><ul><li>Page____ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Turtle, Snake, Lizard, Alligator, Crocodile, and dinosaurs! </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leather-like eggs adapted for land </li></ul></ul>
  65. 68. Index Card #27 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Aves </li></ul><ul><li>Pages______ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – All Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feathers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin hollow bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations for feeding, grasping, and movement. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 69. Index Card #28 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia (Animals that give birth to live young, have hair, and produce milk) </li></ul><ul><li>Order Monotremata </li></ul><ul><li>Page_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Duck bill platypus </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg-Laying Mammals </li></ul></ul>
  67. 70. Index Card #29 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Marsupialia </li></ul><ul><li>Page____ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Kangaroo and opossum </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pouched mammals </li></ul></ul>
  68. 71. Index Card #30 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Insectivora </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Moles and Shrews </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Insect eating mammals </li></ul>
  69. 72. Index Card #31 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Chiroptera </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Bats </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Flying mammals </li></ul>
  70. 73. Index Card #32 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Edentata </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Ant eater and the armadillo </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Toothless or “Peg”-like toothed animals </li></ul>
  71. 74. Index Card #33 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Rodentia </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – rodents – mice, rats, squirrels </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rodents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large front teeth </li></ul></ul>
  72. 75. Index Card #34 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Lagomorpha </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Rabbits and Hares </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Long Ears, fluffy bunny tail, lay Easter Eggs, </li></ul>
  73. 76. Index Card #35 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Cetacea </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Whales and Dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart aquatic animals </li></ul></ul>
  74. 77. Index Card #36 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Sirenia </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Sea Cow and Manatee </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Aquatic herbiovores </li></ul>
  75. 78. Index Card #37 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Proboscidea </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Elephants </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Long Snout </li></ul>
  76. 79. Index Card #38 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Carnivora </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Lions, Tigers, and Bears, Oh my. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Meat eating LAND mammals </li></ul>
  77. 80. Index Card #39 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Pinnipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Sea Lion and Seals </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – meat eating AQUATIC mammals </li></ul>
  78. 81. Index Card #40 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Perissodactyla </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Horse, zebra, and rhino </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Odd-toed hoofed animals </li></ul>
  79. 82. Index Card #41 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Artiodactyla </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Deer, cows </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Even-toed hoofed animals </li></ul>
  80. 83. Index Card #42 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Primates </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Humans and Monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – opposable thumbs, walking upright </li></ul>
  81. 84. Index Card #43 <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order Primates </li></ul><ul><li>Family Hominadae </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – Humans ( Homo sapiens ) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics – Like us…like yeah…ok….like humans and stuff… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little body hair, larger brains and tall foreheads </li></ul></ul>